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Almech Enterprise
Manufactures and Suppliers of Laboratory and chemical process equipments for Engineering Colleges Polytechnics, Research Institution and Industries
Manufactures and Suppliers of Laboratory and chemical process equipments for Engineering Colleges Polytechnics, Research Institution and Industries


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After a meeting I was coming out of a hotel and I was looking for my car keys. They were not in my pockets. A quick search in the meeting room... it wasn't there. Suddenly I realized I must have left them in the car. My husband has shouted many times for leaving the keys in the ignition. My theory is, the ignition is the best place not to lose them. His theory is that the car will be stolen. Immediately I rushed to the parking lot, I came to a terrifying conclusion. His theor...y was right. The parking lot was empty. I immediately called the police. I gave them my location, car number and description of the place where I parked etc. I equally confessed that I had left my keys in the car, and that it had been stolen. Then I made the most difficult call of all, to my husband!!! "Honey," I stammered; I always call him "honey" in times like these. "I left my keys in the car, and it has been stolen. " There was a period of silence. I thought the call had been dropped, but then I heard his voice. "Idiot", he shouted, "I dropped you at the hotel !" Now it was my time to be silent. Embarrassed, I said, "Well, come and get me." He shouted again, "I will, as soon as I manage to convince this policeman that I have not stolen your car." See More
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May Prosperity and happiness flourish in your lives
throughout the year as you celebrate
the harvest festival of Pongal
Happy Prosperous Pongal…!!
இனிய பொங்கல் வாழ்த்துகள்!
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History of the Mawlid – Part I

It is unanimously agreed upon, by historians, legal specialists and theologians of all groups, that Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam himself NEVER commanded his followers to celebrate his birthday, nor was this practice known for the first FIVE Centuries of Islam.

Therefore, the question arises as to how this practice was instituted and who were the first group to think of the idea of celebrating the birthday of Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam.

The Origin of the Mawlid

The first mention ever made of the mawlid celebrations in any historical work comes in the writings of Jamal al Dn Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n, who died 587 AH/1192 CE. His father was the Grand Vizier for the Fatimid Caliph al-Amir (ruled 494-524 AH/1101-1130 CE). Although the work of Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n is now lost, many parts of it were quoted by later scholars, in particular the most famous medieval historian of Egypt, al-MaqrÄ«zi (d. 845/1442) in his monumental MawÄ ’īẓ al-i’tibÄ r fÄ« khiá¹­aá¹­ Miá¹£r wa-l-amá¹£Ä r (shortened to theKhiá¹­aá¹­). Al-MaqrÄ«zi’s book is the standard source of information for Fatimid and early MamlÅ«k Egypt. What makes this work stand out above many others is not only its comprehensiveness, but also the fact that al-MaqrÄ«zÄ« quotes from many earlier references that are now lost, and also takes great care to cite his source, a practice very rare for the time.
Al-MaqrÄ«zÄ« relies upon the work of Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n for information regarding the social, political and religious policies of the Fatimids during the early part of the sixth century, which was the period that Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n’s father worked for the Fatimid Caliph. Due to the high position that his father enjoyed, Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n provided many details that outside historians could not possibly have been privy to.

Before proceeding, it is important to point out some facts regarding the Fatimid dynasty. This dynasty had established itself as a rival dynasty to the Abbasids in Baghdad. They had conquered Egypt in 358 AH/969 CE, and established the modern city of Cairo. They claimed descent from the Family of the Prophet (a claim that all others deemed to be fabricated), and followed the Sevener Branch of Shi’ite Islam, also known as ‘Ismailism’. Their beliefs and customs were so different from other branches of Islam that all Sunnis and even many other non-Ismaili Shi’ite groups deemed them outside the fold of the religion. The Ismailis had reinterpreted the five pillars of Islam to such a level that they would not conform to the regular rituals that other Muslims are accustomed to (such as the five daily prayers). The intellectual (and at times even biological) descendants of the Fatimid caliphs in our times are many. In particular, the Ismaili Aga Khan Imams and the Bohri Imams both trace their direct lineage to the Fatimid caliphs, and the group known as the Druze also are an offshoot of the Fatimid dynasty. It was this dynasty that first initiated the celebration of the mawlid.

To return to our topic, Al-Maqrizi, in his Khiá¹­aá¹­, quotes Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n as follows, writing about the events of the year 517 A.H. Next, the month of RabÄ«’ al-Awwal arrived, and we shall begin [the events of this month] by mentioning the thing for which it has become famous, namely, the birthday of the Master of the first and last, Muḥammad, on the thirteen [sic.] day. And by way of charity, the Caliph presented 6000 dirhams from the fund ofnajÄ wa [an Ismailite tithe], and from the dar al-fitra he presented 40 dishes of pastry, and from the chambers of the trustees and caretakers of the mausoleums that lie between the Hill and Qarafa, where the Al al-Bayt lie, he gave sugar, almonds, honey, and sesame oil [as a gift] to each mausoleum. And [his Vizier] took charge of distributing 400 pounds (ratl) of sweets, and 1000 pounds of bread.
The wording of the paragraph clearly suggests that the mawlid was a clearly established practiced by this time.

Another early source that mentions the mawlid is the work of Ibn al-Ṭuwayr (d. 617/1220), in his work Nuzhat al-Muqlatayn fÄ« AkhbÄ rt al-Dawlatayn. Ibn al-Ṭuwayr worked as a secretary for the Fatimid dynasty, and witnessed the change of power from the Fatimids to the Ayyubids, at the hand of Salaḥ al-DÄ«n al-AyyÅ«bi, which occurred 567/1071. His skills were so appreciated that he ended up working for the government of á¹¢alÄ h al-DÄ«n as well. Ibn al-Ṭuwayr also describes the pageantry and pomp associated with the mawlid. He describes in detail [see: Nuzhat, p. 217-219] the large amounts of foods that were distributed on this day, especially around the famous mausoleums of Cairo (some of which would have been considered by the Fatimids as being those of their Imams). The focus of the pageantry, of course, was the palace of the Caliph, and only the elite would get to attend. The celebrations of the day worked their way up to the appearance of the Caliph (who was the living imām for the Ismailites) from a palace window, his face covered in a turban. He himself would not deign to speak – rather, his private attendants would signal to the audience that the Caliph had returned their greetings and seen their love for him. From the courtyard pavilion various reciters and preachers would address the audience, finally culminating in the address of the khatib of the Azhar masjid (which of course, at that time, was the epitome of Ismaili academics).

The mawlid was not the only celebration that was sponsored by the Fatimids. Al-MaqrÄ«zi, in his Khiá¹­aá¹­ [vol. 1, p. 490], has an entire section dedicated to Fatimid holidays. He writes, under a chapter heading entitled, “The mentioning of the days that the Fatimid Caliphs took as celebrations and festivals throughout the year, upon which the situation of the people would be improved and their benefits increased,”
The Fatimid Caliphs had, throughout the year, a number of festivals and celebrations. These were: 1. New Year’s Eve, 2. Beginning of the year celebrations, 3. The Day of ‘Ä€shÅ«rÄ ’, 4. The birthday of the Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam, 5. The birthday of ‘AlÄ«, 6. The birthday of al-Ḥasan, 7. The birthday of al-Husayn, 8. The birthday of FÄ á¹­ima al-ZahrÄ ’, 9. The birthday of the current Caliph, 10. The first day of Rajab, 11. The fifteenth day of Rajab, 12. The first day of Sha’bÄ n, 13. The fifteenth day of Sha’bÄ n, 14. The festival of Ramaá¸ Ä n, 15. the first day of Ramaá¸ Ä n, 16. The middle of Ramaá¸ Ä n, 17. The end of Ramaá¸ Ä n, 18. The Night of the Khatm, 19. The Day of ’Īd al-Fitr, 20. The Day of ’Īd of Sacrifice, 21. The Day of ’Īd al-GhadÄ«r, 22. The ‘Cloth of Winter’, 23. The ‘Cloth of Summer’, 24. The Day of the ‘Conquest of the Peninsula’, 25. The Day of NawrÅ«z [Persian festival], 26. The Day of Veneration [Christian], 27. Christmas [Christian], 28 Lent [Christian].

As can be seen, the Fatimids loved their celebrations! The reason why they had so many celebrations is obvious, and is hinted at by al-MaqrÄ«zi in his title. As the main rival to the ‘AbbÄ sid dynasty, the Fatimids were desperate to try to legitimize their rule in the eyes of the masses, and one of the ways to do so was to shower them with gifts on these days, and to provide an outlet for them to be merry and enjoy. Al-MaqrÄ«zi mentions in detail the types of gifts that would be showered on the people on each of these days, sometimes exotic dishes of meat and bread, most of the time pastries and sweets, and even (on the ‘Cloth’ days) special types of clothes. Anyone who has been to Cairo can attest to the pomp of Fatimid structures, but it wasn’t only through architecture that the Fatimids wished to prove their superiority over the Abbasids.Another thing to note is that there are many pagan festivals listed as well, for the Zoroastrian and Christian citizens. All of this was done to appease these minorities and prevent them from rebelling against the stage. A number of factors need to be discussed here.

1) From the above, it appears that the Faá¹­imids instituted a number of key yearly celebrations, all of which involved much pomp and pageantry. The primary celebrations were the mawlids of the Prophet and Imams, and also the celebration of the day of GhadÄ«r Khumm (the day that Shi’ites of all stripes believe the Prophet designated ‘AlÄ« b. AbÄ« á¹¬Ä lib to be the heir apparent). As mentioned earlier, the primary purpose of so much pageantry was to ingratiate themselves with the masses. Such public celebrations would have been anticipated as public holidays, and as days to revel and enjoy good food and sweets, compliments of the government.

2) We can also venture a rough guess regarding the era that the mawlid was introduced. Without any other sources, it is impossible to reconstruct a precise date on which the Faá¹­imids initiated the mawlid.[1] However, recall that al-MaqrizÄ«’s history (the Khiá¹­at) is merely a compilation of numerous histories that are now missing. Many of these histories, such as those of Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n and Ibn Ṭuwayr, were written by eyewitnesses. Modern scholars have analyzed the sources of al-MaqrÄ«zi’s history, and shown that for each era, al-MaqrizÄ« relied on specific authors. For events of the third, fourth and fifth centuries, al-MaqrizÄ« took from authors of other works; it was only for events of the sixth century that he quoted Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n.[2] Therefore, since the first suggestion of the mawlid occurs in the chronicles of Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n, we can safely venture the hypothesis that the mawlid was first celebrated around the turn of the sixth hijrÄ« century.

3) All of the mawlids introduced by the Fatimids centered around the Family of the Prophet, except for the mawlid of the Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam himself. The Shi’ite nature of the Fatimid Dynasty, along with the other celebrations that were practiced, makes it quite clear that the entire concept of celebrating birthdays was a Shi’Ä«te one aimed at exalting the status of the Imams. In fact, these source books mention that on the days of these othermawlids, most of the ceremonies took place around the mausoleums and graves of the Fatimids, and it was at these places where much of the food was distributed. Hence, the Fatimids clearly wished to promote the cult of the Imams and ‘Ahl al-Bayt’, and aggrandize their religious figures. When the Fatimid dynasty collapsed, the other mawlids were simply forgotten, as they held no significance for Sunnis, but the mawlid of the Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam continued. In other words, the mawlid was originally an Isma’ili Shi’ite festival, even though eventually it lost the tarnish of its Shi’ite origins.

4) The earliest reference (that of Ibn al-Ma’mÅ«n) specifically states that the mawlid was celebrated on the 13th of Rabi’ al-Awwal. Scholars have said that this is either an error (and what proves this is that the later Ibn al-Ṭuwayr correctly writes that it was celebrated on the 12th of RabÄ«’ al-Awwal), or that it was initially instituted on the 13th, but within a generation was changed to the 12th. In either case, by the middle of the sixth century, themawlid was an official holiday in Fatimid Egypt.

The question then arises: how did the mawlid spread to Sunni lands, and who was the first to introduce it to lands East and West of Fatimid Egypt? That shall be the topic of the third and final part to this article, insha Allāh.

History of the Mawlid – Part II

The Mawlid in Sunni Lands

The earliest recorded reference in Sunni lands of the mawlid occurs in a history book written by Ê»Imad al-DÄ«n al-Iá¹£fahÄ nÄ« (d. 597 AH/1200 CE), entitled al-Barq al-ShÄ mÄ«. This work mentions the main political occurrences of Greater Syria (i.e., Sham) during the last three decades of the sixth Islamic century, in particular the wars of the Muslims against the Crusaders. Unfortunately, the original work remains in manuscript form and has yet to be edited, but a number of summaries exist, the most famous one being SanÄ al-Barq al-ShÄ mÄ« of al-Bundari. It is from this printed work (SanÄ al-Barq al-ShÄ mÄ«, Cairo edition,p. 49-52) that the following is extracted.In the year 566 A.H./1170 CE, NÅ«r al-DÄ«n al-ZangÄ«’s (d. 569/1174) brother passed away in Mosul, a well-known city of Iraq. NÅ«r al-DÄ«n was the famous leader of the Zangid dynasty, and helped propel SalÄ h al-DÄ«n al-AyyÅ«bÄ« (d. 588/1193) to fame. NÅ«r al-DÄ«n visited the city of Mosul in order to quell a dispute regarding the succession of his brother, who had been the governor of the region. There, the historian tells us, he met a certain Umar al-Mulla, who was in charge of a zawiya (Sufi monastery). This zawiya was a popular place for the local leaders and noblemen to visit, and in particular “…every year, during the days of the mawlid of the Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam, he would invite the governor of Mosul, along with the poets, who would come and sing their poems, and be rewarded [by the governor] for this.” (Also see Ibn Kathir, al-BidÄ yah wa-l-NihÄ yah, vol. 12, p. 782)
This small reference, in passing, is the earliest reference we have to a public mawlid being celebrated in Sunni lands. The person who initiated it, Umar al-Mulla, was a venerated Sufi ascetic, and not a scholar of the religion. We do not know many details of his life or even date of death. And while the historian Imad al-DÄ«n did claim he was a righteous saint (a claim that was mentioned by all those who copied the story from Imad al-DÄ«n’s work), another scholar strongly disagreed. Ibn Rajab (d. 795), in his biographical dictionary DhaylṬabaqat al-Ḥanabilah, mentions this Umar al-Mulla, also in passing, in the context of a famous Ḥanbalite scholar. Under the entry of Muḥammad b. Abd al-BÄ qÄ« (d. 571 AH), a Ḥanbalite scholar from Mosul, he mentions how Umar al-Mulla was greatly respected in the city of Mosul, and a disagreement happened between the two of them, which resulted inMuḥammad b. Abd al-BÄ qÄ« being falsely accused of stealing, because of which he was beaten. Writes Ibn Rajab [Dhayl, vol. 1, p. 254], “As for this Umar, he outwardly showed himself to be a pious man and ascetic, but I believe him to be [a follower] of the innovated groups. And this incident [with Muḥammad b. Abd al-BÄ qÄ«] also shows his injustices and transgressions [against others].” And Ibn KathÄ«r (d. 774 AH) mentions that when NÅ«r al-DÄ«n Zangi abolished the unjust taxes that had been levied on the people, Umar al-Mulla actually wrote him a letter chastising him for his decision, and saying that this would lead to an increase of evil in the land. At which NÅ«r al-DÄ«n responded back, saying,
“Allāh created the creation, and legislated the SharÄ«Ê»ah, and He knows best what is beneficial for them. So if He knew that there should have been an increase [in revenue from taxes], He would have legislated it for us. Hence, there is no need for us to take more than what Allāh has decreed, since whoever adds to the SharÄ«Ê»ah has presumed that the SharÄ«Ê»ah is incomplete and he needs to perfect it by his addition. And to do this is arrogance against Allāh and against what He has legislated, but darkened minds will never be guided, and may Allāh guide us and you to the Straight Path” [al-BidÄ yah wa-l-NihÄ yah, vol. 12, p. 805].
In what can only be described as a reversal of traditional roles, it was the ruler who chastised the Ê»saint’ when Umar al-Mulla actually encouraged the collection of unjust taxes, while NÅ«r al-Din sought to abolish it.
Before proceeding, it is noteworthy that the mawlid instituted by Umar al-Mulla involved singing poems in praise of the Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam, and nothing more than this. Unfortunately, the books of history do not mention the nature or content of these poems; however, it would not be too far-fetched to assume that at this early stage the poems would have praised the Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam in the manner that he truly deserves, and without the attribution of Divine characteristics to him that later poets are guilty of.
The city of Mosul was located in a relatively small province, and remained under the control of the larger Zangid Empire. Hence, it was only natural that mawlid celebrations performed in Mosul would not garner too much attention nor have a large budget at their disposal to use for the mawlids. Rather, for this to occur, it had to be sponsored by a dynasty that could afford to do so, and this dynasty was found in the neighboring province of Irbil, a city less than a day’s journey from Mosul. As news of the mawlid spread to this city, the ruler of the semi-autonomous province, Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n Kokburi (d. 630/1232), took it upon himself to celebrate the mawlid in an extremely lavish manner. It would take another few decades for the mawlid to spread to Irbil, but eventually, sometime in the early part of the seventh century, Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n became famous for the extravagant mawlidceremonies that were sponsored through the State Treasury of his principality.
The historian Ibn KhallikÄ n (d. 681/1282) mentions that Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n was known for his generosity, for he had built many khÄ nqahs (monasteries) for the Sufis to worship in. Ibn KhallikÄ n was also from Irbil, and was a friend of Muẓẓar al-DÄ«n, and witnessed first-hand the mawlid celebrations. Writes Ibn KhallikÄ n (in his WafayÄ t al-AyÄ n, vol. 5, p. 78-9):
Two days before the mawlid, Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n would take out camels, cows and sheep – a large number, beyond counting – and he would send these animals, accompanied with drums and song and other instruments, until they would reach the large open ground [outside the city]. Then, these animals would be slaughtered, and pots would be set up, and all types of different foods would be cooked, until finally it would be the Night of the Mawlid itself [meaning the night before the mawlid]. On that night, he would allow samÄ Ê»as[special poems] to be sung in his fort, and then he would descend down [to the people], the procession being led by countless candles. Amongst these candles were two, or four – I forget now – that were so large that each one had to be carried on a mule, and behind it was a man in charge of keeping the candle erect [on the mule], until it reached the Sufi monastery. Then, on the very morning of the mawlid, he commanded that the Royal Robe be taken out from the Palace to the khÄ nqah (Sufi monastery), by the hands of the Sufis. Each Sufi would wear an expensive sash around his hand, and they would all walk in a procession, one behind the other – so many in number that I could not verify their quantity. Then, Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n himself would descend to the khÄ nqah, and all of the noblemen and leaders and gentry would gather together. A chair would be placed for the preachers, and Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n himself would be in a special tower made of wood [that he had built for the occasion]. It had many windows, some of which faced the people and others faced the open ground, which was a large ground of immense size. The infantry would also gather there, in procession. So Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n would listen throughout the day, sometimes looking at the people and sermons, and sometimes at the infantry, and this would continue until the infantry finished their processions. Then, a general tablecloth would be laid out for the poor, and all who wished could eat from it, bread and other types of foods beyond count! And there was another tablecloth laid out as well, for the people of the monastery, those close to the throne, and while the sermons would be delivered, he would call [each speaker] one by one, and the noblemen and leaders and guests who had come for this season: scholars, and preachers, and reciters, and poets, and he would give each of them garments, and they would then return to their seats. Once this was finished, they would all gather at the tablecloth to partake of the food. This would continue until the Ê»‘aṣrprayer, or even after that, and he would spend the night there, and thesamaÊ»Ä s would continue to the next day. And this would be done every year, and what I have described is in fact a condensed summary of the reality, for to mention it in detail would be too cumbersome and take a long time. Finally, when these ceremonies would be completed, he would gift an amount to every visitor who had come from afar, as provision for his journey home. And I have already mentioned how, when Ibn Diḥya passed by Irbil, he wrote up a work regarding the mawlid, because of what he had seen Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n do, and because of this he was gifted a thousand gold coins, along with the generous hospitality he was shown for the duration of his stay.
As can be seen, the ceremony of Muẓẓafar al-Dīn was an extremely lavish and extravagant affair, and would draw large crowds of locals and also visitors. It is clear that the relatively innocuous mawlid of Umar al-Mulla was now being taken to a different level. And because the celebrations of Muẓẓafar al-Dīn attracted more attention than those of ʻUmar al-Mulla, they played a crucial role in spreading the custom of the mawlid and increasing its popularity.
From this, it is clear that the mawlid was imported into Sunni lands at the beginning of the seventh Islamic century, through the actions of Umar al-Mulla and then Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n. A contemporary author proves this point beyond a shadow of doubt. AbÅ« ShÄ mah al-Maqdisi (d. 665) was a famous historian from Damascus. He wrote a number of works, and is most famous for his book KitÄ b al-BÄ Ê»ith Ê»alÄ inkÄ r al-bidaÊ» wa-l-ḥawÄ dith. In it, he follows the opinion that religious innovations can be either reprehensible or praiseworthy (a theological opinion which was and remains the subject of debate amongst scholars, and which deserves to be discussed in another article), and considers the mawlidto be a praiseworthy innovation. What concerns us here is not AbÅ« ShÄ mah’s legal verdict on the mawlid, but rather his historical context. He writes, [KitÄ b al-bÄ Ê»ith, (Cairo print, 1978), p. 24],‘And of the best matters that have been introduced in our times is that which occurs in the city of Irbil – may Allāh protect it – every year, on the day that the Prophet salla Allāh alahyi wa sallam was born. [On this day], charity is distributed, and good [deeds performed], and pageantry is displayed, and happiness [is abundant]. And all of this, in addition to being beneficial to the poor, is an outward manifestation of the love of Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam and demonstrates respect for him, and honor in the heart of the one who does this [celebration], and thankfulness to Allāh for what He has blessed us with in the existence of the Messenger that He has sent as a mercy to the worlds. And the first person who ever did this was [a man] from Mosul, the Shaykh Umar b. Muḥammad al-Mulla, a well-known, righteous man, and it was from his custom that the Governor of Irbil, and others besides him, took this act from.’
From this passage, it is clear that the custom of the mawlid was already known to AbÅ« ShÄ mah in Damascus, but he points out that the celebration occurs in Irbil , and not in Damascus. Hence, at this stage, in the middle of the seventh century, news of the mawlidhas reached Damascus, which is around 500 miles away, but the city of Damascus itself has yet to start its own mawlid.
It is also striking to note the similarities between the Fatimid celebrations of the mawlid and the ones sponsored by Muẓẓafar al-Dīn: in both cases, the pomp and pageantry and generosity lavished upon the population must have played a vital role in popularizing these rulers amongst the people.
Before moving on, it is relevant to backtrack a few decades and mention another rudimentary version of the mawlid (if it can even be called such). This version is found in the travelogue of Ibn Jubayr (d. 614 AH), who set foot from Andalus to perform the Hajj and spent the next few years touring Muslim lands, finally settling down in North Africa to record his travels. Ibn Jubayr entered Makkah in 579 AH, and he mentions that on the first Monday of Rabīʻ al-Awwal, the house in which Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam was reputed to have been born in would be open for visitors, along with some other ancient historic sites associated with the life of Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam, and visitors would enter these houses and seek blessings from it [see: The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, ed. M. J. De Goeje, p. 114-5].*
Therefore, it is clear that Muslims of Makkah did do something special on the first Monday of RabÄ«Ê» al-Awwal, and that is to open the house of Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam’s birth. Of significance, though, is that that is all they did. There are no celebrations, no festivals, no songs, no ceremonies. All of this was to come later. In fact, in Makkah the mawlid was not even ‘celebrated’ on the 12th of RabÄ«Ê» al-Awwal, but rather on the first Monday of the month. This was the extent of the mawlid in Makkah in the latter part of the sixth century, before the customs of Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n were done in the far away city of Irbil. Hence, to quote this as justification for modern-day mawlids is simply not appropriate.
It can be seen, then, that slowly but surely, the practice of celebrating the mawlid spread to other Muslim lands, and as the decades turned to centuries, more and more layers of celebrations were added. For most lands, it is impossible to document the precise date when the mawlid was initiated, or even the person who exported the idea to each land. Sometimes, however, we are provided such clues. For example, we can trace the beginnings of the mawlid in North Africa, and thence to Andalus to the efforts of a certain AbÅ« al-Ê»AbbÄ s al-AzafÄ« (d. 633 AH), who wrote a work entitled Ê»The Edited Pearl Regarding the Birth of the Honored Prophet‘. The work was the spearheading effort that eventually legitimized the celebration of the mawlid. In it, AbÅ« al-Ê»AbbÄ s clearly states that his purpose in legitimizing the celebration of the mawlid is so that the Muslims desist in the evil and reprehensible act of celebrating Christmas, Nawruz and other holy days of the Christians and pagans that some Muslims of Andalus had begun to adopt. He writes, “I have searched intensively and racked my brains to find something that would distract the attention of the people away from these bidÊ»ahs to something that is permissible, which does not cause the one observing it to sin…Therefore, I drew their attention to the birth of the Prophet Muḥammad…” Later in the work, he refutes those who have criticized this act as being a reprehensible innovation by claiming that the mawlid is a praiseworthy innovation, not a reprehensible one. This in itself shows that there were scholars in Andalus who were opposed to this practice and dissaproved of it, hence al-Azafi was forced to defend the practice. [See: P. Shinar, "Traditional and reformist mawlid celebrations in the Maghrib" in: Studies in Memory of G. Wiet, Jerusalem 1977, pp. 371-413; and N. G. J. Kaptien, Muḥammad's Birthday Festival, Brill, pp. 76-96].
From all the above, we can derive:

1) The very first Sunni to publically celebrate the mawlid was a Sufi mystic by the name of Umar al-Mulla. He seems to be a person of dubious character, and the least that can be said about him was that he was by no means a scholar of the religion.

2) Government-sponsored mawlids in Sunni lands were first introduced by Muẓẓafar al-Dīn, who got the idea from Umar al-Mulla. These celebrations were extremely popular amongst the masses, and helped secure popularity for the rulers.

3) Late in the sixth Islamic century, the mawlid had been introduced to some Sunni lands, but the mainlands of Islam (e.g., Makkah, Damascus, etc.) had not yet begun to commemorate the day with any festival.

4) In Makkah, no festival or public celebration occurred, instead the birth-date was an occasion to open up historic sites for the people. Also, the birth-date itself had not yet been associated with the 12th of Rabīʻ al-Awwal; rather, it was associated with the first Monday of Rabīʻ al-Awwal.

5) The association of the mawlid with the 12th of Rabīʻ al-Awwal was clearly a Fatimid influence, which was later followed by other government-sponsored mawlids.

6) The mawlid spread in various lands due to miscellaneous factors. In some lands, it was patronized by the rulers and used as a means of legitimizing their rule. In other lands, it was used as a tactic to divert Muslims from that which was clearly impermissible to a matter that was deemed to be praiseworthy.

Later Claims Regarding the Origin of the Mawlid

It is quite clear that the Fatimid celebration, having preceded the Sunni one by almost a century, was the actual origin of the mawlid. However, most later authorities (most famously al-SuyÅ«tÄ« (d. 911) in his treatise on the subject), either knowingly or unknowingly glossed over the Fatimid origins of the mawlid, and attributed it to the Sunni ruler Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n Kokburi. A few modern researchers (such as Kaptein) have theorized that this was done intentionally, in order to cover up the ShiÊ»ite origins of the festival and attribute it to a popular Sunni ruler, viz., Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n. But for our purposes it matters little whether al-SuyÅ«tÄ« was aware of the Fatimid origins of the mawlid or not; the fact that cannot be denied is that the origin of a public celebration goes back to their empire, and Muẓẓafar al-DÄ«n’s suspicously similar festival occurred almost a century after theirs.

Therefore, to attribute the origins of the mawlid to Muẓẓafar al-Dīn, or even ʻUmar al-Mulla, is simply not accurate.
The purpose of this article was to give a brief overview regarding the origins of the celebration of the Prophet’s birthday, and some examples of how it spread to other lands. It did not discuss the legal validity for such a celebration, as that is another topic altogether, and one that has been hashed and rehashed on many different sites and forums.

My own leanings, which I have never shied away from expressing, are the same as those of Ibn Taymiyya (d. 728) that he mentioned in his work Iqtiá¸ Ä SirÄ t al-mustaqÄ«m: that the general ruling is that such a celebration is not a part of the religion, but was added by later generations, and hence should be avoided; but it is possible that some groups of people who practice it out of ignorance will be rewarded due to their good intentions. The mawlid of the Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam should be celebrated every day, by following his Sunnah and doing in our daily lives what he salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam wanted us to do.

I also stress that even if I disapprove of a public celebration of the mawlid, not all mawlids are the same, and if the only matter that is done on a mawlid is to praise the beloved Prophet salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam in an appropriate manner, and mention aspects of hissīrah, and thank Allāh for blessing us to be of his Ummah, then this type of celebration is permissible, in fact praiseworthy, on any day of the year, and hence even if some groups choose one specific day to do it, others should not be harsh in their disapproval of it. I believe that the fatwas given by such esteemed authorities as Ibn Hajr (d. 852) and al-Nawawi (d. 676) legitimizing mawlids refer, in fact, to such ‘innocent’ mawlids. Sadly, it is well-nigh impossible to find such ‘pure’ mawlids practiced in our times!

To conclude, it is appropriate to quote a non-Muslim author who has specialized in the topic of the mawlid and written a doctoral dissertation on it, N. J. G. Kaptein. He writes in his monograph [p. 29],

At the end of this chapter, I would like to draw attention to a number of points that are important for the general history of the mawlid Al Nabi:

a) the mawlid was originally a Shiite festival

b) the mawlid came into being in 517 AH.

c) in the Fatimid period the mawlid was not always celebrated on the same date. In 517 AH the mawlid was celebrated on the 13th Rabb ul Awwal, while according to Ibn áuwayr this festival always fell on the 12th Rabb ul Awwal

d) The mawlid was celebrated during the daytime

e) the ruler played a central role

f) sermons were given and recitations from the Qurʾān took place

g) presentations to officials took place

h) by means of these presentations, amongst other things, the Fatimid’s close relationship with the ahl al-bayt was emphasized, in order to cultivate loyalty to the Fatimid imām-Caliph

i) after the fall of the Fatimids, the mawlid continued to exist.

Bibliography : Published by Muslim Research and Development Foundation which operates as a non-profit UK registered charity.

The above historical facts prove beyond doubt that

1. Mawlid celebration is a Bid'ah which was introduced by the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt in the year 517 AH, Five Centuries after Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam leaving this Duniyah.

2. Rasul Allah Sallallaahu Alaihiwa Sallam NEVER permitted Mawlid celebration during his lifetime

3. The Sahaabah Radhi Allahu Anhum and The Khulafa e Raashideen - Abu Bakr As Siddique, Umar ibn Al Khattaab, Uthman ibn Affaan and Ali ibn Abi Talib Radhi Allahu Anhum - NEVER permitted Mawlid celebration during their lifetime as well.

So, the Big Question is, why do many Muslims among us still celebrate Mawlid ???

May all of us reflect on this.

في امان الله

Your brother in Islam,
A Shabbir Ahmed ^AK
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The Four Types of People in the World

عن أبي كبشة الأنماري رضي الله عنه أنه سمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول ثلاث أقسم عليهن وأحدثكم حديثا فاحفظوه قال ما نقص مال عبد من صدقة ولا ظلم عبد مظلمة صبر عليها إلا زاده الله عزا ولا فتح عبد باب مسألة إلا فتح الله عليه باب فقر أو كلمة نحوها وأحدثكم حديثا فاحفظوه قال إنما الدنيا لاربعة نفر عبد رزقه الله مالا وعلما فهو يتقي فيه ربه ويصل فيه رحمه ويعلم لله فيه حقا فهذا بأفضل المنازل وعبد رزقه الله علما ولم يرزقه مالا فهو صادق النية يقول لو أن لي مالا لعملت بعمل فلان فهو بنيته فأجرهما سواء وعبد رزقه الله مالا ولم يرزقه علما يخبط في ماله بغير علم ولا يتقي فيه ربه ولا يصل فيه رحمه ولا يعلم لله فيه حقا فهذا بأخبث المنازل وعبد لم يرزقه الله مالا ولا علما فهو يقول لو أن لي مالا لعملت فيه بعمل فلان فهو بنيته فوزرهما سواء رواه أحمد والترمذي واللفظ له وقال حديث حسن صحيح (الترغيب و الترهيب 1/66)

Hadhrat Abu Kabsha (Radhiallahu Anhu) reports that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) say: “I take a qasm upon three things, and in this regard I will narrate a Hadith to you, so remember it.” He then said: “Through discharging sadaqah, one’s wealth does not decrease. The one who exercises patience upon the oppression done against him, Allah Ta’ala will grant him respect and honour. Whenever a servant opens the door of begging (from the creation), Allah Ta’ala opens the door of want and poverty for him.”

I will narrate to you a Hadith, so remember it. The world contains four types of people.

The first person is he who Allah Ta’ala blessed with wealth and knowledge (Deeni knowledge). In regard to the use of the wealth he fears Allah Ta’ala and he uses it to maintain family ties, and he is mindful of the rights of Allah Ta’ala in his wealth. This is the most virtuous person and greatest in rank.

The second person is he who Allah Ta’ala blessed with knowledge (Deeni knowledge) but did not grant him wealth. However on account of him possessing a sincere heart, he expresses the intention (with firm determination) before Allah Ta’ala that had he possessed wealth he would have surely carried out deeds of generosity as the first person carried out. Thus he will receive reward based on his intention, and he and the first person will both be equal in (receiving) reward.

The third person is he whom Allah Ta’ala gave wealth, however He did not bless him with knowledge (Deeni knowledge). He squanders his wealth ignorantly, and does not fear Allah Ta’ala regarding his wealth, nor does he use the wealth to maintain family ties, nor is he mindful of the rights of Allah Ta’ala in his wealth. This person is the most despicable and the worst in rank.

The fourth person is he whom Allah Ta’ala did not bestow him with wealth or knowledge. He says (and desires within his heart with full determination) that had he possessed wealth, then he would have surely carried out evil deeds as the third person carried out. Thus he will receive sin based on his intention (i.e. due to his determination upon carrying out sin, he will be sinful in the court of Allah Ta’ala), and he and the third person will both be equal in (receiving) sin.

في امان الله

Your brother in Islam,
A Shabbir Ahmed ^AK
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சாயம் வெளுக்கிறது... சரித்திரம் சிரிக்கிறது!
4 ஆண்டு தண்டனையும் 4 பேரும்!
- ப.திருமாவேலன்
சாயம் போவது புதுத்துணியில் மட்டுமல்ல; சில பெரிய மனிதர்களின் வாழ்க்கையிலும் அவ்வப்போது நடப்பதுதான். வருமானத்துக்கு அதிகமாக சொத்துச் சேர்த்த குற்றச்சாட்டின் அடிப்படையில் நான்கு ஆண்டு சிறைத் தண்டனையும் 100 கோடி ரூபாய் அபராதமும் பெற்ற ஜெயலலிதாவின் விவகாரத்திலும் பலர் அம்பலப்பட்டுப் போனார்கள். அதில் நான்கு பேரைப் பற்றி மட்டும் இங்கே:

ராம் ஜெத்மலானி!
இந்தியாவின் புகழ்பெற்ற வழக்கறிஞர்களில் முதல் 10 பேரில் ஒருவர். அவரது ஒரு மணிநேர வாதத்துக்கான பைசா எவ்வளவு என்பது அவருக்கும் வாதிக்கும் மட்டுமே தெரியும். உச்ச நீதிமன்றத்தில்தான் தினமும் வலம் வருவார். பிரேமானந்தாவுக்காக புதுக்கோட்டை சப் கோர்ட்டுக்கும் இறங்கி வந்தவர். அவர்தான் ஜெயலலிதாவுக்கு தண்டனை தரப்பட்டதுமே, 'இது தவறான தீர்ப்பு’ என்று அறிக்கைவிட்டு, அதன் மூலமாக கர்நாடக உயர் நீதிமன்றத்தில் ஜாமீன் மனு மீது வாதாடும் வாய்ப்பைப் பெற்றார். இதே ராம் ஜெத்மலானிதான், ஜெயலலிதா மற்றும் அவரது சகாக்கள் மீதான சொத்துக் குவிப்பு வழக்கு பற்றி விசாரிக்க அமைக்கப்பட்ட மூன்று தனி நீதிமன்றங்களைக் காப்பாற்றுவதற்குப் பெரும் முயற்சி எடுத்தவர் என்பது முந்தைய வரலாறு.
ராம் ஜெத்மலானியின் நெருங்கிய நண்பரின் மகள் நளினி கேரா. இவர் ராம் ஜெத்மலானியின் அதிகாரபூர்வமான வரலாற்றை எழுதி இருக்கிறார். ஏராளமான ரகசியத் தகவல்கள் உள்ளடக்கிய புத்தகம் அது.
1998-ம் ஆண்டு அமைந்த பி.ஜே.பி கூட்டணியில் அ.தி.மு.க-வும் இடம்பெற்றது. அப்போது பி.ஜே.பி-யில் இருந்த ராம் ஜெத்மலானி தனக்காக சட்டத் துறை அமைச்சர் பொறுப்பைக் கேட்டார். ஆனால், அதை தம்பிதுரைக்கு வாங்கிக் கொண்டார் ஜெயலலிதா. ''அப்போது ராம் ஜெத்மலானிக்கு சட்டத் துறை அமைச்சகம் கிடைக்காமல் போனதற்கு ஜெயலலிதாதான் காரணமா என்று தெரியாது. அந்தப் பதவியை தன்னுடைய கட்சி உறுப்பினரான தம்பிதுரைக்கு ஜெ. கேட்டார். அவர் மீது எண்ணற்ற ஊழல் வழக்குகள் பதிவு செய்யப்பட்டிருந்தன. அவர் கைது செய்யப்பட்டு ஒரு மாதத்துக்கும் மேலே சிறையில் வைக்கப்பட்டிருந்தார். தன்னுடைய நலன்களைக் காக்கக் கூடிய ஒருவரை அமைச்சரவையில் தலைமைப் பொறுப்புக்குக் கொண்டுவர விரும்பினார்'' என்று நளினி கேரா எழுதுகிறார்.
இதன்பிறகு ஜெயலலிதா - ராம் ஜெத்மலானி மோதல் தொடர்கிறது. கூட்டணியில் அங்கம் வகித்தாலும் மத்திய அமைச்சர்கள் மீது தொடர்ந்து குற்றச்சாட்டுகளை வெளிப்படையாக வைத்தார் ஜெயலலிதா. அதில் ஜெத்மலானியும் அடக்கம். 'ஃபெரா’ விதிகளை மீறி ராம் ஜெத்மலானி இரண்டு லட்சம் டாலர் அளவுக்கு சொத்து சேர்த்ததாகவும் அதனை அமலாக்கத் துறை விசாரித்ததாகவும் அவரைப் பதவியைவிட்டு நீக்க வேண்டும் என்றும் ஜெயலலிதா அறிக்கை வெளியிட்டார்.
அப்போது ராம் ஜெத்மலானி, 'சில பேர் சிறையைவிட்டு வெளியே வரும்போது பணிவு மற்றும் நற்குணம் கொண்டவர்களாக மாறிவிடுகிறார்கள். மேலும் சிலர் ஆணவம் மற்றும் பொறுப்பின்மை கொண்டவர்களாக மாறி நல்லவற்றையும் தீயவற்றையும் வேறுபடுத்த முடியாமல் செயல்படுகிறார்கள். என்னைப் பற்றி இப்படி ஓர் அறிக்கை வெளியிட ஜெயலலிதா யார்? என்னுடைய சுய கௌரவத்தைத் தாக்க அவர் யார்?'' என்று பெங்களூரில் நடந்த கூட்டத்தில் பகிரங்கமாகக் கேட்டார்.
மத்திய சட்ட அமைச்சராக இருந்த தம்பிதுரை, தமிழகத்தில் அமைக்கப்பட்ட சிறப்பு நீதிமன்றங்களை ரத்து செய்தார். அப்போது மத்திய அமைச்சர் ராம் ஜெத்மலானி என்ன செய்தார் என்பதும் இந்தப் புத்தகத்தில் வருகிறது: ''இதற்கு எதிராக ராம் கடுமையான எதிர்வினை ஆற்றினார். ஒரு கூட்டாளிக்காக நீதித் துறையின் அதிகாரத்தைக் குறைப்பது தவறு என்றார். அட்டர்னி ஜெனரல் சொராப்ஜி அதைத் தடுத்திருக்க முடியும். ஆனால், அவர் தடுக்காமல் போனதற்கு அவருக்கென்று சொந்தக் காரணங்கள் இருந்தன’ என்று ராம் உறுதியாக நம்பினார். தி.மு.க அரசை கலைக்க வேண்டும் என்ற ஜெயலலிதாவின் கோரிக்கையை பிரதமர் ஏற்கக் கூடாது என்று ராம் தீவிரமாக வாஜ்பாய்க்கு வலியுறுத்தினார். அ.தி.மு.க-வைக் கூட்டணியைவிட்டு வெளியேற்ற வேண்டும் என்றும் சொன்னார். மே 14 அன்று மத்திய அரசின் உத்தரவு செல்லாது என்று உச்ச நீதிமன்றம் அறிவித்தது ராமின் முந்தைய முடிவு சரி என்பதை நிரூபித்தது'' என்கிறது அந்தப் புத்தகம்.
அதாவது ஜெயலலிதா மீதான வழக்குகளை விசாரிக்க அமைக்கப்பட்ட சிறப்பு நீதிமன்றங்களைக் காப்பாற்றுவதற்காக பி.ஜே.பி அரசாங்கத்தில் பகீரத பிரயத்தனங்கள் செய்த ராம் ஜெத்மலானிதான் 15 ஆண்டுகளில் பெரும் பல்டி அடித்துவிட்டார்.
ஃபாலி நாரிமன்!
முதலமைச்சர் ஜெயலலிதா மற்றும் அவரது அமைச்சரவை சகாக்கள் மீதான 48 வழக்குகளை விசாரிக்க 1997-ம் ஆண்டு தனி நீதிமன்றம் அமைக்கப்பட்டது. நீதிபதிகள் வி.ராதாகிருஷ்ணன், எஸ்.சம்பந்தம், பி.அன்பழகன் ஆகிய மூன்று பேர் தலைமையில் மூன்று நீதிமன்றங்கள் உருவாக்கப்பட்டன. விசாரணை தொடங்கியது. 98-ம் ஆண்டு மத்தியில் பி.ஜே.பி ஆட்சி அமைந்தது. அந்த அரசில் அ.தி.மு.க இடம்பெற்றது. தம்பிதுரை சட்ட அமைச்சராக ஆனார். இப்படிப்பட்ட தனி நீதிமன்றங்கள் அமைக்கும் அதிகாரம் மாநில அரசுக்குக் கிடையாது என்று சொல்லி ஓர் உத்தரவை பிறப்பித்தார். தனி நீதிமன்றங்களில் பரபரப்பாக விசாரிக்கப்பட்ட வழக்குகள் அனைத்தும் வழக்கமான நீதிமன்றங்களுக்கு மாற்றப்பட்டன. அப்படியானால் விசாரணைகள் காலதாமதம் ஆகும் என்பதுதான் இதன் நோக்கம். 98-ம் ஆண்டு பிப்ரவரி 5-ம் நாள் இந்த உத்தரவு போடப்பட்டது. இந்த உத்தரவை தி.மு.க தலைமையிலான அரசு எதிர்த்து உச்ச நீதிமன்றத்தில் மனுத் தாக்கல் செய்தது. அப்போது தமிழக அரசு சார்பில் வாதாடியவர்தான் ஃபாலி நாரிமன்.
இதற்கு மத்தியில், தங்களை வழக்குகளில் இருந்து விடுவிக்க வேண்டும் என்று ஜெயலலிதா உள்ளிட்ட 14 பேர் சென்னை உயர் நீதிமன்றத்தில் தாக்கல் செய்த வழக்கை உயர் நீதிமன்றம் தள்ளுபடி செய்துவிட்டது. இதை எதிர்த்து உச்ச நீதிமன்றம் போனார் ஜெயலலிதா. வழக்கு போட்டது சரிதான் என்று அன்றைய தமிழக அரசு சார்பில் உச்ச நீதிமன்றத்தில் வாதாடியவர் ஃபாலி நாரிமன். அப்போது தம்பிதுரையின் உத்தரவைக் கடுமையாக விமர்சித்து ஃபாலி நாரிமன் வாதிட்டார்.
''மத்திய அரசு இப்படிப்பட்ட உத்தரவை பிறப்பிக்கும் முன்பு சென்னை உயர் நீதிமன்றத்தின் ஒப்புதலை பெறவில்லை. எனவே, இது சட்டவிரோதமானது. மேலும், தனி நீதிமன்றத்தில் ஏற்கெனவே நிலுவையில் உள்ள ஜெயலலிதாவின் வழக்குகளுக்கு இந்த உத்தரவு பொருந்தாது'' என்று நாரிமன் வாதிட்டார். இந்த வழக்கில்தான் நீதிபதிகள் ஜி.டி.நானாவதி, எஸ்.பி.குர்துகர் மிகக் கடுமையான தீர்ப்பினைக் கொடுத்தார்கள்.
ஒரு வழக்கறிஞர் யாருக்கு வேண்டுமானாலும் வாதாடலாம். அவருக்கு அந்த உரிமை இருக்கிறது. ஆனால், ஒரே வழக்கில் எதிரும்புதிருமாக வெவ்வேறு காலகட்டத்தில் வாதாடுவது தார்மீக நெறியா? தமிழக அரசின் ஊழல் தடுப்பு மற்றும் கண்காணிப்பு துறை சார்பிலும் ஆஜரான நாரிமன், அந்தத் துறை தாக்கல் செய்த வழக்கில் தண்டனை பெற்றவருக்காகவும் வாதாடுவது எத்தகைய முன்னுதாரணம்? தனது மகன் உச்சநீதிமன்ற நீதிபதியாக இருக்கும்போது அதே நீதிமன்றத்தில் அப்பா வாதாடுவது தார்மீக மரபும் அல்லவே. ஃபாலி நாரிமன் காட்டியது பழுதான பாதை அல்லவா?
குன்ஹாவின் தீர்ப்பைக் கேட்டு அதிகமாகக் கொதித்துப் போனவர் சோ. 'இது இறுதியான முடிவல்ல. அவருடைய அரசியல் வாழ்க்கையே ஒரு பெரும் சோதனைக்கு உள்ளாகிவிட்டதுபோல் நினைக்க அவசியமில்லை. அவருக்கு மக்கள் செல்வாக்கு அதிகரிக்கக்கூடிய வாய்ப்புதான் உள்ளது’ என்று சோ எழுதி உள்ளார். 91-95 காலக்கட்ட அரசு பற்றிய எந்த விமர்சனத்தையும் அவர் வைக்கவில்லை. 'இந்தச் சூழ்நிலையை கருணாநிதி பயன்படுத்திக்கொள்ளக் கூடாது’ என்றும் சோ கவலைப்பட்டுள்ளார். 1996 சட்டமன்றத் தேர்தலில் ஜெயலலிதாவின் ஆட்சியின் ஊழல் முறைகேடுகளை வெளிச்சப்படுத்தி அதனை கருணாநிதி பயன்படுத்திக்கொள்ள வழிவகுத்தவரே இந்த சோ-தான்.
''கடந்த ஐந்தாண்டு கால ஆட்சியில் நாம் எத்தனையோ சாதனைகளைச் செய்திருக்கிறோம். அதை எல்லாம் மக்களிடம் முறையாக எடுத்துச் சொல்லவில்லை'' என்று ஜெயலலிதா சொல்லியதைக் குறிப்பிட்டு வாசகர் ஒருவர் கேள்வி கேட்டபோது, 'ஜெயலலிதாவுக்கு இந்த மனக்குறை தேவை இல்லை. அந்த சாதனையைத்தான் பல வழக்குகள் எடுத்துச் சொல்லிக் கொண்டிருக்கின்றனவே'' (துக்ளக் 13.8.97 - பக் 14) என்று பதிலளித்தார் சோ.
மத்திய பி.ஜே.பி ஆட்சி இந்த வழக்குகளை முடக்கும் நடவடிக்கையை எடுத்தபோது, ''ஜெயலலிதா மீதான ஊழல் வழக்குகளை எவ்வளவு தூரம் முடியுமோ அவ்வளவு தூரம் தாமதப்படுத்துவதற்கு உதவி செய்வது என்று தீர்மானித்து பி.ஜே.பி செயல்படுகிறது. இனி ஊழலைப் பற்றி பி.ஜே.பி பேசுவது நகைச்சுவைக்கு மட்டுமே பயன்படும் என்ற நிலைகூட வந்துவிடும் போலிருக்கிறது'' (துக்ளக் 20.1.99 - பக்.8) என்று பாய்ந்தவர் சோ.
ஜெயலலிதாவைக் குறிவைத்து சோ எழுதிவருவதைப் பார்த்து ஒரு வாசகர், ''ஜெயலலிதாவின் ஊழல் மட்டும் உங்கள் கண்களை ஏன் உறுத்துகிறது?'' என்று கேள்வி கேட்டபோது, ''தி.மு.க ஊழலில் இருந்து இந்திரா காந்தி ஊழல் உள்பட ஜெயலலிதா, லாலு பிரசாத் ஊழல் வரை எல்லா ஊழல்களும் உறுத்தத்தான் செய்கின்றன. இந்த உறுத்தல்களை துக்ளக் விவரித்துத்தான் வந்திருக்கிறது. உறுத்தல்கள் வளர்ந்து ஜெயலலிதா ஊழல் நோயாக முற்றிவிட்டது. அதனால்தான் கவலை அதிகம்'' என்று (10.2.99 - துக்ளக் பக்-15) விளக்கம் அளித்தவர் சோ.
''ஊழல் ஒரு குற்றமே அல்ல என்று நினைக்கும் அளவுக்குப் பெருந்தன்மை காட்டியவர் ஜெயலலிதா'' (27.1.99 துக்ளக் - பக்-8) என்று குற்றம் சாட்டியவரும் சோ-தான். இப்படி 1995 முதல் 1999 வரையிலான காலகட்டத்தில் அவர் எழுதிய தலையங்கம், கேள்வி பதில், நினைத்தேன் எழுதுகிறேன், அட்டைப்பட கார்ட்டூன் என்று எடுத்துப் போட்டாலே பல பக்கங்கள் போகும். ஆனால், சோ இன்று இந்த வழக்கை அரசியல் ரீதியாக மட்டும் பார்ப்பது ஏனோ?
சுப்பிரமணியன் சுவாமி!
முன்னால் சொன்ன மூவரும் எதிர்ப்பக்கமாக இருந்து ஆதரவாய் மாறியவர்கள் என்றால், சுப்பிரமணியன் சுவாமி ஆதரவாய் இருந்து எதிர்ப்பாய் ஆனவர். ஜெயலலிதா முதலமைச்சராக இருக்கும்போதே அவர் மீது வழக்குப் போடவேண்டும் என்று அன்றைய ஆளுநர் சென்னா ரெட்டியிடம் மனு கொடுத்து அனுமதி பெற்றவர் சுப்பிரமணியன் சுவாமிதான். அதில் சந்தேகம் இல்லை. ஆனால், அதில் சுவாமி உறுதியோடு இருந்தாரா?
1996-ல் தமிழகத்தில் ஆட்சி மாற்றம் நடந்தது. தி.மு.க ஆட்சியைப் பிடித்தது. 96 செப்டம்பர் மாதம் தமிழகத்தில் உள்ளாட்சித் தேர்தல் நடந்தது. சென்னை மாநகராட்சித் தேர்தலில் தி.மு.க சார்பில் மு.க.ஸ்டாலின், அ.தி.மு.க சார்பில் ஜெயக்குமார், ஜனதா கட்சி சார்பில் சந்திரலேகா ஆகியோர் போட்டியிட்டார்கள். திடீரென ஜெயக்குமாரை வாபஸ் வாங்கச் சொல்லிவிட்டு சந்திரலேகாவை ஆதரித்தார் ஜெயலலிதா. ''இது ஜெயலலிதாவின் பெருந்தன்மையைக் காட்டுகிறது. ஜெயலலிதாவை நான் என்றுமே தனிப்பட்ட முறையில் தாக்கியது இல்லை'' என்று சொல்லி ஏற்றுக்கொண்டவர் சுவாமி. சந்திரலேகாவுக்கு ஆசிட் தழும்பு மறையவில்லை. சுவாமிக்கு கோர்ட் காட்சிகள் மறந்திருக்காது. ஆனால், எல்லாம் மறைத்து அந்த ஆதரவை ஏற்றுக்கொண்டார்.
சுவாமி எந்த புகார்களைக் கொடுத்தாரோ அதே புகார்களை வைத்து சிறப்பு நீதிமன்றங்களை அமைக்கும் முயற்சிகள் நடந்துவரும்போது, அ.தி.மு.க தலைமைக் கழகத்துக்கு சுவாமியும் சந்திரலேகாவும் போனார்கள். சந்திரலேகாவின் 50-வது பிறந்தநாளுக்கு (1997 ஜூலை 25) ஜெயலலிதா சார்பில் பொக்கே-யை சத்தியமூர்த்தியும் டி.எம்.செல்வகணபதியும் கொண்டுவந்து கொடுத்தார்கள். சுவாமியின் 58-வது பிறந்தநாளுக்கு (1997 செப்டம்பர்) வாழ்த்துச் சொல்ல அவர் அலுவலகத்துக்கே ஜெயலலிதா வந்தார். 98-ம் ஆண்டு நாடாளுமன்றத் தேர்தலில் அ.தி.மு.க கூட்டணியில் மதுரை தொகுதியில் நின்று வென்ற சுவாமிக்கு நிதி அமைச்சர் பதவி தரவேண்டும் என்று கேட்டவர் ஜெயலலிதா. வாஜ்பாய்தான் அதற்கு உடன்படவில்லை.
ஜெயலலிதா மீதான வழக்குகளை விசாரிக்க சிறப்பு நீதிமன்றங்கள் அமைக்கப்பட்டபோது, ''ஜெயலலிதா மீது தமிழக அரசு தொடுத்திருக்கும் வழக்குகள் பழிவாங்கும் நோக்கம் கொண்டவை. தமிழக அரசு கூடுதல் நீதிபதிகளை நியமித்தது தவறு. ஊழல் ஒழிப்புச் சட்டத்தின் கீழ் சிறப்பு நீதிபதிகளை நியமிக்க தமிழக அரசுக்கு உரிமை இல்லை'' என்று அறிக்கை வெளியிட்டவர் சுவாமி. ஜெயலலிதாவுக்காகத்தான் டெல்லியில் டீ பார்ட்டி நடத்தி இன்று தன்னுடைய பரம்பரை எதிரியாகக் காட்டிக்கொள்ளும் சோனியாவை அதற்கு அழைத்து வந்தவரும் சுவாமி.
''ஒரு காலத்தில் ஜெயலலிதாவுக்கு தண்ணி காட்டிய நீங்கள், இப்போது ஜெயலலிதாவிடம் சரணடைந்திருப்பது எதைக் காட்டுகிறது?'' என்று கேட்டபோது, ''சாணக்கிய நீதியையும் பகவத் கீதையையும் நீங்கள் படிக்க வேண்டும்'' என்று அறிவுரை சொன்னார் சுவாமி.
கிருஷ்ண பரமாத்மாவை இதைவிட வேறுயாரும் கிண்டலடித்திருக்க முடியாது!

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By முகனூல் விவகாரத்துரை அமைச்சர் கார்த்திக்
திமுக னா என்ன ணா?

- ஏழைகிட்ட இருக்கற 2 இட்லியையும் புடுங்கி திங்கறது தான் திமுக.

அதிமுக னா என்ன ணா?

- ஏழைகிட்ட இருக்கற 2 இட்லில இருந்து 1 இட்லியும், பணக்காரங்ககிட்ட இருக்கற 4இட்லில 1 இட்லியையும் புடுங்கி திங்கறதுதான் அதிமுக.

காங்கிரஸ் னா என்ன ணா?

- ஏழைக இட்லி சாப்பட மாவுகூட தராம மொத்தத்தையும் அவங்களே வேச்சு திங்கறவங்கதான் காங்கிரஸ்.

பிஜேபி னா என்ன ணா?

- பூ மாற இட்லி வேக வெச்சு தரேன், பூ மாற இட்லி வேக வெச்சு தரேன்னு வாயலயே இட்லி சுட்டு தரவங்கதான் பிஜேபி.

மொத்தத்துல இந்திய அரசியல் கட்சிகனா யார் ணா?

- தேர்தல் சமயத்தில மட்டும் பூ மாற இட்லிய தருவேன்னு சொல்ட்டு தேர்தல் முடிஞ்சதுக்கப்பறம் பூசனம் புடிச்ச இட்லிகூட தராம இருக்கறவங்கதான் இந்திய அரசியல் கட்சிகள்.^AK
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