Arvosanat heikentävät (ainakin) 5-8-vuotiaiden oppimista (parasta viidennestä ne tosin eivät haittaa). Jos vain kerrotaan, mikä meni oikein ja mikä väärin, se ei estä oppimista (ainakaan yhtä paljon - palautteetonta vertailuryhmää ei ollut?).
BUTLER, R. (1988) Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation; the effects of task-involving and ego-involving evaluation on interest and performance, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, pp. 1-14.
Second-hand source about the study above: http://area.fc.ul.pt/en/artigos%20publicados%20internacionais/Assessment%20and%20classroom%20learning.doc
Each student received one of three types of written feedback with returned work, both on the first session's work before the second, and on the second session's work before the third. The second and third sessions, including all of the receipt and reflection on the feedback, occurred on the same day. For feedback, one-third of the group were given individually composed comments on the match, or not, of their work with the criteria which had been explained to all beforehand. A second group were given only grades, derived from the scores on the preceding session's work. The third group were given both grades and comments. Scores on the work done in each of the three sessions served as outcome measures.
For the `comments only' group the scores increased by about one-third between the first and second sessions, for both types of task, and remained at this higher level for the third session. The `comments with grade' group showed a significant decline in scores across the three sessions, particularly on the convergent task, whilst the `grade only' group declined on both tasks between the first and last sessions, but showed a gain on the second session, in the convergent task, which was not subsequently maintained. Tests of pupils' interest also showed a similar pattern: however, the only significant difference between the high and the low achieving groups was that interest was undermined for the low achievers by either of the regimes involving feedback of grades, whereas high achievers in all three feedback groups maintained a high level of interest.
The results were discussed by the authors in terms of cognitive evaluation theory. A significant feature here is that even if feedback comments are operationally helpful for a student's work, their effect can be undermined by the negative motivational effects of the normative feedback, i.e. by giving grades.
(via Jaakko Koivula)