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Dominic Rassool
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Good stuff. 

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Best WC starting eleven since '82? Here's my 2 cents:

Casillas; Thuram, Puyol, Maldini, R. Carlos; Pirlo, Zidane, Xavi; Ronaldinho, Ronaldo Luis Nazario de Lima, Maradona


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Fashion in Westeros.

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Mendeley is pleased to host guest blog posts from our Advisor Community on research life, collaborations, and workflow. Dual degree (and dual country!) PhD student Jorge Sinval says:

"Mendeley represents a lot in my professional life: it made some important connections possible, and transformed my network."

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Smart analysis. Takes one to know one!
MH370  A different point of view. Pulau Langkawi 13,000 runway.

A lot of speculation about MH370. Terrorism, hijack, meteors. I cannot believe the analysis on CNN - almost disturbing. I tend to look for a more simple explanation of this event.
Loaded 777 departs midnight from Kuala to Beijing. Hot night. Heavy aircraft.  About an hour out across the gulf towards Vietnam the plane goes dark meaning the transponder goes off and secondary radar tracking goes off. 
Two days later we hear of reports that Malaysian military radar (which is a primary radar meaning the plane is being tracked by reflection rather than by transponder interrogation response) has tracked the plane on a southwesterly course back across the Malay Peninsula into the straits of Malacca.
When I heard this I immediately brought up Google Earth and I searched for airports in proximity to the track towards southwest.
The left turn is the key here. This was a very experienced senior Captain with 18,000 hours. Maybe some of the younger pilots interviewed on CNN didn't pick up on this left turn. We old pilots were always drilled to always know the closest airport of safe harbor while in cruise. Airports behind us, airports abeam us and airports ahead of us. Always in our head. Always. Because if something happens you don't want to be thinking what are you going to do - you already know what you are going to do. Instinctively when I saw that left turn with a direct heading I knew he was heading for an airport. Actually he was taking a direct route to Palau Langkawi a 13,000 foot strip with an approach over water at night with no obstacles. He did not turn back to Kuala  Lampur because he knew he had 8,000 foot ridges to cross. He knew the terrain was friendlier towards Langkawi and also a shorter distance.
Take a look on Google Earth at this airport. This pilot did all the right things. He was confronted by some major event onboard that made him make that immediate turn back to the closest safe airport.
For me the loss of transponders and communications makes perfect sense if a fire. There was most likely a fire or electrical fire. In the case of fire the first response if to pull all the main busses and restore circuits one by one until you have isolated the bad one.

If they pulled the busses the plane indeed would go silent. It was probably a serious event and they simply were occupied with controlling the plane and trying to fight the fire. Aviate, Navigate and lastly communicate. There are two types of fires. Electrical might not be as fast and furious and there might or might not be incapacitating smoke. However there is the possibility given the timeline that perhaps there was an overheat on one of the front landing gear tires and it blew on takeoff and started slowly burning. Yes this happens with underinflated tires. Remember heavy plane, hot night, sea level, long run takeoff. There was a well known accident in Nigeria of a DC8 that had a landing gear fire on takeoff. A tire fire once going would produce horrific incapacitating smoke. Yes, pilots have access to oxygen masks but this is a no no with fire. Most have access to a smoke hood with a filter but this will only last for a few minutes depending on the smoke level. (I used to carry one of my own in a flight bag and I still carry one in my briefcase today when I fly).
What I think happened is that they were overcome by smoke and the plane just continued on  the heading probably on George (autopilot) until either fuel exhaustion or fire destroyed the control surfaces and it crashed. I said four days ago you will find it along that route - looking elsewhere was pointless.  
This pilot, as I say, was a hero struggling with an impossible situation trying to get that plane to Langkawi. No doubt in my mind. That's the reason for the turn and direct route. A hijack would not have made that deliberate left turn with a direct heading for Langkawi. It would probably have weaved around a bit until the hijackers decided on where they were taking it.
Surprisingly none of the reporters , officials, other pilots interviewed have looked at this from the pilot's viewpoint. If something went wrong where would he go? Thanks to Google earth I spotted Langkawi in about 30 seconds, zoomed in and saw how long the runway was and I just instinctively knew this pilot knew this airport. He had probably flown there many times. I guess we will eventually find out when you help me spread this theory on the net and some reporters finally take a look on Google earth and put 2 and 2 together. Also a look at the age and number of cycles on those nose tires might give us a good clue too.   
Fire in an aircraft demands one thing - you get the machine on the ground as soon as possible. There are two well remembered experiences in my memory. The AirCanada DC9 which landed I believe in Columbus Ohio in the eighties. That pilot delayed descent and bypassed several airports.   He didn't instinctively know the closest airports. He got it on the ground eventually but lost 30 odd souls.   In the 1998 crash of Swissair DC-10 off Nova Scotia was another example of heroic pilots. They were 15 minutes out of Halifax but the fire simply  overcame them and they had to ditch in the ocean. Just ran out of time. That fire incidentally started when the aircraft was about an hour out of Kennedy. Guess what the transponders and communications were shut off as they pulled the busses.

Get on Google Earth and type in Pulau Langkawi  and then look at it in relation to the radar track heading. 2+2=4  That for me is the  simple explanation why it turned and headed  in that direction.

Smart pilot. Just didn't have the time.



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If you roll a circle inside a circle 3 times as big, you get a deltoid.  If you roll a circle inside one 4 times as big, you get an astroid.   But here's something cool: you can roll a deltoid inside an astroid, and it fits perfectly!

This movie was made by Greg Egan.  The deltoid looks like a curved triangle with sharp corners.  The astroid looks like a curved diamond with sharp corners.  Note how all 3 corners of the deltoid always touch the astroid.

Why does this happen?  You can see an explanation on my Visual Insight blog:

It's related to some things that physicists like: SU(3) and SU(4).

SU(n) is the group of n × n unitary matrices with determinant 1.  Physicists like Pauli and Heisenberg got interested in SU(2) when they realized it describes the rotational symmetries of an electron.  You need it to understand the spin of an electron.   Later, Gell-Mann got interested in SU(3) because he thought it described the symmetries of quarks.  He won a Nobel prize for predicting a new particle based on this theory, which was then discovered.  We now know that SU(3) does describe symmetries of quarks, but not in the way he thought. 

It turns out that quarks come in 3 colors - not real colors, but jokingly called red, green and blue.   Similarly, electrons come in 2 different spin states, called up and down.  Matrices in SU(3) can change the color of a quark, just as matrices in SU(2) can switch an electron's spin from up to down, or some mixture of up and down.

SU(4) would be important in physics if quarks came in 4 colors.  In fact there's a theory saying they do, with electrons and neutrinos being examples of quarks in their 4th color state!  This is called the Pati-Salam theory.  It's lots of fun, because it unifies leptons (particle like electrons and neutrinos) and quarks.  There's even a chance that it's true.  But it's not very popular these days, because it has some problems: it predicts that protons decay, which we haven't seen happen yet.

Anyway, the math of SU(3) and SU(4) is perfectly well-understood regardless of the physics.  And here's the cool part:

If you take a matrix in SU(3) and add up its diagonal entries, you can get any number in the complex plane that lies inside a deltoid.  If you take a matrix in SU(4) and add up its diagonal entries, you can get any number in the complex plane that lies inside an astroid.  And using how SU(3) fits inside SU(4), you can show that a deltoid rolls snugly inside an astroid! 

The details are in my blog article.  And the pattern continues!  For example, an astroid rolls snugly inside a 5-pointed shape, thanks to how SU(4) sits inside SU(5).  Here's a movie of that, again made by Egan:
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