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"Glaciologists and engineers will soon be extracting cores from a glacier atop a French mountain in the first step of a project to preserve samples of glacial ice from around the world -and the information it contains - for future generations.
On Aug. 15, a 10-person team from France, Italy, Russia and the United States will be traveling to the Col du Dôme, a 14,000 foot peak that is part of the Mont Blanc Massif in the French Alps on the border with Switzerland; from then until mid-September, they will drill three cores of approximately 430 feet in length.
The cores will be lowered into the valley by helicopter before being transported to the Laboratory of Glaciology and Environmental Geophysics (LGGE) in Grenoble. One will be analyzed to begin building a database available to the entire world scientific community. The other two will be transported by ship to Antarctica, where they will be transferred onto tracked vehicles and carried to the high plateaus of the frozen continent for storage at the Concordia station, which is run by jointly by the French and Italian Antarctic programs. The long-term plan is to have dozens of ice core archives stored in a snow cave at -65°F".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
The plan is to "have dozens of ice core archives stored in a snow cave — the most reliable and natural freezer in the world."
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"The amount of vegetation along the Georgia coast has declined significantly in the last 30 years, spurring concerns about the overall health of marshland ecosystems in the area, warn scientists".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
The amount of vegetation along the Georgia coast has declined significantly in the last 30 years, spurring concerns about the overall health of marshland ecosystems in the area, warn scientists.
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"Replanting cleared forests can recover animal communities and important ecological processes relatively quickly, says a new study. But, warn the research team, the traditional way of evaluating such restoration projects, which includes the numbers of species and individuals in a habitat, is insufficient and may need to change".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
Replanting cleared forests can recover animal communities and important ecological processes relatively quickly, says a new study. But, warn the research team, the traditional way of evaluating such restoration projects, which includes the numbers of species and individuals in a habitat, is insufficient and may need to change.
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"A new study by an international team of scientists reveals the exact timing of the onset of the modern monsoon pattern in the Maldives 12.9 million years ago, and its connection to past climate changes and coral reefs in the region. The analysis of sediment cores provides direct physical evidence of the environmental conditions that sparked the monsoon conditions that exist today around the low-lying island nation and the Indian subcontinent.
In Nov. 2015, University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science geoscientist Gregor Eberli, along with his co-chief scientist Christian Betzler and an international team of 31 scientists from 15 countries, embarked on an eight-week expedition to the Maldives aboard the research vessel JOIDES Resolution. The scientific team on International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359, which included UM geochemist Peter Swart and sedimentologist Anna Ling, extracted 3,097 meters of sediment cores that contain the history of the monsoon that is the most intense annually recurring climatic element on Earth. The monsoon system supplies moisture to the Indian subcontinent, which is important for the human population and vegetation in the region, as well as marine ecosystem in the surrounding seas.
The Maldives are a string of island atolls built on coral reefs located in the middle of the Indian Ocean. The waters around the low-lying archipelago has steadily risen and fallen for millions of years in sync with the changing climate. A new climatic phase heightened by human influence has these waters rising again, endangering the existence of the popular island paradise.
"They are at the center of the storm for sea-level rise," said UM Rosenstiel School Professor Gregor Eberli, a senior author on the study published in Scientific Reports.
The low-lying island nation offers the scientists a unique opportunity to reconstruct climate conditions during previous periods of varying sea levels to help scientists better understand how future climate change will the effect the 1,000 km-long archipelago and low-lying coastal areas all around the world".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
A new study by an international team of scientists reveals the exact timing of the onset of the modern monsoon pattern in the Maldives 12.9 million years ago, and its connection to past climate changes and coral reefs in the region. The analysis of sediment cores provides direct physical evidence of the environmental conditions that sparked the monsoon conditions that exist today around the low-lying island nation and the Indian subcontinent.
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"High in the atmosphere, ice crystals are born in thin, wispy cirrus. Most of this ice birthing, what researchers call ice nucleation, is initiated on particles of soot, dust, compounds, or other droplets. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Michigan Technological University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory studied a variety of soot particles they produced from a diesel generator. They emulated soot-ice nucleation in super-cold temperatures found in cirrus, up to -50° C (-122° F). The research showed that all the particles were similarly efficient at nucleating ice, but that altering the properties of soot changes the ice crystal concentration observed in clouds".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
High in the atmosphere, ice crystals are born in thin, wispy cirrus. Most of this ice birthing, what researchers call ice nucleation, is initiated on particles of soot, dust, compounds, or other droplets. Researchers at Pacific ...
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"The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has agreed to publish a special report on the costs and implications of the 1.5 °C target in 2018. In order to inform that process, researchers must decide which efforts to prioritise and begin work almost immediately. But deciding what can and should be delivered is far from trivial. This evolving issue draws together content from Nature Climate Change, Nature Geoscience and Nature to provide perspectives on how research might move forward and how it can best inform decisions about limiting climate warming. In time it will also incorporate pertinent new research findings."

http://goo.gl/agAxob

(Posted by +Jim Stuttard)
In December 2015, representatives from 195 nations met in Paris to negotiate an international agreement to combat climate change. The resulting 'Paris Agreement' codified an aspiration to limit the level of global temperature rise to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels — lower than the previously ...
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Azimuth

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"In East Africa, the caterpillars of two butterflies, Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus , represent a major threat for maize, the main food crop in the region. As recently borne out by the work of a team of researchers, their distribution varies with altitude. Busseola fusca prefers mountain sides, whereas Chilo partellus predominate at low altitude; a new study has revealed this phenomenon. Temperatures play a role in several ways, leading to the conclusion that the populations of these two types of pest will grow in the coming years".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
In East Africa, the caterpillars of two butterflies, Busseola fusca and Chilo partellus , represent a major threat for maize, the main food crop in the region. As recently borne out by the work of a team of researchers, their distribution varies with altitude. Busseola fusca prefers mountain sides, whereas Chilo partellus predominate at low altitude; a new study has revealed this phenomenon. Temperatures play a role in several ways, leading to th...
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"Climate and energy scientists have developed a new method to pinpoint which electrical service areas will be most vulnerable as populations grow and temperatures rise".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
Climate and energy scientists have developed a new method to pinpoint which electrical service areas will be most vulnerable as populations grow and temperatures rise.
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"The average surface temperature of Lake Tahoe has risen faster over the last four years than any time on record — 15 times faster than the long-term warming rate over the past half century, scientists say.
Continued warm and dry conditions contributed to several record-breaking measurements at Lake Tahoe in 2015, raising concerns about the ecological impacts of climate change on the second deepest lake in the United States, according to an annual report issued Thursday by the UC Davis Tahoe Environmental Research Center.
“Lake Tahoe experienced a year like no other,” according to the research center, which started keeping water temperature records in 1970 when it averaged 50.3 degrees".

(Posted by +Susan Stone​& shared by +rasha kamel​)
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"The Kansas prairie seems like the very picture of beauty and simplicity, with undulating fields of corn and wheat stretching as far as the eye can see.
But below ground, the soil bears witness to the incredible diversity and chaos of life within even the smallest patch of ground. Just a teaspoonful of Kansas soil contains tens of thousands of microbial species.
Now scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have untangled that Kansas-based mess of microbes more fully than scientists have ever done for a sample of soil.
In one of the most in-depth looks to date at a soil metagenome - all the genetic material recovered from a sample of soil - the team reconstructed portions of the genomes of 129 species of microbes. While it's only a tiny proportion of the estimated 100,000 species in the sample, it's a leap forward for scientists who have had only a fraction of that success to date.
The results include the first reconstruction of the complete genome of a single microbe ever from a complex soil sample. Other groups have reconstructed full genomes of microbes out of less complex environments, including mines, microbial mats, and the human microbiome.
The results were published recently in mSystems, a publication of the American Society for Microbiology".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
PNNL scientists have untangled a soil metagenome -- all the genetic material recovered from a sample of soil -- more fully than ever before, reconstructing portions of the genomes of 129 species of microbes. While it's only a tiny proportion of the estimated 100,000 species in the sample, it's a leap forward for scientists who have had only a fraction of that success to date.
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Azimuth

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"In a study published in Scientific Reports, scientists discovered impressive abundance and diversity among the creatures living on the seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ)—an area in the equatorial Pacific Ocean being targeted for deep-sea mining. The study, lead authored by Diva Amon, a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), found that more than half of the species they collected were new to science, reiterating how little is known about life on the seafloor in this region.
"We found that this exploration claim area harbors one of the most diverse communities of megafauna [animals over 2 cm in size] to be recorded at abyssal depths in the deep sea," said Amon.
The deep sea is where the next frontier of mining will take place. A combination of biological, chemical and geological processes has led to the formation of high concentrations of polymetallic "manganese" nodules on the deep seafloor in the CCZ—an area nearly the size of the contiguous United States. These nodules are potentially valuable sources of copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese, among other metals, which has led to an interest in mining this region. All of the potential polymetallic-nodule exploration contracts that have been granted in the Pacific are in this region, according to the International Seabed Authority.
This study, part of the ABYSSLINE Project, was the first to characterize the abundance and diversity of seafloor-dwelling animals, a key component of deep-sea ecosystems, in an exploration claim area leased to UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UK-1) in the eastern portion of the CCZ".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
In a study published in Scientific Reports, scientists discovered impressive abundance and diversity among the creatures living on the seafloor in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ)—an area in the equatorial Pacific Ocean ...
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Azimuth

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"Scientists are calling for a "thoughtful debate" about the wisdom of attempts to keep a global rise in temperatures under 1.5C.
At the Paris climate summit last December, governments agreed that they would "pursue efforts" to keep warming below this figure.
But a new study shows the limit will be breached over land, even if emissions of warming gases ceased immediately.
The research has been published in the journal Scientific Reports".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
Scientists are calling for a "thoughtful debate" about the wisdom of global attempts to limit temperature rises under 1.5C.
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People
In their circles
608 people
Have them in circles
2,253 people
Valeraine De Sauveterre's profile photo
jader guadalupe zaehler d' avila's profile photo
purna mgr's profile photo
Funkle Ace's profile photo
Robert Babić's profile photo
Happy Heart's profile photo
Nancy Monna's profile photo
Curtis Michael Faith's profile photo
Simon Donner's profile photo
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Scientists and engineers helping save the planet.
Introduction
The Azimuth Project is an international collaboration to create a focal point for scientists and engineers interested in saving the planet. Our goal is to make clearly presented, accurate information on the relevant issues easy to find, and to help people work together on our common problems.  We need your help! 

The Azimuth Project includes a wiki, a blog, and a discussion forum

This Azimuth page here on Google+ lets you keep track of news related to energy, the environment and sustainability.  Posts on this page are written by Rasha Kamel, John Baez, Jim Stuttard, Frederik De Roo and David Tanzer.  The posts reflect the individual authors views and taste; we don't agree about everything!