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"When carbon dioxide is stored underground in a process known as geological sequestration, it can find multiple escape pathways due to chemical reactions between carbon dioxide, water, rocks and cement from abandoned wells, according to researchers".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
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Azimuth

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"The large and powerful El Niño in the eastern tropical Pacific has yet to deliver torrential rains to Southern California—an almost daily problem for Bill Patzert, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s quotable oceanographer.
“No matter where I go—whether it’s JPL or Whole Foods or talking with reporters—everybody has a simple question: Show me the rain,” Patzert says.
But it might just be a case of expectations outrunning El Niño itself.
The massive pool of warm water now parked off Central America’s west coast remains formidable, and invites comparisons to the 1998 El Niño, remembered for pummeling rains that brought flooding, mud slides and debris flow to much of Southern California.
If anything, the shape of this zone of elevated sea surface height—corresponding to a warming-induced increase in ocean water volume—looks more menacing than its late ’90s predecessor.
To Patzert’s eye, the Jason 2 satellite’s image of the 2016 El Niño looks a lot like a crocodile, complete with an eye and a tapered snout".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
El Niño remains formidable, and still could bring heavy rain to Southern California.
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Meanwhile it rained in eastern Australia. Not your usual El Nino.
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"A bed of fossilized, methane dependent clams has for the first time been observed in the high Arctic. It tells the story of a thousand year long methane release event".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
A bed of fossilized, methane dependent clams has for the first time been observed in the high Arctic. It tells the story of a thousand year long methane release event.
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"The ocean's power to rein in carbon and protect the environment is vast but not well-understood. But now, an international team of scientists has begun to illuminate how the ocean plucks carbon from the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming, and shuttles it to the bottom of the sea".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
The ocean's power to rein in carbon and protect the environment is vast but not well-understood. But now, an international team of scientists has begun to illuminate how the ocean plucks carbon from the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming, and shuttles it to the bottom of the sea.
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"President Barack Obama's plans to regulate emissions of carbon dioxide from US power plants have been stalled by the US Supreme Court.
The court ruled that the president's Clean Power Plan could not go forward until all legal challenges were heard.
Designed to cut US emissions by 32% by 2030, the scheme put huge emphasis on a shift to renewable energy.
It formed the key element of the US pledge at UN climate negotiations held in Paris in December last year.
Introduced by the president last August, the plan set carbon reduction goals for each state and it was up to the states themselves to come up with proposals to meet those goals".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
President Obama's plans to regulate emissions of carbon dioxide from US power plants are stalled by the Supreme Court.
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"A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The result would be a rise in the global sea level by several meters".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The result would be a rise in the global sea level by several meters.
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Azimuth

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"New measurements from a NASA satellite have allowed researchers to identify and quantify, for the first time, how climate-driven increases of liquid water storage on land have affected the rate of sea level rise. A new study shows that while ice sheets and glaciers continue to melt, changes in weather and climate over the past decade have caused Earth's continents to soak up and store an extra 3.2 trillion tons of water in soils, lakes and underground aquifers, temporarily slowing the rate of sea level rise by about 20 percent".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
New measurements from a NASA satellite have allowed researchers to identify and quantify, for the first time, how climate-driven increases of liquid water storage on land have affected the rate of sea level rise. A new study shows that while ice sheets and glaciers continue to melt, changes in weather and climate over the past decade have caused Earth's continents to soak up and store an extra 3.2 trillion tons of water in soils, lakes and underg...
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"One in two tree species in the Amazon could be endangered. Experts have revealed that, according to the predicted deforestation scenarios, 36% to 57% of Amazonian species are at risk of disappearing, i.e. up to 8,700 species out of the 15,000 estimated during the first inventory of the Amazonian Basin, published two years ago".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
One in two tree species in the Amazon could be endangered. Experts have revealed that, according to the predicted deforestation scenarios, 36% to 57% of Amazonian species are at risk of disappearing, i.e. up to 8,700 species out of the 15,000 estimated during the first inventory of the Amazonian Basin, published two years ago.
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I am worried. What the hell every humans thinks they are doing??
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"The fixed division of labor between crested penguin parents increases their chicks' vulnerability to food shortages made ever more common by climate change. The parents have been unable to adapt their habits to the challenges of increasingly frequent years of limited food supply and, as a result, will become further threatened by extinction".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
The fixed division of labor between crested penguin parents increases their chicks' vulnerability to food shortages made ever more common by climate change. The parents have been unable to adapt their habits to the challenges of increasingly frequent years of limited food supply and, as a result, will become further threatened by extinction.
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"Radical ways of removing CO2 from the atmosphere could prove to be a risky business -- according to an environmental scientist. Techniques put forward include growing crops to be burned in power stations, large-scale tree plantations, adding biochar to soil and using chemicals to extract CO2 from the atmosphere. But most, if not all, of these methods pose environmental risks".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
Radical ways of removing CO2 from the atmosphere could prove to be a risky business -- according to an environmental scientist. Techniques put forward include growing crops to be burned in power stations, large-scale tree plantations, adding biochar to soil and using chemicals to extract CO2 from the atmosphere. But most, if not all, of these methods pose environmental risks.
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"Over the past 20 years, many ice shelves in Antarctica have shrunk and some have disappeared entirely. This has resulted in a significant acceleration of many Antarctic glaciers, contributing to rising sea levels. Researchers have used a complex model to show for the first time at what point the 'buttressing' role of ice shelves is impaired due to their decline".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
Over the past 20 years, many ice shelves in Antarctica have shrunk and some have disappeared entirely. This has resulted in a significant acceleration of many Antarctic glaciers, contributing to rising sea levels. Researchers have used a complex model to show for the first time at what point the 'buttressing' role of ice shelves is impaired due to their decline.
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"New, detailed maps of the world’s natural landscapes created using NASA satellite data could help scientists better predict the impacts of future climate change.
The maps of forests, grasslands and other productive ecosystems provide the most complete picture yet of how carbon from the atmosphere is reused and recycled by Earth’s natural ecosystems.
Scientists at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom; NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California; and Wageningen University, Netherlands, used a computer model to analyze a decade of satellite and field study data from 2000 to 2010. The existing global maps of vegetation and fire activity they studied were produced from data from NASA’s Terra, Aqua and ICESat spacecraft. The researchers then constructed maps that show where — and for how long — carbon is stored in plants, trees and soils.
The maps reveal how the biological properties of leaves, roots and wood in different natural habitats affect their ability to store carbon across the globe, and show that some ecosystems retain carbon longer than others. For example, large swaths of the dry tropics store carbon for a relatively short time due to frequent fires, while in warm, wet climates, carbon is stored longer in vegetation than in soils.
Although it is well known that Earth’s natural ecosystems absorb and process large amounts of carbon dioxide, much less is known about where the carbon is stored or how long it remains there. Improved understanding about how carbon is stored will allow researchers to more accurately predict the impacts of climate change".

(Posted by +rasha kamel​)
New, detailed maps of the world’s natural landscapes created using NASA satellite data could help scientists better predict the impacts of future climate change.
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Have them in circles
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Scientists and engineers helping save the planet.
Introduction
The Azimuth Project is an international collaboration to create a focal point for scientists and engineers interested in saving the planet. Our goal is to make clearly presented, accurate information on the relevant issues easy to find, and to help people work together on our common problems.  We need your help! 

The Azimuth Project includes a wiki, a blog, and a discussion forum

This Azimuth page here on Google+ lets you keep track of news related to energy, the environment and sustainability.  Posts on this page are written by Rasha Kamel, John Baez, Jim Stuttard, Frederik De Roo and David Tanzer.  The posts reflect the individual authors views and taste; we don't agree about everything!