On March 31, 1889 — 126 years ago today — the Eiffel Tower was officially opened to the public. The Tower was designed by Gustave Eiffel’s company for the 1889 World’s Fair that was to be held in Paris, to mark the 100-year anniversary of the French Revolution. From among over 100 artists, Gustave Eiffel, who was a prominent French engineer, and his team’s design beat out competitive designs — as Eiffel’s structure was the most audacious. The tower was constructed of 7,000 tons of iron and rose to a height of 300 meters (almost 1,000 feet), the tallest structure in the world for this period (and for 4 decades after its construction, until the Chrysler Building was built in New York City in 1930). Initially, it was built to serve only as the elaborate entrance to the 1889 World’s Fair and only intended to last for 20 years, but its soaring height, delicate lines, and airy volume grew on Parisians as well as tourists from around the world. Eiffel had been using his apartment in the Tower to conduct radio and wind experiments, and the Tower subsequently became an important communications and experimental hub. The growing French consensus was that the structure should be maintained as a tourist attraction (over 1,000 people visit the Tower every hour) and communications tower as long as possible. So although initially destined for demolition in 1909, the Eiffel Tower has become one of the most enduring symbols of architectural design and structure in the world today.
•Eiffel Tower, Paris: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uL3vavzHlqw
•The History of the Eiffel Tower: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRnUlBhNirQ
• The Eiffel Tower by Bertrand Lemoine. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/3836509032/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=3836509032&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=46376CSNE3LPRP6Z
• Eiffel’s Tower: The Thrilling Story Behind Paris’s Beloved Monument and the Extraordinary World’s Fair That Introduced It by Jill Jonnes. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0143117297/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0143117297&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=L3SKHPDYOGAY2JAJ
• The Tallest Tower: Eiffel and the Belle Epoque by Joseph Harriss. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1588321029/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1588321029&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=7FFC7KLMXS3JMKDR
•Eiffel Tower Beaded Bookmark. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1593593090/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1593593090&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=XVC3FIUBK77OC7IO
•Lego Architecture: The Eiffel Tower. http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00AW08UN2/ref=as_li_tl?ie=UTF8&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=B00AW08UN2&linkCode=as2&tag=historyknowledge-20&linkId=GEDAXHT367O7PKMO
Left: Eiffel Tower, as seen from the Champ de Mars, Paris, France. By Benh LIEU SONG (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ATour_Eiffel_Wikimedia_Commons.jpg
Right Top to Bottom:
•Eiffel Tower at night with lights: http://wallpaperciv.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Awesome-Eiffel-Tower-at-Night.jpg
•Eiffel Tower by the Seine River, Paris, May 2014. By Nicolas Halftermeyer (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEiffel_Tower_by_the_Seine_river%2C_Paris%2C_2_March_2014.jpg
•View from the center of the bottom of the Tower looking directly toward the top of the structure. By Alec Smith (Image Mundi) posted on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+AlecSmith-ImageMundi/posts/e5JhGeKb7vs
Mayor Lianne Dalziel is preventing the consideration of alternatives to massive rates hikes and the fire sale of council-owned assets. THE CHRISTCHURCH CITY COUNCIL has published another one of its 'information' leaflets. This one is a glossy number titl...
Ericka Huggins began her political work after witnessing the March on Washington in 1963. There in Washington Ericka became committed to moving from the sidelines to the front lines in the global human rights movement.
After meeting her husband, John Huggins, and moving to California, they both became important leaders to the Southern California chapter.
In 1969, at age 18, Ericka became a leader in the Los Angeles chapter of the Black Panther Party with her husband John Huggins. As a leader in the Los Angeles chapter, she began to push for women's issue in the struggle as well.
Three weeks after the birth of their daughter Mai, Ericka became a widow, when her husband John Huggins, along with her dear friend, Alprentice “Bunchy” Carter, was murdered on the U.C.L.A campus.
Ericka brought her daughter to New Haven, Connecticut for John’s burial, and stayed on to open the New Haven chapter of the Black Panther Party.
In May 1969, Huggins and fellow Party leader Bobby Seale were targeted and arrested on conspiracy charges sparking “Free Bobby, Free Ericka” rallies across the country. The resulting trial, one of the longest and most celebrated of the era, spawned several books. While awaiting trial for 2 years before charges were dropped, including time in solitary confinement, Huggins taught herself to meditate as a means of survival.
A lifelong writer and poet, upon release from prison in 1972, Huggins became writer and editor for the Black Panther Intercommunal News Service. Her book of poetry chronicling her experience of imprisonment and liberation, Insights and Poems, co-authored with Huey P. Newton, was published in 1974. Her poetry and writings have appeared in numerous magazines and books.
From 1973-1981, Huggins was Director of the Oakland Community School, a groundbreaking community-run child development center and elementary school founded by the Black Panther Party. She created the vision for the innovative curriculum for the school, which became a model for and predecessor to the charter school movement. In 1976, Huggins became both the first woman and the first Black person to be appointed to the Alameda County Board of Education.
In 1979, ten years after her release from prison, Huggins returned to California state and county prisons and jails to teach Hatha Yoga and meditation through the Siddha Yoga Prison Project. A focus of her volunteer effort was her work with incarcerated youth. She has continued this work with adults and, in addition, has continued to teach in homes for foster and adopted children and pregnant teens. For the past 15 years, she has also taught relaxation and mindfulness in California youth correctional facilities in addition to many Northern California public school districts and community colleges.
In 1990, at the height of public awareness of HIV/AIDS, Huggins was the first woman practical support volunteer coordinator at the world-renowned Shanti Project. She also developed a unique volunteer support program for women and children with HIV in the Tenderloin and Mission districts of San Francisco.
Ericka Huggins is presently a Professor of Sociology at Laney College in Oakland and at Berkeley City College. In addition, she has lectured at Stanford University, Cornell University, UCLA, UC Berkley, Swarthmore College, San Francisco City College.
All Power To All The People!
#blackpanthers #blackhistory #blackpantherparty #bobbyseale #erickahuggins
The hymn was written by Dwight Armstrong, late brother of the late Herbert W. Armstrong, and is based on Psalm 103.
- Te Rapa School,Gordonton School 1970-3,Kerepehi School 1973-5,Te Awamutu Intermediate School 1975-6,Te Awamutu College 1977-82,University of Waikato 1983-90
- Te Awamutu College1977 - 1982
- University of Waikato1983 - 1990
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