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Maximilian Montserrat
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Maximilian Montserrat

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FOR THE EMPEROR!

Aussie artist reimagines Disney princesses as Space Marines.
(Via Geek Girls: http://geekxgirls.com/article.php?ID=7090)
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ACROPHOBIA- fear of heights
#bridge #glassbottom  
Vice General Manager of the Zhangjiajie Canyon Tourism Management Co. Joe Chen confirms that the record-breaking glass bridge will include three swings.
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Logic hacking

In mathematics, unlike ordinary life, the boundary between the knowable and the unknowable is a precisely defined thing.   But finding it isn't easy.  Its exact location could itself  be unknowable.  But we don't even know that! 

This month, a bunch of 'logic hackers' have stepped up to the plate and made a lot of progress.  They've sharpened our estimate of where this boundary lies.  How?   By writing shorter and shorter computer programs for which it's unknowable whether these programs run forever, or stop.

A Turing machine is a simple kind of computer whose inner workings have N different states, for some number N = 1,2,3,...

The Busy Beaver Game is to look for the Turing machine with N states that runs as long as possible before stopping.  Machines that never stop are not allowed in this game. 

We know the winner of the Busy Beaver Game for N = 1,2,3 and 4.  Already for N = 5, the winner is unknown.  The best known contestant is a machine that runs for 47,176,870 steps before stopping.  There are 43 machines that might or might not stop - we don't know. 

When N is large enough, the winner of the Busy Beaver Game is unknowable

More precisely, if you use the ordinary axioms of mathematics, it's impossible to prove that any particular machine with N states is the winner of the Busy Beaver Game... as long as those axioms are consistent.

How big must N be, before we hit this wall?

We don't know. 

But earlier this month, Adam Yedidia and Scott Aaronson showed that it's 7910 or less. 

And by now, thanks to a group of logic hackers like Stefan O’Rear, we know it's 1919 or less. 

So, the unknowable kicks in - the winner of the Busy Beaver Game for N-state Turing machines becomes unknowable using ordinary math - somewhere between N = 5 and N = 1919. 

The story of how we got here is is fascinating, and you can read about it on my blog post:

https://johncarlosbaez.wordpress.com/2016/05/21/the-busy-beaver-game/

Anything that I didn't make clear here, should be explained there.  If it ain't clear there, ask me!

#bigness  
This month, a bunch of ‘logic hackers’ have been seeking to determine the precise boundary between the knowable and the unknowable. The challenge has been around for a long time. But on…
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Nailed it.
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Have him in circles
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What Is J002E3?

The object, named J002E3, was discovered Sept. 3, 2002 on a near earth orbit by Canadian amateur astronomer Bill Yeung, observing from El Centro, Calif.

Initially thought to be an asteroid, it has since been tentatively identified as the S-IVB third stage of the Apollo 12 Saturn V rocket (designated S-IVB-507). When the third stage of the Apollo 12 mission failed to crash on the Moon as planned (NASA used such impacts to generate ‘Moonquakes’ that could be studied by lunar seismographs to gain information on the Moon’s interior), its subsequent orbital evolution was alternatively dominated by the attraction of the Sun and Earth.

Later study discovered that the object’s spectral signature matched the white paint used on Apollo rockets. J002E3’s orbit was quite unusual, spending some time in the Sun-Earth first Lagrange point before swooping close enough to Earth to endanger operational satellites.

NASA had originally planned to direct the S-IVB into a solar orbit, but an extra long burn of the ullage motors meant that venting the remaining propellant in the tank of the S-IVB did not give the rocket stage enough energy to escape the Earth–Moon system, and instead the stage ended up in a semi-stable orbit around the Earth after passing by the Moon on November 18, 1969.
It is thought that J002E3 left Earth orbit in June 2003, and that it may return to orbit the Earth in the mid-2040s.

Animation explanation: Computer simulation of J002E3's motion, alternating between six Earth orbits and a heliocentric orbit.
The motion of J002E3, showing how the object was captured into its chaotic orbit around the Earth by passing near the L1 point, looping around the Earth for 6 orbits, and then leaving Earth's orbit. The Sun is to the left in these animations.
Animation link>> https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/39/J002e3f_orbit.gif

Further Reading and References

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2002/20sep_mysteryobject/

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2002/release_2002_178.cfm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J002E3

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2006/15mar_moonquakes/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perturbation_%28astronomy%29

#SolarSystem, #asteroid, #nearearthobject, #spacedebris, #J002E3object, #astronomy, #space, #animation, #science
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I shot an arrow…
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Puns: It's an addiction.
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Pattern matching aerial search. Cool.
(I need more RAM)
#aerial #neuralnetwork  
Terrapattern is your source for shipwrecks, bus depots and abandoned warehouses
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From the ISS, sputtering through the vast white ocean of clouds!
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Thanks very much for the information!
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