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Elsayed Elmaghraby
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المعارف التي ننقلها لأبنائنا
المعرفة التي ننقلها لأبنائنا هل ما ننقله من العلم لأبنائنا صحيح؟   وإن كان صحيحا فهل تم فهمه بشكل صحيح؟ كثير من
كتب العلوم والرياضيات التي تٌدرس في مراحل التعليم قبل الجامعي تقتبس من مثيلاتها
من الكتب الأجنبية، تلك التي يصرح ببيعها في خارج الدول الغربية. فك...
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المعرفة التي ننقلها لأبنائنا هل ما ننقله من العلم لأبنائنا صحيح؟ وإن كان صحيحا فهل تم فهمه بشكل صحيح؟ كثير من كتب العلوم والرياضيات التي تٌدرس في مراحل التعليم قبل الجامعي تقتبس من مثيلاتها من الكتب الأجنبية، تلك التي يص...
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المعرفة التي ننقلها لأبنائنا هل ما ننقله من العلم لأبنائنا صحيح؟   وإن كان صحيحا فهل تم فهمه بشكل صحيح؟ كثير من
كتب العلوم والرياضيات التي تٌدرس في مراحل التعليم قبل الجامعي تقتبس من مثيلاتها
من الكتب الأجنبية، تلك التي يصرح ببيعها في خارج الدول الغربية. فك...
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A Full Sweep of Saturn's Rings | NASA's Cassini Mission
Details of Saturn's icy rings are visible in this sweeping view from Cassini of the planet's glorious ring system. This natural color mosaic, taken from 10 degrees below the illuminated side of the rings, shows, from left to right, radially outward from Saturn, the C ring (with its Colombo and Maxwell gaps); the B ring and the Cassini division beyond, with the intervening Huygens gap; the A ring (with its Encke and Keeler gaps); and, on the far right, the narrow F ring. The total span covers approximately 65,700 kilometers (40,800 miles).

Although it is too faint to be seen here, the D ring is located just to the left of the C ring.

The difference in brightness of the B ring relative to the other rings is striking. When illuminated directly by the sun, the B ring appears brighter than the adjacent A and C rings; however, when viewing the unlit side of the B ring, the A and C rings appear brighter. This phenomenon occurs because the density of the B ring is greater than that of the A or C rings.

The mosaic was constructed from 45 narrow-angle-camera images—15 separate sets of red, green and blue images—taken over the course of about four hours, as Cassini scanned across the rings.

The images in this view were obtained by NASA's Cassini spacecraft on Nov. 26, 2008, at a distance of approximately 1.1 million kilometers (700,000 miles) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 28 degrees. Image scale in the radial (horizontal) direction is about 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) per pixel.

Target Name: S Rings
Mission: Cassini-Huygens 
Spacecraft: Cassini Orbiter
Instrument: ISS - Narrow Angle 
Produced By: Cassini Imaging Team 

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/ 
The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org

Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Release Date: December 30, 2008 

+NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
+European Space Agency, ESA 
+Carolyn Porco Fan Page 

#NASA #Astronomy #Space #Science #Saturn #Rings #Planet #Moons #Cassini #Orbiter #Spacecraft #Robotic #JPL #ESA
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The Sun: A Really Long Filament | NASA's SDO
This week the Sun featured a very long filament that stretched at least half way across the Sun (Oct. 20-22, 2015). Filaments are elongated clouds of plasma that are tethered above the Sun by magnetic forces. They are often unstable and usually break apart in less than a week, though they can last longer than that. Filaments are darker than most of the Sun's surface when viewed in extreme ultraviolet light, as it is here.

Credit: Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), NASA
Release Date: October 23, 2015

+SDO | Solar Dynamics Observatory 
+NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center 
+NASA Goddard 

#NASA #Astronomy #Space #Science #Sun #Solar #Filament #Star #Magnetic #Ultraviolet #Heliophysics #Heliosphere #Science #SDO #STEM #Education
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Relativity Wins Again

One of the great things about science is how we keep testing our assumptions. Even when a phenomenon has been rigorously tested, we still push the limits of observation. Take, for example, some recent research on the speed of light.

According to relativity, the speed of light in a vacuum is an absolute constant. We’ve observed this fact for about a century, and by 1989 our measurements had gotten so precise that it’s been used to define the length of a meter ever since. As far as we can tell, the speed of light should be the same in all directions, and in all places in the universe. It’s a property often known as Lorentz symmetry or Lorentz covariance. If Lorentz symmetry is violated, then relativity is wrong. Some models trying to unify general relativity with quantum theory actually predict a violation of Lorentz symmetry by a tiny amount, so precise tests of it could provide clues to a truly unified physical model. But according to recent results presented in Nature Communications, relativity still holds true.

The most popular method of demonstrating Lorentz symmetry follows the original work of Michelson and Morley, where a beam of light is split into two beams and reflected back so that the beams interfere with each other. This interferometry method is typically the method done by undergraduate physics students. But if you’re more interested in whether light speed varies with orientation, then a more accurate method uses cavity resonance. Laser beams are bounced within a chamber. This can create a resonance in the chamber.

If you’ve ever swirled a wet finger around the rim of a wine glass, you know you can cause the glass to “ring” at a particular tone. Swirl your finger too quickly or slowly and it won’t work. There’s a “sweet point” where your finger moves just right, and the glass sings. A similar effect occurs with the resonator cavity. Light at just the right frequency will cause the cavity to resonate. If the speed of light is truly the same in all directions, then the frequency that works should be the same no matter what the orientation of the chamber. To eliminate any background vibrations, the team cooled their experiment to a mere 4 K.

In the end the team found no variation of the speed of light in different directions. Specifically, they confirmed Lorentz symmetry to 9.2 × 10^−19, which is an incredible precision. Once again, relativity passes the test.

 Paper: Moritz Nagel, et al. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10−18. Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8174 (2015)
Even when a phenomenon has been rigorously tested, we still push the limits of observation. Take, for example, some recent research on the speed of light.
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الإشعاع في أمن المطارات Radiation in airport security
الإشعاع
في أمن المطارات Radiation in airport security كثير من المسافرين بالطائرات يرى الإشعارات
الخاصة بشروط محتوى الحقائب ويهمل في تنفيذها أو يرى أنها أمرا لا فائدة منه.
ولكن هل سأل نفسه لماذا؟ إن أهم الأمور الواجب تجنبها في محتوى حقائب السفر
بالطا...
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المعرفة التي ننقلها لأبنائنا هل ما ننقله من العلم لأبنائنا صحيح؟   وإن كان صحيحا فهل تم فهمه بشكل صحيح؟ كثير من
كتب العلوم والرياضيات التي تٌدرس في مراحل التعليم قبل الجامعي تقتبس من مثيلاتها
من الكتب الأجنبية، تلك التي يصرح ببيعها في خارج الدول الغربية. فك...
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WASHINGTON | Recently released remote sensing photography of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission in Antarctica led to a fascinating discovery when images revealed what some experts believe could be the existence of a possible ancient human settlement lying beneath an impressive 2.3 kilometers of
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XPLANE’s xBlog has been up and running since 1999 and contains a deep library of articles and artifacts ranging from Visual Facilitation to the Rise of Flash Video.
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Completely cord and battery-free, the Trap Light utilizes special photoluminescent pigments to absorb “waste energy” from surrounding light sources, which it then emits as a soft ambient glow at night. A thirty minute ‘charge’ of recycled light from a traditional incandescent or LED light bulb provides up to eight hours of clean, green lighting. The body of each lamp has been formed using the Murano glass blowing technique. The close, hands-on a...
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