Designing for Social Norms (or How Not to Create Angry Mobs)
In his seminal book "Code"(http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0465039146/apophenia-20
), Larry Lessig argued that social systems are regulated by four forces: 1) the market; 2) the law; 3) social norms; and 4) architecture or code. In thinking about social media systems, plenty of folks think about monetization. Likewise, as issues like privacy pop up, we regularly see legal regulation become a factor. And, of course, folks are always thinking about what the code enables or not. But it's depressing to me how few people think about the power of social norms. In fact, social norms are usually only thought of as a regulatory process when things go terribly wrong. And then they're out of control and reactionary and confusing to everyone around. We've seen this with privacy issues and we're seeing this with the "real name" policy debates. As I read through the discussion that I provoked on this issue, I couldn't help but think that we need a more critical conversation about the importance of designing with social norms in mind.
Good UX designers know that they have the power to shape certain kinds of social practices by how they design systems. And engineers often fail to give UX folks credit for the important work that they do. But designing the system itself is only a fraction of the design challenge when thinking about what unfolds. Social norms aren't designed into the system. They don't emerge by telling people how they should behave. And they don't necessarily follow market logic. Social norms emerge as people - dare we say "users" - work out how a technology makes sense and fits into their lives. Social norms take hold as people bring their own personal values and beliefs to a system and help frame how future users can understand the system. And just as "first impressions matter" for social interactions, I cannot underestimate the importance of early adopters. Early adopters configure the technology in critical ways and they play a central role in shaping the social norms that surround a particular system.
How a new social media system rolls out is of critical importance. Your understanding of a particular networked system will be heavily shaped by the people who introduce you to that system. When a system unfolds slowly, there's room for the social norms to slowly bake, for people to work out what the norms should be. When a system unfolds quickly, there's a whole lot of chaos in terms of social norms. Whenever a network system unfolds, there are inevitably competing norms that arise from people who are disconnected to one another. (I can't tell you how much I loved watching Friendster when the gay men, Burners, and bloggers were oblivious to one another.) Yet, the faster things move, the faster those collisions occur, and the more confusing it is for the norms to settle.
The "real name" culture on Facebook didn't unfold because of the "real name" policy. It unfolded because the norms were set by early adopters and most people saw that and reacted accordingly. Likewise, the handle culture on MySpace unfolded because people saw what others did and reproduced those norms. When social dynamics are allowed to unfold organically, social norms are a stronger regulatory force than any formalized policy. At that point, you can often formalize the dominant social norms without too much pushback, particularly if you leave wiggle room. Yet, when you start with a heavy-handed regulatory policy that is not driven by social norms - as Google Plus did - the backlash is intense.
Think back to Friendster for a moment... Remember Fakester? (I wrote about them here: http://www.danah.org/papers/NoneOfThisIsReal.pdf
) Friendster spent ridiculous amounts of time playing whack-a-mole, killing off "fake" accounts and pissing off some of the most influential of its userbase. The "Fakester genocide" prompted an amazing number of people to leave Friendster and head over to MySpace, most notably bands, all because they didn't want to be configured by the company. The notion of Fakesters died down on MySpace, but the most central practice - the ability for groups (bands) to have recognizable representations - ended up being the most central feature of MySpace.
People don't like to be configured. They don't like to be forcibly told how they should use a service. They don't want to be told to behave like the designers intended them to be. Heavy-handed policies don't make for good behavior; they make for pissed off users.
This doesn't mean that you can't or shouldn't design to encourage certain behaviors. Of course you should. The whole point of design is to help create an environment where people engage in the most fruitful and healthy way possible. But designing a system to encourage the growth of healthy social norms is fundamentally different than coming in and forcefully telling people how they must behave. No one likes being spanked, especially not a crowd of opinionated adults.
Ironically, most people who were adopting Google Plus early on were using their real names, out of habit, out of understanding how they thought the service should work. A few weren't. Most of those who weren't were using a recognizable pseudonym, not even trying to trick anyone. Going after them was just plain stupid. It was an act of force and people felt disempowered. And they got pissed. And at this point, it's no longer about whether or not the "real names" policy was a good idea in the first place; it's now an act of oppression. Google Plus would've been ten bazillion times better off had they subtly encouraged the policy without making a big deal out of it, had they chosen to only enforce it in the most egregious situations. But now they're stuck between a rock and a hard place. They either have to stick with their policy and deal with the angry mob or let go of their policy as a peace offering in the hopes that the anger will calm down. It didn't have to be this way though and it wouldn't have been had they thought more about encouraging the practices they wanted through design rather than through force.
Of course there's a legitimate reason to want to encourage civil behavior online. And of course trolls wreak serious havoc on a social media system. But a "real names" policy doesn't stop an unrepentant troll; it's just another hurdle that the troll will love mounting. In my work with teens, I see textual abuse ("bullying") every day among people who know exactly who each other is on Facebook. The identities of many trolls are known. But that doesn't solve the problem. What matters is how the social situation is configured, the norms about what's appropriate, and the mechanisms by which people can regulate them (through social shaming and/or technical intervention). A culture where people can build reputation through their online presence (whether "real" names or pseudonyms) goes a long way in combating trolls (although it is by no means a fullproof solution). But you don't get that culture by force; you get it by encouraging the creation of healthy social norms.
Companies that build systems that people use have power. But they have to be very very very careful about how they assert that power. It's really easy to come in and try to configure the user through force. It's a lot harder to work diligently to design and build the ecosystem in which healthy norms emerge. Yet, the latter is of critical importance to the creation of a healthy community. Cuz you can't get to a healthy community through force.
This is from Apophenia: http://www.zephoria.org/thoughts/archives/2011/08/05/design-social-norms.html