- Ryerson UniversityComputer Science Major, Marketing Minor, 1988 - 1992
- Mobileidyz.comManaging Partner, 2004 - presentMobileidyz is at the forefront of modern mobile application development where, we create great mobile application experiences and enterprise mobile website solutions for customers who need to sell more products or create greater brand awareness online. Our highly disciplined agile process is focused on collaboration, communication and relentless focus on your end customer and your business needs. Follow us on Twitter @mobileidyz
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I got into snowboarding in 1989 maybe one of the earliest people to do it. The thing for me was always the ability to have big fun no matter what the snow conditions were like. Plus the ability to express yourself more and try more new things. Like this guy here!
Do not try this on your first day.
This is the Iguazu Falls at the border of Argentina & Brazil
How are waterfalls made?
Waterfalls are commonly formed when a river is young. At these times the channel is often narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the watercourse increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream. Often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one and half meters per year.
Often, the rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall. Eventually, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are then broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, and they also erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool or gorge.
Streams become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, and there is usually a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. Waterfalls normally form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being fully formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed. In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, and result in waterfalls.
A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, which is referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall (which depends on both the waterfall's average flow and its height) using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls.
Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Victoria Falls and Kaieteur Falls (Class 9); Rhine Falls and Gullfoss (Class 8); Angel Falls and Dettifoss (Class 7); Yosemite Falls, Lower Yellowstone Falls and Umphang Thee Lor Sue Waterfall (Class 6); Sutherland Falls (Class 5).
Ledge Waterfall: Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock.
Block/Sheet: Water descends from a relatively wide stream or river.
Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape.
Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream.
Plunge: Fast moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface. The contact is typically lost due to horizontal thrust of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream.
Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and then spreads out in a wider pool.
Horsetail: Descending water maintains good contact with bedrock most of the time.
Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact.
Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip.
Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage.
Fan: Water spreads horizontally as it descends while remaining in contact with bedrock.
Cascade: Water descends a series of rock steps.
Tiered/Multi-step/Staircase: A series of waterfalls one after another of roughly the same size each with its own sunken plunge pool.
Cataract: A large, powerful waterfall.
Segmented: Distinctly separate flows of water form as it descends.
Catadupa: A cataract or waterfall, originally those of the Nile. The term catadupae refers to people inhabiting near such cataracts; there are suppositions that these people are deaf due to the constant din.
Tide Fall: A waterfall that directly empties into the sea or ocean.
Frozen: Any waterfall which has some element of ice.
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#Nature #Gif #Waterfall
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The American and Bridal Veil Falls lie on the American banks of the Niagara River. A small teardrop of land called the Goat Island, forks the river into two at the brink of the falls .The splitting of the river by this island has gifted the world these two amazing waterfalls.
At Prospect Point, you can see the American Falls. It is a unique zigzagged waterfall, the peculiar shape resulting from the chipping away of rock from the fall's edge .These rocks are proudly displayed at the bottom of the falls, and they splash away the water that hits them with tremendous force. The frothy flowing water looks like icicles, tinted with tiny strips of jade. During sunset, the twilight colours, twinkle on these crystal coloured waters, creating a stunningly surreal effect.
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One of the significant controversies with the karma doctrine is whether it always implies destiny, and its implications on free will. This controversy is also referred to as the moral agency problem the controversy is not unique to karma doctrine, but also found in some form in monotheistic religions.
The free will controversy can be outlined in three parts: (1) A person who kills, rapes or commits any other unjust act, can claim all his bad actions were a product of his karma, he is devoid of free will, he can not make a choice, he is an agent of karma, and that he merely delivering necessary punishments his "wicked" victims deserved for their own karma in past lives. Are crimes and unjust actions due to free will, or because of forces of karma? (2) Does a person who suffers from the unnatural death of a loved one, or rape or any other unjust act, assume a moral agent, gratuitous harm and seek justice? Or, should one blame oneself for bad karma over past lives, assume that the unjust suffering is fate? (3) Does the karma doctrine undermine the incentive for moral-education because all suffering is deserved and consequence of past lives, why learn anything when the balance sheet of karma from past lives will determine one's action and sufferings?
The explanations and replies to the above free will problem vary by the specific school of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The schools of Hinduism, such as Yoga and Advaita Vedanta, that have emphasized current life over the dynamics of karma residue moving across past lives, allow free will. Their argument, as well of other schools, are threefold: (1) The theory of karma includes both the action and the intent behind that action. Not only is one affected by past karma, one creates new karma whenever one acts with intent - good or bad. If intent and act can be proven beyond reasonable doubt, new karma can be proven, and the process of justice can proceed against this new karma. The actor who kills, rapes or commits any other unjust act, must be considered as the moral agent for this new karma, and tried. (2) Life forms not only receive and reap the consequence of their past karma, together they are the means to initiate, evaluate, judge, give and deliver consequence of karma to others. (3) Karma is a theory that explains some evils, not all (see moral evil versus natural evil).
Other schools of Hinduism, as well as Buddhism and Jainism that do consider cycle of rebirths central to their beliefs, and that karma from past lives affects one's present, believe that both free will (Cetanā) and karma can co-exist; however, their answers have not persuaded all scholars.
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