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Kalle Mikkola
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Lahjoittamalla 1 % tuloistasi harkittuun kohteeseen voit pelastaa ihmishengen joka vuosi. 10 % => 10 henkeä. Ehkä tehokkain altruismin muoto, mutta muutakin kannattaa tehdä. (Tehokkaiden kohteiden luettelo: )
I wrote up some of my thoughts on why I feel that effective altruism is the most exciting cause in the world.

> Growing up, it felt like the message I got from society was: one person just can't do much. The problems in the world are huge and structural, and naive reformers will eventually just become disillusioned and burn out. We can try to make small efforts in our personal lives, but they're tiny and won't scale.

> Effective altruism says that this doesn't need to be true! Yes, some of the problems are huge and structural, but that doesn't mean that individuals can't have a big impact. The average person working in an ordinary job can potentially save several lives a year, just by donating a measly 10% of his income and doing literally nothing else altruistic! That would already be amazing by itself.

> But it doesn't end there.

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Täydellinen junarata: "pienin mahdollinen rata", jota paristojuna kiertää ziljoona kertaa eri pätkissä eri suuntiin ennen kuin on taas samassa paikassa samaan suuntaan.
(Toki isolla vaivalla tai paremmilla paloilla saisi lyhennettyä niin, että yhä minkään palojen väliin ei jäisi junan suistavaa kulmaa.)

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Arvosanat heikentävät (ainakin) 5-8-vuotiaiden oppimista (parasta viidennestä ne tosin eivät haittaa). Jos vain kerrotaan, mikä meni oikein ja mikä väärin, se ei estä oppimista (ainakaan yhtä paljon - palautteetonta vertailuryhmää ei ollut?).

BUTLER, R. (1988) Enhancing and undermining intrinsic motivation; the effects of task-involving and ego-involving evaluation on interest and performance, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, pp. 1-14.

Second-hand source about the study above:

Each student received one of three types of written feedback with returned work, both on the first session's work before the second, and on the second session's work before the third. The second and third sessions, including all of the receipt and reflection on the feedback, occurred on the same day. For feedback, one-third of the group were given individually composed comments on the match, or not, of their work with the criteria which had been explained to all beforehand. A second group were given only grades, derived from the scores on the preceding session's work. The third group were given both grades and comments. Scores on the work done in each of the three sessions served as outcome measures.

For the `comments only' group the scores increased by about one-third between the first and second sessions, for both types of task, and remained at this higher level for the third session. The `comments with grade' group showed a significant decline in scores across the three sessions, particularly on the convergent task, whilst the `grade only' group declined on both tasks between the first and last sessions, but showed a gain on the second session, in the convergent task, which was not subsequently maintained. Tests of pupils' interest also showed a similar pattern: however, the only significant difference between the high and the low achieving groups was that interest was undermined for the low achievers by either of the regimes involving feedback of grades, whereas high achievers in all three feedback groups maintained a high level of interest.

The results were discussed by the authors in terms of cognitive evaluation theory. A significant feature here is that even if feedback comments are operationally helpful for a student's work, their effect can be undermined by the negative motivational effects of the normative feedback, i.e. by giving grades.

(via Jaakko Koivula)

Is there a setting for "Do not suggest adding people that do not have Google+ accounts"? Or, even better, "Do not send my statuses etc. to people's email"?
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