Profile cover photo
Profile photo
gwern branwen
2,828 followers
2,828 followers
About
Posts

Post has attachment
I've decided to take the easy way out and will be sharing my future links & newsletters to /r/gwern: https://www.reddit.com/r/gwern/
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
"How to play 20 questions with nature and lose: Reflections on 100 years of brain-training research", Katz et al 2018: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/40/9897

"Despite dozens of empirical studies and a growing body of meta-analytic work, there is little consensus regarding the efficacy of cognitive training. In this review, we examine why this substantial corpus has failed to answer the often-asked question, “Does cognitive training work?” We first define cognitive training and discuss the general principles underlying training interventions. Next, we review historical interventions and discuss how findings from this early work remain highly relevant for current cognitive-training research. We highlight a variety of issues preventing real progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms of training, including the lack of a coherent theoretical framework to guide training research and methodological issues across studies and meta-analyses. Finally, suggestions for correcting these issues are offered in the hope that we might make greater progress in the next 100 y of cognitive-training research."
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
"Polygenic Score Analysis Of Educational Achievement And Intergenerational Mobility", Rustichini et al 2018 http://users.econ.umn.edu/~rusti001/Research/Genetics/Polygenic_Analysis.pdf

"A Genome-Wide Association study (GWAS ) estimates size and significance of the effect of common genetic variants on a phenotype of interest. A Polygenic Score ( PGS ) is a score, computed for each individual, summarizing the expected value of a phenotype on the basis of the individual's genotype. The PGS is computed as a weighted sum of the values of the individual's genetic variants, using as weights the GWAS estimated coefficients from a training sample. Thus, PGS carries information on the genotype, and only on the genotype, of an individual. In our case phenotypes of interest are measures of educational achievement, such as having a college degree, or the education years, in a sample of approximately 2700 adult twins and their parents. We set up the analysis in a standard model of optimal parental investment and intergenerational mobility, extended to include a fully specified genetic analysis of skill transmission, and show that the model's predictions on mobility differ substantially from those of the standard model. For instance, the coefficient of intergenerational income elasticity may be larger, and may differ across countries because the distribution of the genotype is different, completely independently of any difference in institution, technology or preferences.
We then study how much of the educational achievement is explained by the PGS for education, thus estimating how much of the variance of education can be explained by genetic factors alone. We find a substantial effect of PGS on performance in school, years of education and college. Finally we study the channels between PGS and the educational achievement, distinguishing how much is due to cognitive skills and to personality traits. We show that the effect of PGS is substantially stronger on Intelligence than on other traits, like Constraint, which seem natural explanatory factors of educational success. For educational achievement, both cognitive and non cognitive skills are important, although the larger fraction of success is channeled by Intelligence."
Photo
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
"In vitro gametogenesis and reproductive cloning: Can we allow one while banning the other?", Segers et al 2018: https://www.gwern.net/docs/genetics/selection/2018-segers.pdf

"In vitro gametogenesis (IVG) is believed to be the next big breakthrough in reproductive medicine. The prima facie acceptance of this possible future technology is notable when compared to the general prohibition on human reproductive cloning. After all, if safety is the main reason for not allowing reproductive cloning, one might expect a similar conclusion for the reproductive application of IVG, since both technologies hold considerable and comparable risks. However, safety concerns may be overcome, and are presumably not the sole reason why cloning is being condemned. We therefore assess the non-safety arguments against reproductive cloning, yet most of these can also be held against IVG. The few arguments that cannot be used against IVG are defective. We conclude from this that it will be hard to defend a ban on reproductive cloning while accepting the reproductive use of IVG."
Add a comment...

Post has attachment

Post has attachment
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
Google is shutting down Google+: https://blog.google/technology/safety-security/project-strobe/ Well heck. Where am I going to share my links now? Reminder: you can export your G+ data at Takeout: https://takeout.google.com/settings/takeout

"Action 1: We are shutting down Google+ for consumers.

Over the years we’ve received feedback that people want to better understand how to control the data they choose to share with apps on Google+. So as part of Project Strobe, one of our first priorities was to closely review all the APIs associated with Google+.

This review crystallized what we’ve known for a while: that while our engineering teams have put a lot of effort and dedication into building Google+ over the years, it has not achieved broad consumer or developer adoption, and has seen limited user interaction with apps. The consumer version of Google+ currently has low usage and engagement: 90 percent of Google+ user sessions are less than five seconds.
...The review did highlight the significant challenges in creating and maintaining a successful Google+ that meets consumers’ expectations. Given these challenges and the very low usage of the consumer version of Google+, we decided to sunset the consumer version of Google+.

To give people a full opportunity to transition, we will implement this wind-down over a 10-month period, slated for completion by the end of next August. Over the coming months, we will provide consumers with additional information, including ways they can download and migrate their data.

At the same time, we have many enterprise customers who are finding great value in using Google+ within their companies. Our review showed that Google+ is better suited as an enterprise product where co-workers can engage in internal discussions on a secure corporate social network. Enterprise customers can set common access rules, and use central controls, for their entire organization. We’ve decided to focus on our enterprise efforts and will be launching new features purpose-built for businesses. We will share more information in the coming days."
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
Two examples of underestimating the Roman economy/technology: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemi_ships and

"The second century CE Roman watermills of Barbegal: Unraveling the enigma of one of the oldest industrial complexes", Sürmelihindi et al 2018: http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/9/eaar3620

"The second century CE Roman watermill complex of Barbegal, France, is regarded as one of the first industrial complexes in human history. The 16 water wheels are no longer extant as all woodwork has decayed. However, carbonate deposits precipitated from water during operation of the mills forming casts on the woodwork. These casts are preserved in fragments and provide unique insights into the frequency of use and maintenance of the mills, and even into the structure of the water wheel chambers. Stable isotope time series of carbonate deposits reveal that the mill activity was regularly interrupted for several months. This strongly suggests that the mill complex was not used for a steady supply of flour to a major population center, as previously thought, but likely served to produce nonperishable hardtack for the nearby harbors."
Nemi ships - Wikipedia
Nemi ships - Wikipedia
en.wikipedia.org
Add a comment...

Post has attachment
Add a comment...
Wait while more posts are being loaded