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Ami Iida (Google Nerd)
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Google Nerd , Life Hacker, beauty,intelligence,innovation
Google Nerd , Life Hacker, beauty,intelligence,innovation

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The Mission's Grand Finale: Saturn Global (Cropped) Mosaic

This is one of the last spectacular "postcards" from Saturn system, sent to Earth by the NASA's Cassini spacecraft.

The stunning image below consists of over 77 tiles- 49 of which are obtained by combining red, green and blue filters- taken by the Wide Angle Camera (ISS-WAC) on April 13, 2017 during a long sequence, started at 5:41 am and ended at 11:17.

In this composition, Saturn and the rings have the prominent role: the northern hemisphere of the planet- on Aprile, in high summer- assumes a golden color, illuminated by sunlight reflected by the rings; the entire, shaded area and the southern hemisphere have bluish nuances.

The authors affirm the mosaic has required a lot of processing and is definitely not perfect, but there are still many artifacts and reflections that could be eliminated.
Nevertheless, we think that their work is quite wonderful! Isn't it?

► Image source>> https://www.flickr.com/photos/lunexit/35768617321/

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech - Processing: Elisabetta Bonora & Marco Faccin/ aliveuniverse.today

► A short story about this image (in Italian)>> http://aliveuniverse.today/speciale-missioni/sistema-solare/cassini/3025-grandfinale-l-ultimo-grande-mosaico-globale-di-saturno

Further reading

► Animation Showing a Side View of Cassini's Final 22 Orbits of Saturn and its Rings - The Mission's Grand Finale>> https://plus.google.com/+annaritaruberto/posts/ARLwJGcvV6k


#SolarSystem, #CassiniMission, #TheGrandFinale, #Saturn, #SaturnGlobalMosaic
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Heart of an Exploded Star Observed in 3-D

Deep inside the remains of an exploded star lies a twisted knot of newly minted molecules and dust. Using ALMA, astronomers mapped the location of these new molecules to create a high-resolution 3-D image of this “dust factory,” providing new insights into the relationship between a young supernova remnant and its galaxy.

In 1987, astronomers spotted a 'titanic supernova' in a nearby galaxy blazing with the power of over 100 million suns: precisely the Large Magellanic Cloud, a tiny dwarf galaxy located approximately 163,000 light-years from Earth.
Now, astronomers have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to probe the heart of this supernova, named SN 1987A.

It has allowed them to produce an intricate 3-D rendering of newly formed molecules inside the supernova remnant, and to discover a variety of previously undetected molecules in the remnant which shed new light on how stars form - and die.

“When this supernova exploded, now more than 30 years ago, astronomers knew much less about the way these events reshape interstellar space and how the hot, glowing debris from an exploded star eventually cools and produces new molecules,” said Rémy Indebetouw, an astronomer at the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville. “Thanks to ALMA we can finally see cold ‘star dust’ as it forms, revealing important insights into the original star itself and the way supernovas create the basic building blocks of planets.”

► Learn more in the News Release at NRAO>> https://public.nrao.edu/news/2017-alma-dust-sn1987a/

This research is presented in two papers.

► The first, “Very deep inside the SN 1987 A core ejecta: Molecular structures seen in 3D,” F. J. Abellán, et al., is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters >>
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aa784c/meta
The pdf of the preprint version, in arXiv>> https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.04675.pdf

► The other, “ALMA spectral survey of supernova 1987A — molecular inventory, chemistry, dynamics and explosive nucleosynthesis,” M. Matsuura et al. is published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society >> https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/469/3/3347/3103046/ALMA-spectral-survey-of-Supernova-1987A-molecular
The pdf of the preprint version, in arXiv>> https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02324.pdf

► Image explanation: Remnant of Supernova 1987A as seen by ALMA. Purple area indicates emission from SiO (silicon oxide) molecules. Yellow area is emission from CO (carbon monoxide) molecules. The blue ring is Hubble data that has been artificially expanded into 3-D.
Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); R. Indebetouw; NASA/ESA Hubble

Further reading>> http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4682936/Inside-heart-exploding-star.html


#Astrophysics, #Research, #Supernova1987A, #3DMolecularStructures
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Juno Spacecraft and the Show of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

Juno spacecraft flew over Jupiter’s Great Red Spot on July 10 at 10:06 p.m. EDT. This has been humanity’s first up-close and personal view of the gas giant’s iconic 10,000-mile-wide storm, which has been monitored since 1830 and possibly existing for more than 350 years.

The data collection of the Great Red Spot is part of Juno’s sixth science flyby over Jupiter’s mysterious cloud tops. Perijove (the point at which an orbit comes closest to Jupiter’s center) has been July 10 at 9:55 p.m. EDT.
During the flyby, all eight of the spacecraft’s instruments have be turned on, as well as its imager, JunoCam. The images of the Great Red Spot were downlinked from the spacecraft's memory on Tuesday and placed on the mission's JunoCam website Wednesday morning.

As planned by the Juno team, citizen scientists took the raw images of the flyby from the JunoCam site and processed them, providing a higher level of detail than available in their raw form.
The citizen-scientist images, as well as the raw images they used for image processing, can be found at:
https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam/processing

Measuring in at 10,159 miles (16,350 kilometers) in width (as of April 3, 2017) Jupiter's Great Red Spot is 1.3 times as wide as Earth. The storm has been monitored since 1830 and has possibly existed for more than 350 years. In modern times, the Great Red Spot has appeared to be shrinking.

Image credit: NASA / SwRI / MSSS / Gerald Eichstädt / Seán Doran © PUBLIC DOMAIN
Image source>> https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/Vault/VaultOutput?VaultID=10434&t=1499959647

Further reading and references

► NASA's Juno Spacecraft Spots Jupiter's Great Red Spot>>
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6896

► NASA's Juno Spacecraft Completes Flyby over Jupiter's Great Red Spot>>
https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=6892

#SolarSystem, #SpaceExploration, #JunoMission, #Jupiter, #GreatRedSpot
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Sleep, Alzheimer’s Link Explained

Poor sleep leads to increase in Alzheimer's proteins associated with cognitive decline

A good night’s sleep refreshes body and mind, but a poor night’s sleep can do just the opposite. A study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Radboud University Medical Centre in the Netherlands, and Stanford University has shown that disrupting just one night of sleep in healthy, middle-aged adults causes an increase in amyloid beta, a brain protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease. And a week of tossing and turning leads to an increase in another brain protein, tau, which has been linked to brain damage in Alzheimer’s and other neurological diseases.

“We showed that poor sleep is associated with higher levels of two Alzheimer’s-associated proteins,” said David M. Holtzman, MD, the Andrew B. and Gretchen P. Jones Professor, head of the Department of Neurology and the study’s senior author. “We think that perhaps chronic poor sleep during middle age may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s later in life.”

These findings, published July 10 in the journal Brain, may help explain why poor sleep has been associated with the development of dementias such as Alzheimer’s.

► Learn more>> https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/sleep-alzheimers-link-explained/

► The paper Slow wave sleep disruption increases cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β levels, publhished in the journal Brain>>
https://academic.oup.com/brain/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/brain/awx148

► Image: The scan on the right shows reduction of both function and blood flow in both sides of the brain, a feature often seen in Alzheimer's.
Credit: Dr Robert Friedland/Science Photo Library
Source>> http://www.telegraph.co.uk

#Neuroscience, #Brain, #AlzheimerDisease, #Research, #Neurology, #SleepDeprivation

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In the search for worlds similar to our own, a planet's density can tell us a lot. A low density tells scientists a planet is more likely to be gaseous like Jupiter, and the opposite for a high density. But a new study suggests some planets are less dense than previously thought because of a second, hidden star in their systems. Details: http://go.nasa.gov/2ueM5O6
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The LHCb Experiment Announced Observation of a New Particle with Two Heavy Quarks

The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP), one of the major international conferences that review the field, takes place every other year since 1971.
EPS-HEP 2017 (http://eps-hep2017.eu/index.html) is taking place in Venice, Italy, from 5 to 12 July. The conference focuses on some of the most fascinating topics of physical research and human knowledge: from the origins of our Universe, to the identikit of Higgs boson, from the hunt for the dark matter to the properties of elusive neutrinos, from New Physics to gravitational waves.

6 July 2017, at EPS-HEP 2017, the LHCb collaboration presented the first observation of a doubly charmed particle. This particle, called the Ξcc++ (Xicc++), is a baryon (particle composed of three quarks) containing two charm quarks and one up quark, resulting in an overall doubly positive charge. It is a doubly charm counterpart of the well-known lower mass Ξ0 baryon, which is composed of two strange quarks and an up quark.

In the CERN Press Release, we can read: "The existence of this particle from the baryon family was expected by current theories, but physicists have been looking for such baryons with two heavy quarks for many years. The mass of the newly identified particle is about 3621 MeV, which is almost four times heavier than the most familiar baryon, the proton, a property that arises from its doubly charmed quark content. It is the first time that such a particle has been unambiguously detected."

This discovery opens a new field of particle physics research. An entire family of doubly charmed baryons related to the Ξcc++ is predicted, and will be searched for.

► More information can be found in the LHCb EPS-HEP presentation>> https://indico.cern.ch/event/466934/contributions/2616767/attachments/1488361/2313309/Spradlin-2017.07Jul.06_EPS.pdf

► The LHCb paper "Observation of the doubly charmed baryon Ξcc++", submitted to the journal Physical Review Letters>> http://press.cern/sites/press.web.cern.ch/files/file/press/2017/07/lhcb_paper_2017.07.06.pdf

► Image © CERN: The image shows an artist view of this new particle.

Further reading and references

► 6 July 2017: Observation of an exceptionally charming particle>>
http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/#Xicc

► The CERN Press Release>> http://press.cern/press-releases/2017/07/lhcb-experiment-charmed-announce-observation-new-particle-two-heavy-quarks

#Physics, #LHCbExperiment, #Research, #ParticlePhysics
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The LHCb Experiment Announced Observation of a New Particle with Two Heavy Quarks

The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP), one of the major international conferences that review the field, takes place every other year since 1971.
EPS-HEP 2017 (http://eps-hep2017.eu/index.html) is taking place in Venice, Italy, from 5 to 12 July. The conference focuses on some of the most fascinating topics of physical research and human knowledge: from the origins of our Universe, to the identikit of Higgs boson, from the hunt for the dark matter to the properties of elusive neutrinos, from New Physics to gravitational waves.

6 July 2017, at EPS-HEP 2017, the LHCb collaboration presented the first observation of a doubly charmed particle. This particle, called the Ξcc++ (Xicc++), is a baryon (particle composed of three quarks) containing two charm quarks and one up quark, resulting in an overall doubly positive charge. It is a doubly charm counterpart of the well-known lower mass Ξ0 baryon, which is composed of two strange quarks and an up quark.

In the CERN Press Release, we can read: "The existence of this particle from the baryon family was expected by current theories, but physicists have been looking for such baryons with two heavy quarks for many years. The mass of the newly identified particle is about 3621 MeV, which is almost four times heavier than the most familiar baryon, the proton, a property that arises from its doubly charmed quark content. It is the first time that such a particle has been unambiguously detected."

This discovery opens a new field of particle physics research. An entire family of doubly charmed baryons related to the Ξcc++ is predicted, and will be searched for.

► More information can be found in the LHCb EPS-HEP presentation>> https://indico.cern.ch/event/466934/contributions/2616767/attachments/1488361/2313309/Spradlin-2017.07Jul.06_EPS.pdf

► The LHCb paper "Observation of the doubly charmed baryon Ξcc++", submitted to the journal Physical Review Letters>> http://press.cern/sites/press.web.cern.ch/files/file/press/2017/07/lhcb_paper_2017.07.06.pdf

► Image © CERN: The image shows an artist view of this new particle.

Further reading and references

► 6 July 2017: Observation of an exceptionally charming particle>>
http://lhcb-public.web.cern.ch/lhcb-public/#Xicc

► The CERN Press Release>> http://press.cern/press-releases/2017/07/lhcb-experiment-charmed-announce-observation-new-particle-two-heavy-quarks

#Physics, #LHCbExperiment, #Research, #ParticlePhysics
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