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what's the Aluminum Chlorohydrate ?

Aluminium chlorohydrate is group of chemical compounds which have several applications. These compounds are salts, made by reacting aluminum with hydrochloric acid, and they are sometimes referred to as polyaluminium chloride, depending on the precise chemical composition and application of the compound.
In water treatment, aluminium chlorohydrate is used as a flocculant to encourage impurities in the water to clump together into flakes of material which can easily be removed. The flocculant is removed along with the flakes of impurities it generates, leaving cleaner water behind. While flocculants cannot remove all of the impurities in a given sample of water, they can help significantly with clean up, and removing bulky impurities will make additional treatments easier.
Personal care products such as deodorant and antiperspirants also contain aluminium chlorohydrate or the closely related aluminum chloride. Concentrated products designed for people who sweat heavily tend to have more of this compound to help repress and control sweating so that people will be more comfortable over the course of the day. These concentrated products are most commonly used by people with hyperhydrosis, a condition in which they sweat excessively.
Some health and safety concerns have been raised about aluminium chlorohydrate, because aluminum is capable of passing through the blood-brain barrier. Aluminum is also not nutritionally necessary, so some people have suggested that absorbing it, even in trace amounts, through the skin is probably not terribly beneficial. However, numerous studies have strongly suggested that there are no health risks to using this substance.
Claims that these compounds cause cancer have not been substantiated, despite extensive research by several organizations, and no link between aluminium chlorohydrate and Alzheimer's disease or other neurological problems have been discovered, despite the fact that it can pass through the blood-brain barrier. Given this information, these compounds are generally recognized as safe, although people may not necessarily want to consume them or use them excessively.
For people who prefer to err on the side of caution, deodorant and antiperspirant products which are free of aluminium chlorohydrate and other aluminum compounds are available, although they can be slightly more expensive. The effectiveness of such products varies considerably as well; one reason aluminium chlorohydrate is used in some many products is that it is highly effective. Those concerned about odor in particular could consider taking other measures, such as discarding old garments which house odor-causing bacteria, or making dietary changes to produce less pungent sweat.
www.cosmeticchemical.com
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What's the Potassium Bromide ?
The potassium bromide has two grades: industrial grade and photo grade.
Potassium bromide (Kbr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US. Its action is due to the bromide ion (sodium bromide is equally effective). Potassium bromide is used as a veterinary drug, as an antiepileptic medication for dogs.
Under standard conditions, potassium bromide is a white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water. In a dilute aqueous solution, potassium bromide tastes sweet, at higher concentrations it tastes bitter, and tastes salty when the concentration is even higher.These effects are mainly due to the properties of the potassium ion—sodium bromide tastes salty at any concentration. In high concentration, potassium bromide strongly irritates the gastric mucous membrane, causing nausea and sometimes vomiting (a typical effect of all soluble potassium salts).
Chemical properties:
Potassium bromide, a typical ionic salt, is fully dissociated and near pH 7 in aqueous solution. It serves as a source of bromide ions. This reaction is important for the manufacture of silver bromide for photographic film:
KBr(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgBr(s) + KNO3(aq)
Aqueous bromide Br− also forms complexes when reacted with some metal halides such as copper(II) bromide:
2 KBr(aq) + CuBr2(aq) → K2[CuBr4](aq)
Preparation:
A traditional method for the manufacture of KBr is the reaction of potassium carbonate with an iron(III,III, II) bromide, Fe3Br8, made by treating scrap iron under water with excess bromine:
4 K2CO3 + Fe3Br8 → 8 KBr + Fe3O4 + 4 CO2
Applications:
Medical and veterinary
The anticonvulsant properties of potassium bromide were first noted by Sir Charles Locock at a meeting of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in 1857. Bromide can be regarded as the first effective medication for epilepsy. At the time, it was commonly thought that epilepsy was caused by masturbation.Locock noted that bromide calmed sexual excitement and thought this was responsible for his success in treating seizures. In the latter half of the 19th century, potassium bromide was used for the calming of seizure and nervous disorders on an enormous scale, with the use by single hospitals being as much as several tons a year (the dose for a given person being a few grams per day).
There was not a better epilepsy drug until phenobarbital in 1912. It was often said the British Army laced soldiers' tea with bromide to quell sexual arousal—but that is likely untrue as doing so would also diminish alertness in battle and similar stories exist about a number of substances.
Bromide compounds, especially sodium bromide, remained in over-the-counter sedatives and headache remedies (such as the original formulation of Bromo-Seltzer) in the US until 1975, when bromides were outlawed in all over-the-counter medicines, due to chronic toxicity.Bromide's exceedingly long half life in the body made it difficult to dose without side effects (see below). Medical use of bromides in the US was discontinued at this time, as many better and shorter-acting sedatives were known by then.
Potassium bromide is used in veterinary medicine to treat epilepsy in dogs, either as first-line treatment or in addition to phenobarbital, when seizures are not adequately controlled with phenobarbital alone. Use of bromide in cats is limited because it carries a substantial risk of causing lung inflammation (pneumonitis) in them. The use of bromide as a treatment drug for animals means that veterinary medical diagnostic laboratories are able as a matter of routine to measure serum levels of bromide on order of a veterinarian, whereas human medical diagnostic labs in the US do not measure bromide as a routine test.
A bottle of PRN Pharmaceutical Company (Pensacola, FL) K•BroVet veterinary pharmaceutical potassium bromide oral solution (250 mg/mL). The product is intended to be used in dogs, primarily as an antiepileptic (to stop seizures). The pink color of the solution is artificial; pure potassium bromide solutions are colorless
Potassium bromide is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans to control seizures. In Germany, it is still approved as an antiepileptic drug for humans, particularly children and adolescents. These indications include severe forms of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, early-childhood-related Grand-Mal-seizures, and also severe myoclonic seizures during childhood. Adults who have reacted positively to the drug during childhood/adolescence may continue treatment. Potassium bromide tablets are sold under the brand name Dibro-Be mono (Rx-only). The drug has almost complete bioavailability, but the bromide ion has a relatively long half life of 12 days in the blood,making bromide salts difficult to adjust and dose. Bromide is not known to interfere with the absorption or excretion of any other anticonvulsant, though it does have strong interactions with chloride in the body, the normal body uptake and excretion of which strongly influences bromide's excretion.
The therapeutic index (ratio of effectiveness to toxicity) for bromide is small. As with other antiepileptics, sometimes even therapeutic doses (3 to 5 grams per day, taking 6 to 8 weeks to reach stable levels) may give rise to intoxication. Often indistinguishable from 'expected' side-effects, these include:
Bromism These are central nervous system reactions. They may include:
depression,lethargy, somnolence (from daytime sleepiness to coma)
loss of appetite and cachexia, nausea/emesis with exicosis (loss of body fluid) loss of reflexes or pathologic reflexes clonic seizures
tremor ataxia loss of neural sensitivity paresis cerebral edema with associated headache and papilledema of the eyes
delirium: confusion, abnormal speech, loss of concentration and memory, aggressiveness psychosis Acne-form dermatitis and other forms of skin disease may also be seen, as well as mucous hypersecretion in the lungs. Asthma and rhinitis may worsen. Rarely, tongue disorder, aphten, bad breath, and obstipation occur.
Optics:
Potassium bromide is transparent from the near ultraviolet to long-wave infrared wavelengths (0.25-25 µm) and has no significant optical absorption lines in its high transmission region. It is used widely as infrared optical windows and components for general spectroscopy because of its wide spectral range. In infrared spectroscopy, samples are analyzed by grinding with powdered potassium bromide and pressing into a disc. Alternatively, samples may be analyzed as a liquid film (neat, as a solution, or in a mull with Nujol) between two polished potassium bromide discs.
Due to its high solubility and hygroscopic nature it must be kept in a dry environment. The refractive index is about 1.55 at 1.0 µm.
Photography:
In addition to manufacture of silver bromide, potassium bromide is used as a restrainer in black and white developer formulas. It improves differentiation between exposed and unexposed crystals of silver halide, and thus reduces fog.
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