Interessante: trata-se de uma categorização sociológica, e como tal diferente da escala de Dawkins que é a sistematização dos graus de descrença na tese da existência de Deus.
His description of Yeoman Capitalism is pretty good - this is the capitalism that Adam Smith wrote about, and it is indeed governed by an invisible hand. When companies are engaged in providing real goods and services to each other, and make money by satisfying the needs of others, capitalism works really well.
I like to think that O'Reilly is a great example of Yeoman Capitalism. We make our money by providing things that people pay us for, and I like to think we've created more value for society than we've captured for ourselves, which is how I think it ought to be. (There is many a multi-billion dollar company whose founders told me they started with a couple of O'Reilly books.)
But it's not just small companies that can practice this kind of capitalism. The corporate structure and the "joint stock company" was a great invention: a way to allocate resources for larger scale initiatives. And there are still companies that use capital markets this way. Amazon is a great example: they have raised huge amounts of capital from financial markets and have used it to transform industries, providing huge amounts of consumer value in the process. Unlike, say Google, which was profitable without needing huge amounts of outside capital, Amazon has only been able to accomplish what is has with the aid of capital markets.
I think many big companies start out this way, and only go wrong later in their lifecycle, when they are established, and their focus changes from innovation to preservation. And that's where we get to Church's "Corporate Capitalism."
Church describes Corporate Capitalism as a kind of Feudalism, one in which the corporation is primarily concerned with self preservation and the perquisites of its executives, and co-opts government to give it unfair advantage. That is entirely true, but he doesn't explain how it came to be so.
Where this went off the rails was with the increased financialization of corporations. There are at least three problems with this:
1. Companies are often prevented from the market from taking risks and trying new things. (Amazon is a stellar exception.) I remember one entrepreneur telling me: "I can't do what I need to do to save my company. We're sitting on too much cash. If I invest in the future as I need to, it will depress the stock price, and we'll get acquired for our cash." That was exactly what happened. The company is no more.
2. Things that serve real human needs but take too long to show financial results are abandoned. We see diseases that could be cured, but aren't, because there isn't enough money in it. We see workers squeezed out to plump up profits, or not paid a living wage. (See http://www.forbes.com/sites/laurashin/2013/07/18/why-mcdonalds-employee-budget-has-everyone-up-in-arms/)
3. Rather than being paid out of the actual earnings of the corporation, executives are largely rewarded based on the stock price. This leads both to outsized gains to executives, but also to a culture of manipulation of those prices, whether or not they are justified by the creation of real marketplace value. And that, of course, is the basis for "supercapitalism."
Supercapitalism is the capitalism that brought us the mortgage crisis of 2009, the result of banks creating and selling financial instruments that were designed to fail. It also brings news of recent shenanigans like Goldman Sachs' manipulation of commodities markets. (See http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/21/business/a-shuffle-of-aluminum-but-to-banks-pure-gold.html?pagewanted=all)
There's a better term for this: Looting, as described in a 1996 paper by George Akerlof and Paul Romer:
"…the normal economics of maximizing economic value is replaced by the topsy-turvy economics of maximizing current extractable value, which tends to drive the firm's economic net worth deeply negative. Once owners have decided they can extract more from a firm by maximizing their present take, any action that allows them to extract more currently will be attractive--even if it causes a large reduction in the true economic net worth of the firm. A dollar in increased dividends today is worth a dollar to owners, but a dollar in increased future earnings is worth nothing because future payments accrue to the creditors who will be left holding the bag." http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract-id=227162
That's supercapitalism in a nutshell.
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