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Roderick Fitts
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Human action has several forms. Involuntary actions exist, such as reflexes and subconscious prompts like involuntary recall of a memory. In the realm of voluntary action, we’ve established that the primary choices are focus and non-focus (as either drift o...

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The Freedom of Human Action
Human
action has several forms. Involuntary actions exist, such as reflexes and
subconscious prompts like involuntary recall of a memory. In the realm of
voluntary action, we’ve established that the primary choices are focus and
non-focus (as either drift o...

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Free Will and the Primary Choice
In my earlier essay about the perceptual level , I mentioned that the sensory and perceptual levels of consciousness are automatic, but the conceptual level is not. Our brains, nervous systems, and minds as well as those of other animals are biologically se...

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Sensualism: a Summary and a Response
This essay is a follow-up to “The Perceptual Level as Given.” It will discuss a philosophical school that tried to answer the question of what the mind starts with: the sensualists/empiricists. The bulk of this essay will be an extended presentation of the ...

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The Perceptual Level as Given
One of
the questions that philosophy asks is, “what information does the mind start
with, what is ‘given’ with regard to our consciousness”? To answer this
question, let’s briefly survey the levels of information that the mind deals with
from the Objectivis...

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Consciousness as Possessing Identity
My previous essay on sensory qualities indicated that past philosophies generated doubts about the validity of the senses. As would be expected, historically there have been criticisms levied against all of the standard forms of gaining knowledge: perceptio...

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Pre-Epistemology: Sensory Qualities as Real
If
Objectivism had been created earlier in history, perhaps a mere mention of the
validity of the senses combined with the consciousness axiom would have
sufficed.   However, this is not the case:
centuries, even millennia of philosophical debates have clou...

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Pre-Epistemology: The Senses as Necessarily Valid
Epistemology
is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature and means of human
knowledge.   The field lays out the rules
and principles to guide the formation of concepts, the construction of logic,
and generally how to gain knowledge and show its vali...

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Objections to the Axioms (Part 6)
This
will probably be my last response to the metaphysical axioms for some time. A
commenter raises the following issue: It's
often said that to deny axiom[sic] is to engage in self contradiction - and
that wouldn't be a valid objection because in order to ...

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Objections to the Axioms (Part 5) Objection: The Axioms Equivocate on Their Content This objection
concerns exactly what it is that the axioms are explaining and implying.   It highlights a seeming equivocation: […]In the Logical Structure of Objectivism , ...
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