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Adam Sadullah
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  Wider influence of peers on smoking and drug abuse seems to reduce with age.  Social crowds might have a greater impact in younger adolescence, but in later adolescence the role of best friends or romantic partners become the most important influence in a...

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  Peer Pressure can significantly affect an individual's behaviour, especially in childhood and adolescence . If the individual has positive attitudes towards addictive behaviour and experimentation, this makes them more vulnerable to dependency .  Many peo...

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Risk Factors of Addiction - Stress
 Addiction is associated with relieving anxiety . People may drink, smoke, gamble or do drugs in order to cope with daily hassles , such as relationship problems, workplace stress and financial difficulties. This may contribute to the initiation and continu...

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Biological Model of Addiction - Applied to Gambling
 The initiation of Gambling could be due to the physical response gambling triggers in the body, which is explained through the ' positive reward theory '. Placing a bet could result in a period of anticipation , where the body prepares for an increase in h...

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Media Influences on Addiction
Films     In terms of the Social Learning Theory , we learn new behaviours through observing and imitating through 'vicarious reinforcement' . It is therefore likely that characters on TV might act as powerful role models, who either positively or negativel...

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Reducing Addictive Behaviour - Behavioural Interventions
  Aversion Therapy focuses on punishment rather than reward. Early therapies involved electrical shocks for punishment every time an addict wanted to drink, smoke or gamble, however this proved to be unsuccessful.   Antabuse is now widely used; a drug that ...

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Reducing Addictive Behaviour - Theory of Planned Behaviour (TBP)
  The theory aims to predict an individual's intentions; whether they are to initiate or end the addictive behaviour, through measuring 3 things: 1. Attitudes Towards The Behaviour - these can either be positive or negative attitudes, as well as beliefs abo...

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Learning Model of Addiction - Applied to Smoking
  According to this model, smoking is initiated through classical conditioning .  An individual may have grown up in a family of smokers and seen how they respond to smoking; the craving and satisfaction. They may therefore be conditioned to respond to a ci...

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Reducing Addictive Behaviour - Psychology / Cognitive Interventions
  In Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) , the client is trained in social skills and developing strategies, which involve the behaviour of both cognitive and behaviour assumptions in order to challenge the client's faulty thinking .   According to the ther...

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The Cognitive Model of Addiction - Applied to Smoking
  The concepts of of coping and expectancy can be applied to this model.  Perhaps people begin to smoke because they are bored and it relieves their mood. The smoker's expectancies of smoking can be wide-ranging. It may facilitate social interaction , make ...
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