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DESCOMPLICAR A TRANSIÇÃO PARA A ISO 9001:2015 -
Como eliminar a complexidade dos Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade.

A norma ISO 9001:2015 veio possibilitar, às organizações, uma abordagem à mesma duma forma mais holística e estratégica. A obrigação de considerar os contextos interno e externo, as partes interessadas e o risco nas tomadas de decisão abre a possibilidade para as organizações de definirem o seu sistema de gestão com uma amplitude e uma inter-conectividade entre os elementos e factores de decisão e gestão até agora pouco compreendidas e aplicadas.

Esta realidade tem levado ao desenvolvimento, por académicos e profissionais, de novas abordagens para a forma como se efectua e demonstra o cumprimento dos requisitos da norma, que têm trazido para o mercado novos modelos de gestão da qualidade e de documentação da mesma.

Este white paper pretende apresentar um modelo de sistema de gestão da qualidade, assente num conjunto muito reduzido de documentos, que tem sido aplicado desde 2016 em muitas empresas que já fizeram ou estão a fazer a transição do seus sistemas de gestão da qualidade para a norma ISO 9001:2015.

O método assenta na forma como é feita a avaliação dos contextos externo (macro e meso) e interno (micro) e a respectiva síntese numa análise SWOT, que determina as estratégias da organização de forma directa. Neste processo são identificadas as partes interessadas mais relevantes para a organização e para o seu negócio. As estratégias, devidamente inseridas num plano estratégico, fazem a ligação com as partes interessadas relacionadas com as mesmas, com os processos internos existentes ou necessários para operacionalizar as ditas estratégias, e com o risco de potenciais ocorrências que possam influenciar a sua prossecução.

Com base no plano estratégico, partindo das partes interessadas identificadas, passa-se para a identificação de todas as transacções efectuadas, em ambos os sentido, entre a organização e as mesmas partes interessadas e outras que se venham a identificar como relevantes para a qualidade dos produto e serviços, determinando-se os requisitos inerentes a cada uma delas e os riscos associados, com respectivas avaliações e propostas de controlo.

As transacções com origem na organização e destino nas partes interessadas externas determinam os atributos dos produtos e serviços, e doutras acções que possam estar contidos nas transacções, sendo esses atributos fundamentais para a satisfação das estratégias e dos requisitos estabelecidos.

Após este exercício, são analisados os processos e respectivos sub-processos, actividade e tarefas, identificando-se os correspondentes inputs e outputs, recursos e meios utilizados, autoridades e responsabilidades aplicáveis, e documentação de apoio e registos produzidos.

Com base nas actividades e/ou tarefas determinadas, identificam-se as competências necessárias e existentes, a nível cognitivo e comportamental, e as respectivas necessidade de formação, informação, substituição ou recrutamento para as mesmas.

Finalmente, o modelo leva à determinação directa dos indicadores, para cada uma das actividade e/ou tarefas, e respectivos objectivos, quando estes forem identificados como determinantes para a gestão e para a tomada de decisão.

Toda esta informação está contida numa única aplicação informática (folha de cálculo), com as devidas ligações e automatismos para reduzir a complexidade e aumentar a eficácia do processo de gestão da qualidade.

Para além deste documento nuclear, o sistema de gestão da qualidade é completado por mais os seguintes documentos que servem de registo às actividades:
- Avaliação dos fornecedores nucleares (que efectivamente têm impacto na qualidade dos nossos produtos e serviços) – um documento em Excel (folha de cálculo) que avalia apenas os fornecedores relevantes, em modo de pré-qualificação e/ou de qualificação anual;
- Monitorização da percepção da satisfação dos clientes (apenas para os que são efectivamente relevantes, ou seja, os que contribuem para 80% do volume de vendas) – um, documento em Excel (folha de cálculo) que avalia anualmente os principais clientes e retira conclusões sobre a sua percepção de satisfação, conduzindo à necessidade de investigação de possíveis insatisfações apenas em casos excepcionais.
- Tratamento de reclamações, de não conformidade e de melhorias (com avaliação de riscos para cada uma das diferentes situações) – um documento em Excel (folha de cálculo) onde são avaliadas todas as situações acima referidas e tomadas as devidas acções de correcção, correctivas ou preventivas.
- Planeamento e controlo de projectos de DDI (quando aplicáveis à entidade e sua organização de processos)- um documento em Excel para cada projecto, sendo que o mesmo é dividido em quatro diferentes tipos de inovação de acordo com o Manual de Oslo (2005).
- Acta da Revisão pela Gestão (que serve para a tomada de decisão) – um documento que reflecte a avaliação do sistema de gestão da qualidade e faz o planeamento das acções necessárias para a melhoria do mesmo e para a sustentabilidade da organização.

Opcionalmente, a entidade pode ainda adoptar documentos que reflictam as decisões e modos de proceder, conforme seguinte:
- Documento Estratégico da Qualidade (substitui o tradicional Manual da Qualidade) – .
- Instrução do SGQ (gestão da informação) – como gerir os fluxos e as autoridades e responsabilidades da informação.
- Instrução do SGQ para avaliação de risco – como identificar, avaliar e controlar os riscos associados às actividades da organização.
- Instrução do SGQ para avaliação dos fornecedores – como determinar o nível interno de avaliação da satisfação dos nosso requisitos pelos fornecedores.
- Instrução do SGQ para implementação das Auditorias da Qualidade – como gerir as auditorias internas e externas.

Toda esta documentação, sendo ainda alguma opcional, perfaz 10 documentos que, à parte dos documentos e registos operacionais, satisfaz os requisitos da ISO 9001:2015. Desta forma, temos um sistema de gestão da qualidade que elimina a complexidade e a dificuldade até agora existentes na satisfação dos requisitos da norma ISO 9001. Mais, a metodologia identifica e corrige erros de processo, elimina actividades não necessárias, e aumenta a responsabilidade e autoridade dentro da organização, contribuindo dessa forma múltipla para a redução dos custos operacionais e o aumento de competitividade da empresa.


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Blue Jeans – a case of use and cultural value and technological and cultural innovation.
Manuel Teles Fernandes
12-01-2017

The search for products that have been subjected to value change and innovation is endless. However, not many are so evident on the resulting outcomes side and so well known to most world population as the blue jeans, when it comes to the creation of use and cultural value and, consequently, to the development of technological and cultural innovation processes.
Despite some different told stories about the genesis of the blue jeans, it seems that the famous garment is the result of the combination of two events: (i) the introduction of a known technology at the time, the riveting, and (ii) the change of a fabric used for other purposes, canvas for tents and wagon covers, but applied to make pants, to a more resistant fabric for the same purpose, the denim, both to reinforce the strength of the mention clothing item, in order to improve the utilization of it.
To understand the phenomenon we need to go back to USA, during the second half of the XIX century. The work in America’s far west at that time, either farming in the countryside or mining for gold, was to hard on workers pants. The heavy work of the days used to rip apart the workers pants in most points of stain, reducing the resistance and the life of the product, certainly two items among the most important functions of the pants for the users. This condition would reduce tremendously the use value of the product, and, consequently, its economic value to the purchaser. The user’s dissatisfaction regarding the low resistance of the available pants at the time, for the purpose of working in mines and farms, was the trigger for some to look for new innovative solutions, in order to overcome the resilient problem.
According to several sources (newint.org; ideafinder.com), Jacob Davis, a tailor living in Reno, Nevada, immigrant from Latvia, decided to apply the riveting he normally used on horse blankets to the pants of one particular customer, who used to complain about the resistance of the garments made by Davis. The riveted pants were an immediate success with many other customers, which led Davis to think about a patent, before anyone else could do it. For that purpose, and due to his lack of money to support the original costs involved in the patenting, Davis offers partnership to Levi Straws, an immigrant from Austria who run a warehouse in California selling dry goods to prospectors during the gold rush, and also his usual suppliers.
Originally, according to Solomon (1986), Straws intended to sell rolls of canvas for tents and wagon covers, but quickly realized that the material could serve another purpose: making pants for workers in the mining industry. Later, he decided to switch to a tough cotton fabric made in France, the “serge de Nimes”, which became pronounced as “denim”.
When, in 1873, the patent was awarded to Jacob Davis and one half assigned to Levi Straws & Co., the jeans were officially borne. The riveted pants production at the S. Francisco plant was started, and in 1890 the lot number “501®” was first used to designate the denim waist overalls that would later spread the concept worldwide. The word “jeans” came from “genes”, the term used by the French to identify the heavy cotton pants used by the sailors from Geneo (Solomon, op. cit.).
The original application of rivets to the pocket corners and to the base of the button fly on pants by Jacob Davis corresponds to an act of innovation that solved the recurrent problem of pants resistance. This innovation was a result of a new application of an existing technology from other industry, the riveting, into a different product and industry, which corresponds to the process of adoption and adaptation of existing technology. The utilization of canvas, and later denim, by Levi Straws to make more resistant pants is the result of a process of adoption of existing materials in the same industry. Both cases illustrate the “adopted/adapted” technological innovation process.
When the patent ended and the rivet pants went into public domain, some other producers created new brands and aesthetic variations of Levi Straws garments, but the product remained as mostly preferred by a single segment of the consumer market for some time, the working class, mainly operating in the agricultural countryside and in the industrial urban settings, satisfying its main use or utility purposes: durability and resistance. This lasted until the arisen of the great depression, when the new economical e social context brought new life and behavior perspectives to people.
During the depression, a series of contingent events and circumstances encouraged the industry and the consumers to use blue jeans as a symbolic and stylish versatile, class and gender blurring national icon. The blue jeans served as a bridge between the working class and the middle class, and between male and female consumers, destroying existing moral paradigms and promoting equalitarianism and freedom. We can find two distinct approaches to explain the increase and diverse use of jeans from the 1930’s: the “consumption-side factors” and the “production-side factors”. On the consumption side, as argued by Rabine and Kiser (2006), the changes in middle class Americans’ everyday activities (such as increased leisure time, women’s entry into paid work, greater emphasis on women’s sport) led to a need for casual clothing. On the production side, Fine and Leopold (1993) argue that the changes in technologies, labor management processes of mass-production, and new mass-distribution capabilities created the competition in the women’s ready-made garment industry, pushing manufacturers and retailers to market dungarees and other standardized garments in new ways, in order to expand their markets and compete with one another. The fact is that during the great depression two categories of events (regulatory and aesthetic) helped to spur the phenomenon. The first type of events was related to the reorganization of the clothing consumption and production in a more equitable fashion. The second was connected to the social aim of using aesthetics to make sense of the Depression-era calamities and reinterpret the meaning of the American way of life (Comstock, 2016).
This is also coincident with the use of jeans by Hollywood films actors in their normal social and street appearances, which were playing in western films reproducing the life of the far west cowboys. The blue jeans were not anymore a garment only for workers during their duties, but it was also a casual and equalitarian dressing code.
In 1935 Levi’s jeans for women were first featured in Vogue magazine, as a consequence of the adoption of the garment by workingwomen and by housewives dressing as some Hollywood feminine stars were doing at the time.
This liberation of set formal dressing codes for men and women advanced further during the fifties and sixties, with the growing youth culture of juvenile delinquency during the first of the two mentioned decades (Gordon, 1991), and with the hippies movement of the second. Blue jeans were the right tool to symbolize and to support such changes in both genders dressing codes, reflecting other important changes in culture and social behavior. Jeans were then satisfying more expectations such as comfort, informality and versatility than the initial expectations of durability and resistance to the far west workers and miners.
The word jeans became popular worldwide when the baby-boom generation adopted the term for the pants, the American jeans producers went further in their internationalization process and other western countries opened their frontiers to new ideas in the realm of politics, social behavior and economics. The democratic countries in Europe were the first to make the blue jeans one of their own most common garments, for both genders.
In Argentina, jeans were the first dress item to be used mainly by young men and women, who increasingly dressed, thought and behaved differently from the older generation, serving to signal and reinforce class distinction and gender differences among young people (Manzano, 2009). During the dictatorship regime in Portugal, the production and commercialization of jeans were not allowed as it symbolized the American way of life, meaning freedom and democracy, being only made available to the consumers after the democratic revolution of 1975. South Korea only allowed the imports of blue jeans in the 1980’s (DeLong et. al., 1998).
Dress acts as a visual metaphor for identity and for noting the culturally anchored ambivalences that resonate among and within entities (Davis, 1993). Users associate products such as jeans, based on their particular set of experiences and values that are shared within a cultural context, which certainly leads to certain expectations regarding the use of the product (Kaiser, 1997). Jeans, as a cultural object, are comprised of both form and content, components that are often separated during the communication process (Hillestad, 1994).
Fiske (1990) presents a number of models to understand the communication process based on the premise that the communication is influenced by culture, and that cultures have different underlying codes. The author defines a code as a system of meaning that is common to the members of a culture. Therefore, all codes depend upon common bonds among members. A sign is defined as a unit, component, or object that refers to, represents, or stands for something other than itself; a sign relies on an underlying code to establish its meaning (Berger, 1992). Objects of culture, such as jeans, can function as a sign of three types: an icon, an index and a symbol (DeLong et. al., op. cit.). Wilson (1991) describes jeans as “the symbolic vessel into which any and every aspiration about one’s identity can be poured, the ultimate conveyer of that greatest fashion paradox: how to be just the same as, yet entirely different from, everyone else” (p. 122). This paradox of individuality and conformity that jeans can represent has led to a large number of meanings, associated with that ambiguity for the individual and society at large. At the individual level, favorite items of clothing might be perceived by users as meaningful, often contextualized by emotional or aesthetics properties or capabilities for them (Kaiser, Freeman and Chandler, 1993).
All this reflects a process of change in the product value, at the intangible dimension level, or “cultural value” (value as meaning and sign), resulting in a process of cultural innovation, achieved by the changes in behavior in a group of users or consumers and caused or induced by the use of the product. In the particular case of the blue jeans, one can identify a “beutel” cultural innovation process all along the history of the product, and also a “moral” cultural innovation process in some particular situations when a new behavior reaches large numbers of the population and is led by a certain behavioral code defined as appropriate by someone or by the group.
The blue jeans are, in fact, a perfect case to illustrate how the change in use value (or value as utility) and cultural value (or value as meaning and sign) were the result of some technological and cultural innovation processes.

References:
- Berger, A. (1992). Reading matter: Multidisciplinary perspectives on material culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
- Comstock, S. C. (2011). “The Making of an American Icon: The Transformation of Blue jeans during the Great Depression”, in Global Denim, Ed. Miller, D. and Woodward, S. (2011). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 23-50. - Davis, F. (1993). Fashion, Culture and Identity, Winterthur Portfolio, 28(1). 102-105. - DeLong, M., Koh, A. Nelson, N. and Ingvolstad, A. (1998). Jeans: A Comparison of Perceptions of Meaning in Korea and United States. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 16(3), 116-126. - Fine, B. and E. Leopold (1993). The World of Consumption, London: Routledge.
- Fiske J. (1990). Introduction to communication studies (2nd ed). New York: Routledge)
- Gordon, B. (1991). “American Denim: Blue Jeans and Their Multiple Layers of Meaning,” in Dress and Popular Culture, ed. Patricia A. Cunningham and Susan Voso Lab. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
- Hillestad, R. (1994). “Form in dress and adornment: the shape of content”, in Aesthetics of textiles and clothing: Advancing multidisciplinary perspectives. Ed. DeLong, M. R. and Fiore, A. M. , ITAA Publication, #7, 80-83. - Ideafinder.com. Blue Jeans. Retrieved from http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/bluejeans.htm, on Aug. 27th, 2016.
- Kaiser, S. B. (1997). The Social Psychology of Clothing: Symbolic appearances in context (2nd ed, revised) New York: Fairchild.
- Kaiser, S. B., Freeman, C. M. and Chandler, J. L. (1993). Favorite clothes and gendered subjectivities: Multiple readings. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 15, 27-50.
- Manzano, V. (2009). The Blue Jean Generation: Youth, Gender, and Sexuality in Buenos Aires, 1958-1975, Journal of Social History, 42(3), 657-676. - Newint.org, The History of Jeans. Retrieved from https://newint.org/easier-english/Garment/jhistory.html, on Aug. 27th, 2016.
- Newint.org. The blue jeans story. Retrieved from https://newint.org/features/1998/06/05/blue/, on Aug 27th, 2016
- Rabine, L.W., and Kaiser, S.B. (2006). Sewing machines and dream machines in Los Angeles and San Francisco: The case of the blue jean. In C. Breward and D. Gilbert (eds.), Fashion’s World Cities. Oxford/New York: Berg.
- Solomon, M. R. (1986). Deep-Seated Materialism: The case of Levi’s 501 Jeans, Advances in Consumer Research 13, 619-622. - Wilson, E. (1991). The evolution of blue jeans. Utne Reader, 44(March/April), 122-124.

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This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf

Post has attachment
This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf

Post has attachment
This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf

Post has attachment
This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf

Post has attachment
This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf

Post has attachment
This story is about innovation. You may think that this is a case in which the main innovation process is technological. You will find that is not the case. The real innovation behind this story is about cultural innovation, or, if you prefer, a change in human behavior. In this case, it is a large group adoption of new behavior, based on simple and basic technology, still a result of a new technological process, which makes it a case of "neowel cultural innovation process".
More information about cultural innovation at http://www.telesfernandes.net/uploads/1/0/9/6/10963838/from_value_to_technological_and_cultural_innovation_–_a_holistic_view_of_innovation_2.pdf
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