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Javier Lugo
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I bought a new laptop and it flew away..
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Californians Try Dunkin’ Donuts For The First Time: http://youtu.be/VlAhiA5wehw
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Javier Lugo

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On March 22, 1873, the Maafa (slavery) was abolished in Puerto Rico.
However, African people were not emancipated. They had to buy their own freedom at whatever price was set by their former enslaver. The law required that the Atlantians (slaves) had to work for another three years for their former enslavers, other people interested in their services, or for the state in order to pay for some compensation!!!
There is little historical understanding that Puerto Rico enslaved people of African descent, and that African people and their descendants helped shape the political institutions of the island. Their contributions to the music, art, language, and heritage became the foundation of Puerto Rican culture.
African history in Puerto Rico initially began with the African freemen who arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors. Juan Garrido, who belonged to Juan Ponce de León's entourage was the first African man to set foot on the island and in the “New World” in 1509. The Spaniards enslaved the Tainos who were the native inhabitants of the island and many of them died as a result of the cruel treatment that they had received. Africa’s people were then forcibly transported to Puerto Rico to work the mines, sugar cane fields and build forts.
According to historian Luis M. Diaz, the largest contingent of Africa’s people came from the Yorubas and Igbos, ethnic groups from Nigeria; and Bantus from the Guineas. The number of Africans in Puerto Rico rose from 1,500 in 1530 to 15,000 by 1555. They were stamped with a hot iron on the forehead, a branding which meant that they were brought to the country legally and prevented their kidnapping. After 1784, the method of hot branding their forehead was suspended.
In 1527, the first major Maafa rebellion occurred in Puerto Rico, as dozen of Atlantians (slaves) fought against the colonist in a brief revolt. Those who escaped retreated to the mountains, where they resided as maroons with surviving Taínos. By 1873, Atlantians had carried out more than twenty revolts, including some of great political importance, such as the Ponce and Vega Baja conspiracies.
Part of the undisputed African legacy on the Puerto Rican culture includes a peculiar speech pattern. Africans people brought to the island spoke "bozal" Spanish, a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, and Congo. Many Puerto Ricans have the habit of swallowing the "s," and often pronounce the "r" as an "l". This is because in the African tongue there is no "s" or "r" sound.
Puerto Ricans celebrate Emancipation Day throughout the entire island by getting together to sing, eat and learning to dance plena and bomba, as well as studying their history and honoring famous African Puerto Ricans.
On March 22, 1873, the Maafa (slavery) was abolished in Puerto Rico.
However, African people were not emancipated. They had to buy their own freedom at whatever price was set by their former enslaver. The law required that the Atlantians (slaves) had to work for another three years for their former enslavers, other people interested in their services, or for the state in order to pay for some compensation!!!
There is little historical understanding that Puerto Rico enslaved people of African descent, and that African people and their descendents helped shape the political institutions of the island. Their contributions to the music, art, language, and heritage became the foundation of Puerto Rican culture.
African history in Puerto Rico initially began with the African freemen who arrived with the Spanish Conquistadors. Juan Garrido, who belonged to Juan Ponce de León's entourage was the first African man to set foot on the island and in the “New World” in 1509. The Spaniards enslaved the Tainos who were the native inhabitants of the island and many of them died as a result of the cruel treatment that they had received. Africa’s people were then forcibly transported to Puerto Rico to work the mines, sugar cane fields and build forts.
According to historian Luis M. Diaz, the largest contingent of Africa’s people came from the Yorubas and Igbos, ethnic groups from Nigeria; and Bantus from the Guineas. The number of Africans in Puerto Rico rose from 1,500 in 1530 to 15,000 by 1555. They were stamped with a hot iron on the forehead, a branding which meant that they were brought to the country legally and prevented their kidnapping. After 1784, the method of hot branding their forehead was suspended.
In 1527, the first major Maafa rebellion occurred in Puerto Rico, as dozen of Atlantians (slaves) fought against the colonist in a brief revolt. Those who escaped retreated to the mountains, where they resided as maroons with surviving Taínos. By 1873, Atlantians had carried out more than twenty revolts, including some of great political importance, such as the Ponce and Vega Baja conspiracies.
Part of the undisputed African legacy on the Puerto Rican culture includes a peculiar speech pattern. Africans people brought to the island spoke "bozal" Spanish, a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, and Congo. Many Puerto Ricans have the habit of swallowing the "s," and often pronounce the "r" as an "l". This is because in the African tongue there is no "s" or "r" sound.
Puerto Ricans celebrate Emancipation Day throughout the entire island by getting together to sing, eat and learning to dance plena and bomba, as well as studying their history and honoring famous African Puerto Ricans.



Images (clockwise): Rafael Cordero, known as "The Father of Public Education in Puerto Rico" painted by Francisco Oller; El Velorio "The Wake" (1893) by Francisco Oller; Arturo Alfonso Schomburg; a book; and a scene of African people working in the cane fields.
Images (clockwise): Rafael Cordero, known as "The Father of Public Education in Puerto Rico" painted by Francisco Oller; El Velorio "The Wake" (1893) by Francisco Oller; Arturo Alfonso Schomburg; a book; and a scene of African people working in the cane fields.
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CNET: FCC: Marriott blocked guests' personal Wi-Fi, charged for Net access. http://google.com/newsstand/s/CBIwy6iE1Ro
Federal Communications Commission fines Marriott $600,000 after deciding it illegally interfered with conventiongoers' hot spots in Nashville. Marriott says it did nothing wrong.
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Katsuyama-jou hakubutsukan (勝山城博物館)
Katsuyama city, Fukui pref. Japan

This is a museum that opened in 1992, has been collecting and exhibit kimono of women of lords of the Edo period, samurai armor, Byobu the battle Screens.
Castle tower that was built with concrete, is 57.8m height of main tower highest in Japan.
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Un poco de arte para curar heridas...
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In Pictures: At least 150 street artists from over 30 countries have used walls, water tanks, and other surfaces across the village of Erriadh as their canvasses, turning the area into an "open-air museum", according to organisers at Galerie Itinerance, a Paris-based art gallery. | Take a look at our gallery: http://aje.me/1pdKdGZ
Artists from over 30 countries have transformed a village on the Tunisian island of Djerba into an 'open-air museum'.
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Samot Rosa's profile photo
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