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Edward Shana

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Policy typology: is the way on how public policies are differentiated on the basis of their effects on society and the relationship among those involved in their formation, whether they are formally written or not.
Constituent Policies: 
Are policies for government structure, with establishment of rules or procedures for the conduct of government, refer to the rules that distribute or divide power and jurisdictions within which present and future government policies might be made. It include matters as personnel practices and budgetary actions, they are mainly concerned with government organization, procedures, and processes.
1. Decentralization by devolution (D by D) 1996
2. The salaries and remuneration act of 2011
Distributive Policies
It refers to kind of policies which concerned with to allocate benefits from government to certain segments of the population. The more widely the benefits are distributed, the more consensual the policies and the more popular the policy is likely to be. It involves the use of public funds to assist particular groups or communities, such benefits may be in the form of subsidies (agriculture price supports, for example).
1. National health policy 1990
2. National education policy
3. Kenya national youth policy, 2006
Regulatory Policies
These policies are primarily focused on to limit the discretion of individuals and agencies, or otherwise compel certain types of behaviour, or it imposes restrictions or limitation on the behaviour of individuals and groups. Regulatory policies may be highly conflictual, because those subject to the regulations may perceive themselves as losers in a battle with those favoring the restrictions.
1. National environmental policy
2. National trade policy
3. Kenya national industrialization policy, 2010
Redistributive Policies
Involves deliberate efforts by the government to shift the allocation of wealth, income, property, or rights among broad classes or groups of the population. Redistribution involves not only the allocation of benefits or services to certain parts of the population, but the taxing of other parts of the population to generate the funds for reallocation of a particular service in the society. These involve taxing relatively more affluent members of society in order to provide income assistance, food, housing, or health insurance to the less affluent.
1. National land policy 
2. Monetary policy of Tanzania 2013
3. The marginalization policy, Kenya 2012
Material Policies
Material policies are those which involve provision of tangible resources or substantive power to their beneficiaries it articulates the quantity that one should have or be provided.
1. National employment policy 1997
2. Kenya National employment policy and strategy 2013 
3. National social security policy, 2003
Symbolic Policies
Symbolic they are non -material they are more described by values which cannot be real touched. They appeal to people’s cherished values, such as peace, patriotism, and social justice.
1. National cultural policy
2. National policy on peace-building an conflict management 2011
Policies involving private good
Private goods are the opposite. These are goods that can be divided and given to some persons, but not others. Most distribution and redistribution policies fall into this classification. Some persons qualify for food stamps; others do not. Some students qualify for admission to a selective state university; others may be admitted to second-tier colleges or to junior colleges. 

1. National human settlement and development policy, 2000

Policies involving Public goods
Some policies involve the provision of collective goods, that is, goods that cannot be divided. Thus, if the good is provided at all, it has to be provided to everyone. Examples are national defense, clean air, and traffic control. Of course, providing such goods may involve regulation or redistribution of funds, thus making the benefits of the policies seem divisible. But the goods themselves cannot be divided.
1. National environmental policy
2. National road and safety policy 2009 

Persuasive (carrot)
1. National cultural policy
Prohibitive (stick)
1. National wildlife policy 1998

Weak policies
1. National cultural policy
2. National youth development policy
Strong policies
1. National Land policy
2. National microfinance policy
3. National wildlife policy
Written policies
• Includes all the policies that were sent to the group are written policies
Unwritten policies
Sectoral policies
1. National food and nutrition policy for Tanzania 1992
2. National higher education policy  1999
3. National health policy
4. Education and training policy
5. National youth an development policy
6. Policy on women in development in Tanzania  
Integrated Policies
1. National science and technology policy
2. National employment policy
3. National environment policy
4. National policy on HIV/AIDS
5. National trade policy
6. national land policy
7. national biotechnology policy
Enabling Policies
1. sustainable industrial development policy
2. National strategy for growth and reduction of poverty
3. Tanzania development vision, 2025
Mandatory Policies
1. National monetary policy
2. National agricultural policy
3. National education policy
4. National health policy
Preventive (preemptive) Policies
1. National environmental policy 2013
2. National policy on HIV/AIDS
Curative (reactive) Policies
1. National policy on HIV/AIDS
2. National health policy
Protective Policies
1. National wildlife policy
2. National environmental policy
Welfare Policies
1. National social security policy 2003
2. National youth an development policy
3. Policy on women in development in Tanzania 1992
Political Policies

Cultural Policies
1. National cultural policy
Economic Policies
1. National bee-keeping policy
2. National tourism policy
3. National investment promotion policy
4. Sustainable industrial development policy
Social Policies
1. National social security policy 2003
2. National ageing policy 2003
3. National community development policy, 2006
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