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August Pamplona
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New method of genetic engineering indispensable tool in biotechnological applications
Research by Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Huimin Zhao and graduate student Behnam Enghiad is pioneering a new method of genetic engineering for basic and applied biological research and medicine. Their work, reported in ACS Synthetic Biology on February 6 [DOI:10.1021/acssynbio.6b00324], has the potential to open new doors in genomic research by improving the precision and adherence of sliced DNA.

“Using our technology, we can create highly active artificial restriction enzymes with virtually any sequence specificity and defined sticky ends of varying length,” said Zhao. “This is a rare example in biotechnology where a desired biological function or reagent can be readily and precisely designed in a rational manner.”
Restriction enzymes are an important tool in genomic research: by cutting DNA at a specific site, they create a space wherein foreign DNA can be introduced for gene-editing purposes. This process is not only achieved by naturally-occurring restriction enzymes; other artificial restriction enzymes, or AREs, have risen to prominence in recent years. CRISPR-Cas9, a bacterial immune system used for “cut-and-paste” gene editing, and TALENs, modified restriction enzymes, are two popular examples of such techniques.

Though useful in genetic engineering, no AREs generate defined “sticky ends”—an uneven break in the DNA ladder-structure that leaves complementary overhangs, improving adhesion when introducing new DNA. “If you can cleave two different DNA samples with the same restriction enzyme, the sticky ends that are generated are complementary,” explained Enghiad. “They will hybridize with each other, and if you use a ligase, you can stick them together.”

However, restriction enzymes themselves have a critical drawback: the recognition sequence which prompts them to cut is very short—usually only four to eight base pairs. Because the enzymes will cut anywhere that sequence appears, researchers rely on finding a restriction enzyme whose cut site appears only once in the genome of their organism or plasmid—an often difficult proposition when the DNA at hand might be thousands of base pairs long.
read more : http://www.igb.illinois.edu/news/new-genetic-engineering-method-indispensable-biotechnological-tool





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From http://www.esquire.com/news-politics/politics/news/a53142/republicans-russia/

«You have to feel just a little bit sorry for them. Here they are, with all their wishes fulfilled. A Republican president, solid majorities in both Houses, one justice away from a Supreme Court of their dreams, and a Democratic Party incapable of mounting any more than token opposition to any of it. It's all right there, inches from their fingertips, and they have Toonces the Driving Cat in the Oval Office, picking fights with department stores and up to his neck in an whirlpool of allegations that his administration is the Kremlin's socket-wrench.»

Toonces!

««"I'm not going to prejudge the circumstances surrounding this. I think the administration will explain the circumstances that led to this," Ryan said. "The intelligence community has been looking into this thing all along, by the way, just the involvement with respect to Russia. "I think it's really important to realize that as soon as they were being misled by the national security adviser, they asked for his resignation."»»

Except for the fact that they knew for a month. Of course, even this gives the administration the benefit of the doubt and assumes that it didn't go all the way to the president or to one or more of his 'acting as president' inner circle advisers (Miller, Bannon, Kushner, etc.). This strains credibility.
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