Charles Allison

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Thinking about the current state of humanity makes me shudder.

Thinking about the current state of humanity makes me shudder.

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Comparing deficit spending of various presidencies.

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2015-02-13

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Yearly Deficit Spending with President/Senate/House/Marginal Income Tax/Population and Percentage of debt per citizen increase...

And average yearly deficit as percentage of debt per citizen increase itemized by president.

And average yearly deficit as percentage of debt per citizen increase itemized by president.

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Overview of voting systems and why we should use point-rank voting ~C.D.Allison

As you may or may not be aware of, there are several types of voting systems:

1. Plurality Voting

2. Approval Voting

3. Range Voting

4. Instant Runoff Voting

5. Point Rank Voting(a system of my own design)

1)

Plurality voting is the classic type of voting system, but upon examination, it should be obvious why this type of voting system is the least effective. First of all, plurality voting only really gives accurate results when there are two choices. When there are three or more choices, the spoiler effect happens. This is when a candidate who is similar to one of the top two candidates comes in and siphons votes from them. This can result in the candidate who initially had more votes, to lose. This is typically corrected with voting brackets. However, voting brackets can also be manipulated in a number of ways. For example, a voter from another party can come in and try to rig the bracket system so that in the final election, one party will have a weaker candidate than the other party. Another example of manipulation is from within the party, where voters who support one candidate who is weaker, will vote in the preliminary brackets to make them face off against a weaker candidate in later voting standoffs.

2)

Approval voting is an improvement over the plurality voting system. This works by allowing voters to check off whichever options/candidates they approve of. The results are then tallied and the person/option with the most votes, wins. The problem with this system is that while some voters may approve of multiple options... it does not accurately reflect how they feel about those options. So you may end up with choices that people feel poorly about winning in the electoral process.

3)

Range voting is an improvement over approval voting. This system works by allowing people to, like approval voting, select which options they approve of, but lets the voters rate the options on a range(maybe 1 to 100 or 1 to 5). The problem with this system is that it is based on how people feel about these voting options. This becomes a problem because feelings are an inaccurate measurement, since it would select the winner based on the overall attitudes of the public. What can happen is a group of voters can collude to give very strong votes to one or more candidates, while other may not understand the system as well, and show their feelings in an honest manner. So in short, the honest voters get had by the colluders.

4)

Instant runoff voting is an improvement over range voting. This system works by allowing people to rank who/what they vote for in order. There are several ways in which IRV can be done. So for example, one way in which it can be done would involve allowing people to rank all candidates in order of approval... Say for example five people are running for office.

The candidate with the least votes gets eliminated from the voting system, but instead of scrapping their votes, their second picks get added to the remaining four candidates. And then the process would start over... the person with the least votes would be eliminated, and the 2nd or 3rd picks of the voters would be distributed to the remaining three candidates. And then the process would start over... the person with the least votes would be eliminated, and the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th picks of the voters would be distributed to the remaining two candidates... and finally, the candidate with the most votes would win. It eliminates the problem of plurality voting, allows voters to approve of candidates, rank them in order of approval(range) but without distorted value. But the problem with this system is that the candidate with the least amount of votes in the first round doesnt necessarily warrant having them eliminated in the first round of runoff. Why? Because that candidate with the least amount of votes in the first round may have been the second pick of the majority of voters, yet they got eliminated in the first round.

So how do we correct the problems of the other four voting systems?

Well, that is why I invented Point Rank Voting.

5)

Point rank voting works by drawing on the strengths of approval voting, range voting, and instant runoff voting and combing it into a single voting system that corrects all the problems.

How it works is that, like Instant Runoff Voting... you are given a choice to rank your approvals. But the number of rank-choices are limited to 1/2 the number of candidates(or options) avalible rounded up to the nearest whole number(if it is more than 2 options).

So for 3 candidates, you would be allowed 2 ranked picks(a first and second pick)....

For 4 candidates, you would be allowed 2 ranked picks(a first and second pick)....

For 5 candidates you would be allowed 3 ranked picks(a first, second, and third pick)....

For 6 candidates you would be allowed 3 ranked picks(a first, second, and third pick)....

For 7 canddiates you would be allowed 4 ranked picks(a first, second, third, and fourth pick)....

Etcetera...

Each vote gives you a certain amout of points, the amount of points for each vote woul depend on the number of ranked picks you are allowed.

So for 2 ranked picks... your first vote is worth 1 point and your second pick is worth 1/2 a point.

For 3 ranked picks... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 2/3rd a point, and your third pick is worth 1/3rd a point.

For 4 ranked picks.... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 3/4th a point, your third pick is worth 2/4th a point, and your fourth pick is worth 1/4th a point.

For 5 ranked picks..... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 4/5th a point, your third pick is worth 3/5th a point, your fourth pick is worth 2/5th a point, your fifth pick is worth 1/5th a point.....

Etcetera

The election takes place... and the total number of points are added up, and the candidate with the most votes wins.

This eliminates the problem that instant runoff voting has of a hugely popular candidate being eliminated in the 1st round, despite being the 2nd choice of the majority of people... yet does not have the manipulation problem that range voting has and the inaccuracy that approval voting has.

As you may or may not be aware of, there are several types of voting systems:

1. Plurality Voting

2. Approval Voting

3. Range Voting

4. Instant Runoff Voting

5. Point Rank Voting(a system of my own design)

1)

Plurality voting is the classic type of voting system, but upon examination, it should be obvious why this type of voting system is the least effective. First of all, plurality voting only really gives accurate results when there are two choices. When there are three or more choices, the spoiler effect happens. This is when a candidate who is similar to one of the top two candidates comes in and siphons votes from them. This can result in the candidate who initially had more votes, to lose. This is typically corrected with voting brackets. However, voting brackets can also be manipulated in a number of ways. For example, a voter from another party can come in and try to rig the bracket system so that in the final election, one party will have a weaker candidate than the other party. Another example of manipulation is from within the party, where voters who support one candidate who is weaker, will vote in the preliminary brackets to make them face off against a weaker candidate in later voting standoffs.

2)

Approval voting is an improvement over the plurality voting system. This works by allowing voters to check off whichever options/candidates they approve of. The results are then tallied and the person/option with the most votes, wins. The problem with this system is that while some voters may approve of multiple options... it does not accurately reflect how they feel about those options. So you may end up with choices that people feel poorly about winning in the electoral process.

3)

Range voting is an improvement over approval voting. This system works by allowing people to, like approval voting, select which options they approve of, but lets the voters rate the options on a range(maybe 1 to 100 or 1 to 5). The problem with this system is that it is based on how people feel about these voting options. This becomes a problem because feelings are an inaccurate measurement, since it would select the winner based on the overall attitudes of the public. What can happen is a group of voters can collude to give very strong votes to one or more candidates, while other may not understand the system as well, and show their feelings in an honest manner. So in short, the honest voters get had by the colluders.

4)

Instant runoff voting is an improvement over range voting. This system works by allowing people to rank who/what they vote for in order. There are several ways in which IRV can be done. So for example, one way in which it can be done would involve allowing people to rank all candidates in order of approval... Say for example five people are running for office.

The candidate with the least votes gets eliminated from the voting system, but instead of scrapping their votes, their second picks get added to the remaining four candidates. And then the process would start over... the person with the least votes would be eliminated, and the 2nd or 3rd picks of the voters would be distributed to the remaining three candidates. And then the process would start over... the person with the least votes would be eliminated, and the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th picks of the voters would be distributed to the remaining two candidates... and finally, the candidate with the most votes would win. It eliminates the problem of plurality voting, allows voters to approve of candidates, rank them in order of approval(range) but without distorted value. But the problem with this system is that the candidate with the least amount of votes in the first round doesnt necessarily warrant having them eliminated in the first round of runoff. Why? Because that candidate with the least amount of votes in the first round may have been the second pick of the majority of voters, yet they got eliminated in the first round.

So how do we correct the problems of the other four voting systems?

Well, that is why I invented Point Rank Voting.

5)

Point rank voting works by drawing on the strengths of approval voting, range voting, and instant runoff voting and combing it into a single voting system that corrects all the problems.

How it works is that, like Instant Runoff Voting... you are given a choice to rank your approvals. But the number of rank-choices are limited to 1/2 the number of candidates(or options) avalible rounded up to the nearest whole number(if it is more than 2 options).

So for 3 candidates, you would be allowed 2 ranked picks(a first and second pick)....

For 4 candidates, you would be allowed 2 ranked picks(a first and second pick)....

For 5 candidates you would be allowed 3 ranked picks(a first, second, and third pick)....

For 6 candidates you would be allowed 3 ranked picks(a first, second, and third pick)....

For 7 canddiates you would be allowed 4 ranked picks(a first, second, third, and fourth pick)....

Etcetera...

Each vote gives you a certain amout of points, the amount of points for each vote woul depend on the number of ranked picks you are allowed.

So for 2 ranked picks... your first vote is worth 1 point and your second pick is worth 1/2 a point.

For 3 ranked picks... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 2/3rd a point, and your third pick is worth 1/3rd a point.

For 4 ranked picks.... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 3/4th a point, your third pick is worth 2/4th a point, and your fourth pick is worth 1/4th a point.

For 5 ranked picks..... your first vote is worth 1 point, your second pick is worth 4/5th a point, your third pick is worth 3/5th a point, your fourth pick is worth 2/5th a point, your fifth pick is worth 1/5th a point.....

Etcetera

The election takes place... and the total number of points are added up, and the candidate with the most votes wins.

This eliminates the problem that instant runoff voting has of a hugely popular candidate being eliminated in the 1st round, despite being the 2nd choice of the majority of people... yet does not have the manipulation problem that range voting has and the inaccuracy that approval voting has.

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Carbonic Acid's technical name should be formodioic acid.

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I was thinking about chemistry today... and I realized something...

Carbonic Acid's technical name should be "formodicarbonic acid" or "formodicarboxylic acid" or "formodioic acid"...

Because it represents the most basic form of diprotic carboxylic acids, much in the same way that formic acid represents the most basic form of carboxylic acids and formaldehyde is the name for the most basic form aldehydes.....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonic_acid

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicarboxylic_acid

Carbonic Acid's technical name should be "formodicarbonic acid" or "formodicarboxylic acid" or "formodioic acid"...

Because it represents the most basic form of diprotic carboxylic acids, much in the same way that formic acid represents the most basic form of carboxylic acids and formaldehyde is the name for the most basic form aldehydes.....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbonic_acid

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dicarboxylic_acid

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No good deed goes unpunished.

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