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【五蓋與記憶力】

 
五蓋(巴利文:pañca nīvaraṇāni),佛教術語,所謂的「蓋」即指遮蔽、障礙,而五蓋則意指五種能夠障礙善心的煩惱,能讓禪定與智慧無法生起的阻礙。佛陀在本經中特別地說明五蓋也是障礙記憶力的因緣之一,也就是說一個人的記憶力不好,通常與其五蓋的熾盛有很大的關係。

所謂的五蓋,即是指:

1. 貪欲蓋:指迷戀於男女色欲、情愛、情慾、性慾,或貪著於食物的美味及其他五欲的美妙境界,因而注意力無法集中,遮蓋障礙了禪定、智慧、與記憶力。

2. 瞋恚蓋:對於不順己意的人、事、物,心生忿怒,因而注意力無法集中,遮蓋障礙了禪定、智慧、與記憶力。

3. 睡眠蓋:即指嗜睡、昏沈、疲倦、身體疲累、懶散、發呆作白日夢等,因而注意力無法集中,遮蓋障礙了禪定、智慧、與記憶力。

4. 掉舉蓋:所謂的「掉」,意謂心情沮喪;所謂的「舉」則指亢奮、躁鬱、過動等。簡言之,即對於所作的錯事(如犯戒)心生內疚、罪惡感、不安、焦慮、煩憂,或心猿意馬,或心念飄忽不定,因為這些負面的情緒及散亂的思緒而注意力無法集中,遮蓋障礙了禪定、智慧、與記憶力。

5. 疑蓋:對於所聽聞的佛法、禪修的業處、受持的戒律等,心生懷疑,因而注意力無法集中,遮蓋障礙了禪定、智慧、與記憶力。

眾生因修上品十善,所以可脫離五道,來生可投生於最佳的天趣。但若是在生時未修禪定,則不能脫離對於須彌山地之依附,則死後只能轉生至四天王天及忉利天,統稱為地居天。至於,夜摩天以上的四種欲界天,因較粗淺的禪定,故可不依於須彌山地,死後依其欲界定(近行定)之深淺而各散居於空中的天界。但因其定力未臻離欲,即未能入根本禪定,所以還未能脫離欲界。

修行人若能端坐攝身,調和氣息,泯然澄靜,身如雲影,虛豁清淨,但仍猶見有身心之相者,便名為「欲界定」,南傳佛教則稱之為「近行定」,是為欲界諸天所修之定境。如能深入修根本禪,遠離欲界之粗散,也就是離「欲」、「惡」、「不善法」,達「心一境性」,也就是「身心統一」,在外道則稱之為「天啟」、「神秘經驗」、「天人合一」或「梵我合一」,即為北傳佛教的「色界定」,在南傳佛教則稱之為「安止定」,此人死後能憑其生前定力之深淺轉生至相應的四種色界禪天之一。而愈接近安止定者,其五蓋也就愈稀薄。

世尊在北傳《雜阿含經》第606經中即開宗明義地說明所謂的「善法聚」是指「四念處」,而「不善法聚」即指「五蓋」。所以,若欲入「安止定」並開發觀照的智慧,就一定要離「欲」、「惡」、「不善法」,也就是遠離「五蓋」這個「不善法」,因為這是最基本的前行基礎功夫,修行者也可據此檢視自己的修行程度如何。

選譯自南傳巴利英譯《增支部》的《傷歌邏經》
《Sangarava Sutta》(Anguttara Nikaya) 5.193

喬正一中譯於西元2013/5/17農曆4月初8浴佛節八關齋戒日

我是這樣聽說的:

有一次,佛陀住在古印度的舍衛國祇樹給孤獨園林的精舍裡。當時,有一位名叫傷歌邏的婆羅門前來拜訪世尊,他抵達精舍以後,即向世尊行禮,並與世尊相互問候,然後坐在一旁。

他問世尊:「瞿曇,我想請問,為什麼有時候我會記不住那些我曾研讀過很久的聖經雋語,更不要說是那些我沒研讀過的?又為何有時候我竟然會記得住它們?」

世尊回答:「善哉啊,婆羅門。當一個人的心被貪欲所覆蓋障礙住,而且不能如實地知道該如何遠離貪欲的生起;那麼,他就無法如實地看見與知悉什麼是對自己有益的,什麼是對他人有益的,以及什麼是利己又利人的。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「婆羅門,就好比一碗混雜蟲漆、薑黃、墨綠色與暗紅色染料的水,如果一個視力正常的人想要從該碗的水中看見自己臉部的倒影,那是不可能的事情。同理,婆羅門,一個被貪欲蓋障礙心靈也不知該如何遠離貪欲蓋的人,他就無法如實地看清什麼是對自己有益,什麼是對他人有益,又什麼是利己又利人。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「婆羅門。當一個人的心被瞋怒敵意所覆蓋障礙住,而且不能如實地看清如何遠離瞋怒敵意的生起,那麼,他也就無法如實地看清什麼是對自己有益的,什麼是對他人有益的,以及什麼是利己又利人的。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「婆羅門,這就好比一碗被烈火所煮沸的水,碗中的水面已經在滾動沸騰,而一個視力正常的人是無法從碗中的水面看清楚自己的倒影。同樣的,當一個被瞋恚蓋所污染及障礙,且無法如實地看清楚如何逃離瞋恚蓋的人,那麼他必然也無法看清楚什麼才是對自己和他人有益的。在那種情況下,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他依然記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「婆羅門。當一個人的心被懶散與昏沈所覆蓋障礙住,且不能如實地看清如何遠離懶散與昏沈的生起,那麼,他也就無法如實地看清什麼是對自己有益的,什麼是對他人有益的,以及什麼是利己又利人的。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「就好比一碗種滿泥濘的蘚苔與水生植物,一個視力正常的人是無法從碗中的水面看清楚自己的倒影。同樣的,當一個被懶散與昏沈所污染及障礙,且無法如實地看清楚如何逃離昏沈蓋的人,那麼他必然也無法看清楚什麼才是對自己和他人有益的。在那種情況下,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他依然記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「又,婆羅門,當一個人的心被焦慮與慌亂不安所覆蓋障礙住,且不能如實地看清如何遠離掉舉的生起,那麼,他也就無法如實地看清什麼是對自己有益的,什麼是對他人有益的,以及什麼是利己又利人的。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「就好比一碗被風吹皺水面的水,水面因而顫抖、旋轉、並泛起漣漪,而一個視力正常的人是無法從碗中的水面看清楚自己的倒影。同樣的,當一個被掉舉所污染及障礙,且無法如實地看清楚如何逃離掉舉蓋的人,那麼他必然也無法看清楚什麼才是對自己和他人有益的。在那種情況下,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他依然記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「又,婆羅門,當一個人的心被疑惑與搖擺不定所覆蓋障礙住,且不能如實地看清如何遠離疑惑的生起,那麼,他也就無法如實地看清什麼是對自己有益的,什麼是對他人有益的,以及什麼是利己又利人的。因此緣故,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他還是會記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

「就好比一碗水,水中的泥巴被攪動、攪拌,並置於黑暗之處,而一個視力正常的人是無法從碗中的水面看清楚自己的倒影。同樣的,當一個被疑惑所污染及障礙,且無法如實地看清楚如何逃離疑惑蓋的人,那麼他必然也無法看清楚什麼才是對自己和他人有益的。在那種情況下,就算那些神聖的雋語是他長期以來學習過的,他依然記不住,更不要說是那些他還沒學過的。」

巴利原文

英譯

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Atha kho saṅgāravo brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho saṅgāravo brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

I have heard that:

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery.{n} Then Saṅgārava the brahman approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One:

– Ko nu kho, bho gotama, hetu, ko paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā? Ko pana, bho gotama, hetu, ko paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ asajjhāyakatāpi mantā paṭibhanti, pageva sajjhāyakatā ti?

– Why is it, good Gotama, how does it come about that sometimes sacred words I have long studied are not clear to me, not to mention those I have not studied? And how is it too that sometimes other sacred words that I have not so studied are clear to me, not to mention those I have studied?

– Yasmiṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

– Well, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sense-desires, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sense-desires that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto saṃsaṭṭho lākhāya vā haliddiyā vā nīliyā vā mañjiṭṭhāya vā. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine, Brahman, a bowl of water mixed with lac, turmeric, dark green or crimson dye. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sense-desires, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sense-desires that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, to the profit of others, to the profit of both. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by ill-will, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from ill-will that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto agginā santatto pakkuthito usmudakajāto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water, heated on a fire, boiling up and bubbling over. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by ill-will, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from ill-will that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sloth-and-torpor, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sloth-and-torpor that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto sevālapaṇakapariyonaddho. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water covered over with slimy moss and water-plants. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sloth-and-torpor, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sloth-and-torpor that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by worry-and-flurry, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from worry-and-flurry that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto vāterito calito bhanto ūmijāto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water ruffled by the wind, so that the water trembled, eddied and rippled. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by worry-and-flurry, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from worry-and-flurry that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by doubt-and-wavering, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from doubt-and-wavering that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto āvilo luḷito kalalībhūto andhakāre nikkhitto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā. Ayaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

英譯

Ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Atha kho saṅgāravo brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho saṅgāravo brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṃ etadavoca:

I have heard that:

On one occasion the Blessed One was staying at Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's monastery.{n} Then Saṅgārava the brahman approached the Blessed One and, on arrival, exchanged courteous greetings with him. After an exchange of friendly greetings & courtesies, he sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One:

– Ko nu kho, bho gotama, hetu, ko paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā? Ko pana, bho gotama, hetu, ko paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ asajjhāyakatāpi mantā paṭibhanti, pageva sajjhāyakatā ti?

– Why is it, good Gotama, how does it come about that sometimes sacred words I have long studied are not clear to me, not to mention those I have not studied? And how is it too that sometimes other sacred words that I have not so studied are clear to me, not to mention those I have studied?

– Yasmiṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

– Well, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sense-desires, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sense-desires that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto saṃsaṭṭho lākhāya vā haliddiyā vā nīliyā vā mañjiṭṭhāya vā. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine, Brahman, a bowl of water mixed with lac, turmeric, dark green or crimson dye. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sense-desires, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sense-desires that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, to the profit of others, to the profit of both. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by ill-will, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from ill-will that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto agginā santatto pakkuthito usmudakajāto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water, heated on a fire, boiling up and bubbling over. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by ill-will, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from ill-will that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sloth-and-torpor, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sloth-and-torpor that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto sevālapaṇakapariyonaddho. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water covered over with slimy moss and water-plants. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by sloth-and-torpor, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from sloth-and-torpor that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by worry-and-flurry, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from worry-and-flurry that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto vāterito calito bhanto ūmijāto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water ruffled by the wind, so that the water trembled, eddied and rippled. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by worry-and-flurry, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from worry-and-flurry that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Puna caparaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Again, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by doubt-and-wavering, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from doubt-and-wavering that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, nor can he know and see what is to the profit of others, or of both himself and others. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has not studied.

Seyyathāpi, brāhmaṇa, udapatto āvilo luḷito kalalībhūto andhakāre nikkhitto. Tattha cakkhumā puriso sakaṃ mukhanimittaṃ paccavekkhamāno yathā·bhūtaṃ na jāneyya na passeyya. Evameva kho, brāhmaṇa, yasmiṃ samaye vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathā·bhūtaṃ nappajānāti, attatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, paratthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati, ubhayatthampi tasmiṃ samaye yathā·bhūtaṃ na jānāti na passati; dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā. Ayaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, hetu ayaṃ paccayo yenekadā dīgharattaṃ sajjhāyakatāpi mantā nappaṭibhanti, pageva asajjhāyakatā.

Imagine a bowl of water, agitated, stirred up muddied, put in a dark place. If a man with good eyesight were to look at the reflection of his own face in it, he would not know or see it as it really was. In the same way, Brahman, when a man dwells with his heart possessed and overwhelmed by doubt-and-wavering, and does not know, as it really is, the way of escape from doubt-and-wavering that have arisen, then he cannot know or see, as it really is, what is to his own profit, to the profit of others, to the profit of both. Then even sacred words he has long studied are not clear to him, not to mention those he has studied.
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Feeling bad
Sometimes you are ok to work but your throat is not good at all.
My job needs my voice.
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第六届书怡组
第六届书怡组
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Think positive! Living is beautiful ! I love myself!
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[ ] 每个人心中都有一个小宇宙,尝试去散发正能量磁场吧。
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