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Paul Huber
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Attended University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Lives in Buffalo, NY, USA
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Paul Huber

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The core physics of global warming/climate change in one graph.
280 (blue) vs. 400 (red) ppm of CO2 in the atmosphere
This graph was generated using the University of Chicago's MODTRAN computer model (link below). It is a theoretical calculation based on the HITRAN absorption data for CO2. The smooth curved lines represent black body radiation at different Kelvin temperatures, approximating the long-wave infrared emission of the Earth's surface at those temperatures. The CO2 absorption of that radiation is the band that spans ~540 to ~800 wavenumber, and the dip is the combined absorption of CO2 and water vapor. The absorbed IR energy "bends" the CO2 molecule from its natural arrangement. It is then released as kinetic energy which heats the troposphere primarily. The warmer troposphere loses this thermal energy through convection to the upper atmosphere, and by emitting its own long-wave IR in all directions - to space and towards Earth as back radiation.
I thought this graph was interesting because it puts the problem in some perspective. Global warming derives from this. You can see the difference between the blue and red lines, for that absorption band, is slight. The program quantifies the overall difference as ~1.66 watts/square meter. Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is ~1,360 W/m^2, varying slightly according to natural cycles.
You can play around with several different parameters. The default parameters (used here) essentially represent max. conditions. For example, no clouds/rain and 299.7 Kelvin (~80F) ground temperature.
model link:
http://climatemodels.uchicago.edu/modtran/
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I should mention, for anyone not familiar, that 280 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO2 is roughly the amount in the atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution. The current amount is roughly 395 ppm (as per NASA's OCO-2).
395 ppm = 0.0395%.
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http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/find-by-topic/
This is a link to MIT's free course material. Over 2400 courses available from computer programming to quantum mechanics. Please share this knowledge with your friends and families.
Via +Carla Firnschild 
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Not a nuclear bomb.
@chopperguyhd Amazing photo, Bruce. Would you be ok if http://weather.com used this photo for an explainer on microbursts? Bob Ferr. 11h11 hours ago. Bob Ferr @lawandodorman. @chopperguyhd @azfamily @CBS5AZ @NWSPhoenix @Penguinairaz awesome shot! You rock!
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Yup. Monsoon time in Arizona always makes for spectacular storm pictures taken from helicopters.

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The forecast for the high temperature in Death Valley, California for the next couple of days is a rather pedestrian 108 degrees or so. One hundred and three years ago – on July 10th, 1913 - the weather observer at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley recorded a high temperature of 134 degrees. This is the highest air temperature ever reliably recorded on Earth, but it didn’t get that distinction until just recently. The Greenland Ranch we...
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+Michael Rutherford  Yeah, 1880 is often used as a benchmark for comparison but there was no global system in existence then. In the US, temperature measurements came from the Army Signal Service, and thermometers were made from hand-drawn glass. You can imagine the irregularities.
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Testing & Detection  - 
 
"The UNSW innovation involves an automated visual field analysis system that uses a pattern of differently sized spots, which takes into account the fact that the eye processes visual information away from central vision differently. Current visual field testing systems use just one test size to measure vision at different locations of the visual field."
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Pokémon effect.
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Sigh, I wish I'd bought a week ago.
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Discussion  - 
 
"This study shows that the optic nerve could be damaged due to hypoxia without a spike in eye pressure, a finding that could help unravel the details of glaucoma sufferers with normal eye pressure levels."
Scientists have successfully measured the eye pressure of sleeping patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome for the first time, finding an unexpected correlation with glaucoma.
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In a mood to binge-watch Hitchcock.
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+Lewin Edwards Yay for multinational work!
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Nice video by +Fraser Cain & +Universe Today .

It's a great time for Astronomy!
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Upper 2 images show stages of the El Niño Southern Oscillation 6 months apart - Jan. 11 & July 11, 2016. The bottom image shows the effect on global temperatures (spike at right end).
It's a natural cycle that occurs periodically when the west-moving trade winds that drive ocean circulation temporarily stall. When they do, the surface water is stationary and warmed abnormally high by the Sun. When the trade winds resume, the water circulation resumes and colder water from below returns to the surface. The cold phase of the cycle - La Niña - is predicted to peak around January 2017. It will be interesting to see the full effect on global temperatures.
(Sea-surface temperature images and NCEP temperature data is by NOAA)
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Thanks +Paul Huber - someone who actually looks at data.
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Experimental & Future Therapies  - 
 
"A study in mice funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) shows for the first time that high-contrast visual stimulation can help damaged retinal neurons regrow optic nerve fibers, otherwise known as retinal ganglion cell axons. In combination with chemically induced neural stimulation, axons grew further than in strategies tried previously. Treated mice partially regained visual function. The study also demonstrates that adult regenerated central nervous system (CNS) axons are capable of navigating to correct targets in the brain. The research was funded through the National Eye Institute (NEI), a part of NIH."
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  • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
    Computer Science, Business
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Lover of science and technology.
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Just a guy trying to understand the Universe like everyone else and having some fun along the way.
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    site editor, present
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