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Ender Muab'Dib
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The solar neutrino problem concerned a large discrepancy between the flux of solar neutrinos as predicted from the Sun's luminosity and measured directly. The discrepancy was first observed in the mid-1960s and finally resolved around 2002.

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Another notable example of recent human evolution is lactose tolerance. A mutation which allowed adults to keep producing the enzyme lactase to digest milk emerged around 7000 years ago, alongside dairy farming, and now 35 per cent of adults carry it and can digest milk as a result. “I would say [the rise in arsenic tolerance] is comparable to the rapid spread of lactose tolerance. Certainly the timescales we are looking at for both cases are comparable,” says Aaron Miller at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.

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we could summarize it by saying that a community of practice is a group of people interested in the same topic & wanting to learn more. The big advantage with such a community is that it allows for flexibility and to mould the program to grow in a more natural form, rather than have fixed boundaries and try to fit learning into those boundaries. And this is only made possible because such a community sees the coming together of a small group of people who’s willing to make mistakes, to not be worried about asking a silly question and make the community grow and mature.

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NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed the first known system of seven Earth-size planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water. At about 40 light-years (235 trillion miles) from Earth, the system of planets is relatively close to us, in the constellation Aquarius.

In contrast to our sun, the TRAPPIST-1 star – classified as an ultra-cool dwarf – is so cool that liquid water could survive on planets orbiting very close to it, closer than is possible on planets in our solar system. All seven of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary orbits are closer to their host star than Mercury is to our sun. The planets also are very close to each other. If a person was standing on one of the planet’s surface, they could gaze up and potentially see geological features or clouds of neighboring worlds, which would sometimes appear larger than the moon in Earth's sky.

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Por el contrario, en el ajedrez que mira hacia atrás, hacia el pasado, el objetivo es desvelar qué ocurrió. Encontrar de qué forma se llegó a una posición determinada, averiguar el único camino posible que nos llevó a la posición. Es un análisis de pura deducción, donde no intervienen ni la estrategia ni la táctica. Lo que hay que averiguar es cómo se llegó aquí. Esta nueva dimensión del juego ha sido abordada por diversos compositores, dando lugar a ingeniosas posiciones que son como el “escenario del crimen”. De la propia posición se puede deducir cuales fueron las posiciones anteriores, qué cosas ocurrieron.

Hay un problema en el que no se puede probar si las negras pueden o no pueden enrocar. Sin embargo, se puede demostrar que es imposible que las negras y las blancas puedan enrocar al mismo tiempo. Se puede demostrar, pues, que los dos enroques son mutuamente excluyentes, pero ninguno puede ser demostrado como imposible en sí mismo.Esta posición me causó una honda impresión. A mi modo de ver, nos demuestra con toda claridad la dimensión cuántica del ajedrez. Mientras las blancas no jueguen, hay diferentes estados de enroque posibles (realidades superpuestas). Es verdad que puede enrocar el blanco (y no el negro) y también es verdad que puede enrocar el negro (y no el blanco). En el momento en que las blancas juegan, sea cual sea el movimiento realizado, es como abrir la caja del gato: la posibilidad del enroque queda perfectamente determinada.
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