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Paul Huber
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Attended University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Lives in Buffalo, NY, USA
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Paul Huber

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The core physics of global warming/climate change in one graph.
280 (blue) vs. 400 (red) ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere
This graph was generated using the University of Chicago's MODTRAN computer model (link below). It is a theoretical calculation based on the HITRAN absorption data for CO2. The smooth curved lines represent black body radiation at different Kelvin temperatures, approximating the long-wave infrared emission of the Earth's surface at those temperatures. The CO2 absorption of that radiation is the band that spans ~540 to ~800 wavenumber, and the dip is the combined absorption of CO2 and water vapor. The absorbed IR energy "bends" the CO2 molecule from its natural arrangement. It is then released as kinetic energy which heats the troposphere primarily. The warmer troposphere loses this thermal energy through convection to the upper atmosphere, and by emitting its own long-wave IR in all directions - to space and towards Earth as back radiation.
I thought this graph was interesting because it puts the problem in some perspective. Global warming derives from this. You can see the difference between the blue and red lines, for that absorption band, is slight. The program quantifies the overall difference as ~1.66 watts/square meter. Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is ~1,360 W/m^2, varying slightly according to natural cycles.
You can play around with several different parameters. The default parameters (used here) essentially represent max. conditions. For example, no clouds/rain and 299.7 Kelvin (~80F) ground temperature.
model link:
http://climatemodels.uchicago.edu/modtran/
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I should mention, for anyone not familiar, that 280 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO2 is roughly the amount in the atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution. The current amount is roughly 395 ppm (as per NASA's OCO-2).
395 ppm = 0.0395%.
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Well we're good with that for a while.
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And it's easy to make more.
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#Brexit  causing decline in global temperatures.
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chilly 
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Experimental & Future Therapies  - 
 
This article is not specific to glaucoma but I thought it may be helpful to some.

"This review is focused on emerging strategies that use gene therapy to combat vision loss, particularly for the treatment of retinal diseases caused by mutations that directly affect the photoreceptors."
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"The twin reactors churn out 9 percent of California’s energy"

"Environmental groups such as Friends of the Earth came together to shut down the plant."
Nuclear power is finished in California, a turning point for an industry with dreams of revival as an antidote to greenhouse gas-spewing power sources. Just as remarkable as shutting down the state’s last reactors at Diablo Canyon is replacing the lost power with renewable energy. The plant’s operator, PG&E Corp., pledges to plug in a mix of green energy, conservation and other ideas that it says won’t drive up customer bills when the facility ...
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it's been how long since we have nuclear? who has paid for the Fukushima cleanup? the company owning the plant? who is paying for the cleanup of German nuclear plants? I am. 
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Some good points.
This one might be important:
"In the interest of identifying low-ocular perfusion pressure as an underlying issue for glaucoma progression despite good IOP control, Dr. Ou advised ophthalmologists to ask their patients about treatment for systemic hypertension."
As patients are turning to the Internet for health and medical information, ophthalmologists are increasingly facing the need to separate myth from fact on a variety of disease-related issues. Yvo
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"A group of physicists from the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Lomonosov Moscow State University, has learned to use personal computer for calculations of complex equations of quantum mechanics, usually solved with help of supercomputers. This PC does the job much faster."
A group of physicists from the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Lomonosov Moscow State University, has learned to use personal computer for calculations of complex equations of quantum mechanics, usually solved with help of supercomputers. This PC does the job much faster.
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I might be misunderstanding something in the article, but people have been using graphics cards as parallel processing accelerators, for awhile.
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Applicable to current events.
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+Andrew Bradford  I did mention that remediation work was done on older systems. But there's no question that tech companies exploited the worry: "We're not sure so you better buy all new computers and software just in case..." :-)
As far as blaming experts, I'm not. I'm just pointing out that they can be unreliable due to self-interest or bias. Critical thinking and doing your own homework is usually best, no?
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One of the better articles I've seen.
The vote to leave the EU began as a cry for liberty and ended as a rebuke to the establishment
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+Vladimir Pantelic  They certainly think so. :-)
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#Brexit polls closed. Now we wait...
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Good for her. It's gotten ridiculous.
Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen sought to avoid taking sides or being overly alarmist about the probable global fallout should Britain exit the European Union, even as she reiterated that such an event could have “significant economic repercussions.”
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Another case of talking down the reality which is to come from the folly of central banks believing they can manipulate global economics. It will soon explode in their faces. Iceland was right in jailing their errant bankers after the 2008 fiasco. They are no longer so much at financial risk as is the UK, Japan, China and the USA. When your life's savings are devoured do not forget who is responsible. Ignorance and apathy will cost dearly at a personal level.
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Understanding the current state of affairs and what lies ahead will help ophthalmologists manage the odds in an era of changing health-care delivery. Andrew G. Iwach, MD, provided a snapshot of wher
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  • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
    Computer Science, Business
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Lover of science and technology.
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Just a guy trying to understand the Universe like everyone else and having some fun along the way.
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    site editor, present
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