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hisao m
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hisao m

» General - 総合  - 
 
Let's talk about ウ音便(u-onbin).

音便(onbin) is a change in the pronunciation of a word, an euphony.

ウ音便 happens when sounds like く,ぐ,ひ,び,み are changed to う.

In modern Japanese you see ウ音便 mainly in the following two words:
お早うございます (o hayō gozaimasu): Good morning.
有難うございます (arigatō gozaimasu): Thank you.

ウ音便 is applied in the adverbial form of the adjective:
adjective: 早い (hayai)
adverb: 早く (hayaku)
u-onbin: 早う (hayō)

お早うございます  literally means "it is early".

You can use ウ音便 on other i-adjectives, followed by the ございます or ぞんじます, but these forms are probably considered archaic in modern Japanese:

adjective: 嬉しい (ureshii)
adverb: 嬉しく (ureshiku)
u-onbin: 嬉しゅうございます (ureshū gozaimasu)

adjective: 寒い (samui)
adverb: 寒く (samuku)
u-onbin: お寒うございます (o samū gozaimasu)

お寒うございます can be used as a greeting on a cold winter day.
It literally means "it is cold".

adjective: 暑い (atsui)
adverb: 暑く (atsuku)
u-onbin: お暑うございます (o atsū gozaimasu)

adjective: 高い (takai)
adverb: 高く (takaku)
u-onbin: 高うぞんじます (takō zonjimasu)

ウ音便 also appears in words like:
仲人(なこうど) which was previously pronounced なかびと.
弟(おとうと) which was previously pronounced おとひと.
妹(いもうと) which was previously pronounced いもひと.

references:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/je/9510/meaning/m0u/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF/
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF
http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1081014095
http://www.akenotsuki.com/kyookotoba/bumpoo/keiyooshi.html
http://kids.gakken.co.jp/jiten/1/10014180.html
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hisao m

文法 - Grammar  - 
 
Let's talk about ウ音便(u-onbin).

音便(onbin) is a change in the pronunciation of a word, an euphony.

ウ音便 happens when sounds like く,ぐ,ひ,び,み are changed to う.

In modern Japanese you see ウ音便 mainly in the following two words:
お早うございます (o hayō gozaimasu): Good morning.
有難うございます (arigatō gozaimasu): Thank you.

ウ音便 is applied in the adverbial form of the adjective:
adjective: 早い (hayai)
adverb: 早く (hayaku)
u-onbin: 早う (hayō)

お早うございます  literally means "it is early".

You can use ウ音便 on other i-adjectives, followed by  ございます or ぞんじます, but these forms are probably considered archaic in modern Japanese:

adjective: 嬉しい (ureshii)
adverb: 嬉しく (ureshiku)
u-onbin: 嬉しゅうございます (ureshū gozaimasu)

adjective: 寒い (samui)
adverb: 寒く (samuku)
u-onbin: お寒うございます (o samū gozaimasu)

お寒うございます can be used as a greeting on a cold winter day.
It literally means "it is cold".

adjective: 暑い (atsui)
adverb: 暑く (atsuku)
u-onbin: お暑うございます (o atsū gozaimasu)

adjective: 高い (takai)
adverb: 高く (takaku)
u-onbin: 高うぞんじます (takō zonjimasu)

ウ音便 also appears in words like:
仲人(なこうど) which was previously pronounced なかびと.
弟(おとうと) which was previously pronounced おとひと.
妹(いもうと) which was previously pronounced いもひと.

references:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/je/9510/meaning/m0u/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF/
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF
http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1081014095
http://www.akenotsuki.com/kyookotoba/bumpoo/keiyooshi.html
http://kids.gakken.co.jp/jiten/1/10014180.html
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hisao m

» General - 総合  - 
 
How many of you have switched to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary?

Because sooner or later you have to.
At first everybody will study with a Japanese-English dictionary.
But there is a limit to what these dictionaries can provide.
Most translations are just approximations. They will not be exact translations.
If you want to know the exact meaning of word you will have to go to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary.

For example what is the meaning of 手?
Most dictionaries will say "hand".
http://jisho.org/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&keyword=%E6%89%8B

But that is not what Japanese dictionaries say:
The first meaning of 手 is the part of the human body from the shoulder to the fingertips:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/jn/148831/meaning/m1u/%E6%89%8B/

Even though 手 may also be translated as "hand", that is not the first meaning of the word.

Can you think of other words whose meanings are not exactly correct in a Japanese-English dictionary?
3
hisao m's profile photoBrome Inay's profile photo
3 comments
 
No, you're shortening the definition. The whole sentence given on the page you linked to is "the upper limb of the human body, especially the part extending from the shoulder to the wrist."

"Especially" does not mean "always".

Considering that "arm" only refers to the part extending from the shoulder to the wrist would be the same mistake as considering that 手 can only refer to the hand.
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hisao m

Shared publicly  - 
 
What is the difference between が and は?

This question gets asked again and again, and what is worse, nobody seems to be able to come up with a simple, good answer.
Let's be short and to the point:

これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

は is used to make a flat statement, without emphasis.
が is used to put emphasis in the preceding word.

それは何ですか? (sore wa nan desu ka) What is that?
これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.

どれが本ですか?(dore ga hon desu ka)? Which one is the book?
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

They are not interchangeable, they have different meanings.
は and が often indicate the subject of the sentence, but not always.
That is probably the source of all confusion.
Maybe it is better to think that they have nothing to do with the subject.

は usually indicates the topic of the sentence.
The topic of the sentence is what the sentence is talking about, which is not necessarily the subject.
Let's see an example:

コーヒーは毎日飲んでいます。kōhī wa mainichi nonde imasu.
Speaking of coffee, I drink it every day.

When I say "コーヒーは", it means that I am going to talk about coffee.
As long as I don't change the topic, all subsequent sentences will all be about coffee. But coffee may not necessarily be the subject of the sentence.

Speaking of coffee,
I drink it every day
I love it,
I think it is delicious.

コーヒーは (kōhī wa)
毎日飲んでいますし、 (mainichi nonde imasu shi)
大好きだし、 (dai suki da shi)
とても美味しいと思います。 (totemo oshii to omoimasu)

Coffee is not the subject of the sentence. But all sentences after コーヒーは talk about coffee. Coffee is the topic of the sentences.
The subject is the pronoun "I" which can be omitted because it is obvious who the subject is.

Another example:

Speaking of Mr. Tanaka,
his house is tiny
but his dog is enormous.

田中さんは (Tanaka san wa)
家がとても小さいけど、 (uchi ga totemo chiisai kedo)
犬が凄く大きい。 (inu ga sugoku ookii)

Mr. Tanaka is neither the subject nor object of the sentences. But we are talking about his house and his dog, so he is the topic of the sentences.
The particle は has nothing to do with the subject or object of the sentence.

Both sentences below are acceptable:
田中さんの犬が大きい。(Tanaka san no inu ga ookii) Mr. Tanaka's dog is big.
田中さんは犬が大きい。 (Tanaka san wa inu ga ookii) Speaking of Mr. Tanaka, his dog is big.

http://hcm9999.blogspot.jp/2015/09/what-is-difference-between-and.html
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Add a comment...

hisao m

General Discussion  - 
 
What is the difference between が and は?

This question gets asked again and again, and what is worse, nobody seems to be able to come up with a simple, good answer.
Let's be short and to the point:

これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

は is used to make a flat statement, without emphasis.
が is used to put emphasis in the preceding word.

それは何ですか? (sore wa nan desu ka) What is that?
これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.

どれが本ですか?(dore ga hon desu ka)? Which one is the book?
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

They are not interchangeable, they have different meanings.
は and が often indicate the subject of the sentence, but not always.
That is probably the source of all confusion.
Maybe it is better to think that they have nothing to do with the subject.

は usually indicates the topic of the sentence.
The topic of the sentence is what the sentence is talking about, which is not necessarily the subject.
Let's see an example:

コーヒーは毎日飲んでいます。kōhī wa mainichi nonde imasu.
Speaking of coffee, I drink it every day.

When I say "コーヒーは", it means that I am going to talk about coffee.
As long as I don't change the topic, all subsequent sentences will all be about coffee. But coffee may not necessarily be the subject of the sentence.

Speaking of coffee,
I drink it every day
I love it,
I think it is delicious.

コーヒーは (kōhī wa)
毎日飲んでいますし、 (mainichi nonde imasu shi)
大好きだし、 (dai suki da shi)
とても美味しいと思います。 (totemo oshii to omoimasu)

Coffee is not the subject of the sentence. But all sentences after コーヒーは talk about coffee. Coffee is the topic of the sentences.
The subject is the pronoun "I" which can be omitted because it is obvious who the subject is.

Another example:

Speaking of Mr. Tanaka,
his house is tiny
but his dog is enormous.

田中さんは (Tanaka san wa)
家がとても小さいけど、 (uchi ga totemo chiisai kedo)
犬が凄く大きい。 (inu ga sugoku ookii)

Mr. Tanaka is neither the subject nor object of the sentences. But we are talking about his house and his dog, so he is the topic of the sentences.
The particle は has nothing to do with the subject or object of the sentence.

Both sentences below are acceptable:
田中さんの犬が大きい。(Tanaka san no inu ga ookii) Mr. Tanaka's dog is big.
田中さんは犬が大きい。 (Tanaka san wa inu ga ookii) Speaking of Mr. Tanaka, his dog is big.

http://hcm9999.blogspot.jp/2015/09/what-is-difference-between-and.html
 ·  Translate
12
2
Add a comment...

hisao m

Discussion (incl. Introductions)  - 
 
What is the difference between が and は?

This question gets asked again and again, and what is worse, nobody seems to be able to come up with a simple, good answer.
Let's be short and to the point:

これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

は is used to make a flat statement, without emphasis.
が is used to put emphasis in the preceding word.

それは何ですか? (sore wa nan desu ka) What is that?
これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.

どれが本ですか?(dore ga hon desu ka)? Which one is the book?
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

They are not interchangeable, they have different meanings.
は and が often indicate the subject of the sentence, but not always.
That is probably the source of all confusion.
Maybe it is better to think that they have nothing to do with the subject.

は usually indicates the topic of the sentence.
The topic of the sentence is what the sentence is talking about, which is not necessarily the subject.
Let's see an example:

コーヒーは毎日飲んでいます。kōhī wa mainichi nonde imasu.
Speaking of coffee, I drink it every day.

When I say "コーヒーは", it means that I am going to talk about coffee.
As long as I don't change the topic, all subsequent sentences will all be about coffee. But coffee may not necessarily be the subject of the sentence.

Speaking of coffee,
I drink it every day
I love it,
I think it is delicious.

コーヒーは (kōhī wa)
毎日飲んでいますし、 (mainichi nonde imasu shi)
大好きだし、 (dai suki da shi)
とても美味しいと思います。 (totemo oshii to omoimasu)

Coffee is not the subject of the sentence. But all sentences after コーヒーは talk about coffee. Coffee is the topic of the sentences.
The subject is the pronoun "I" which can be omitted because it is obvious who the subject is.

Another example:

Speaking of Mr. Tanaka,
his house is tiny
but his dog is enormous.

田中さんは (Tanaka san wa)
家がとても小さいけど、 (uchi ga totemo chiisai kedo)
犬が凄く大きい。 (inu ga sugoku ookii)

Mr. Tanaka is neither the subject nor object of the sentences. But we are talking about his house and his dog, so he is the topic of the sentences.
The particle は has nothing to do with the subject or object of the sentence.

Both sentences below are acceptable:
田中さんの犬が大きい。(Tanaka san no inu ga ookii) Mr. Tanaka's dog is big.
田中さんは犬が大きい。 (Tanaka san wa inu ga ookii) Speaking of Mr. Tanaka, his dog is big.

http://hcm9999.blogspot.jp/2015/09/what-is-difference-between-and.html
 ·  Translate
5
Add a comment...

hisao m

General Discussion  - 
 
Let's talk about ウ音便(u-onbin).

音便(onbin) is a change in the pronunciation of a word, an euphony.

ウ音便 happens when sounds like く,ぐ,ひ,び,み are changed to う.

In modern Japanese you see ウ音便 mainly in the following two words:
お早うございます (o hayō gozaimasu): Good morning.
有難うございます (arigatō gozaimasu): Thank you.

ウ音便 is applied in the adverbial form of the adjective:
adjective: 早い (hayai)
adverb: 早く (hayaku)
u-onbin: 早う (hayō)

お早うございます  literally means "it is early".

You can use ウ音便 on other i-adjectives, followed by the ございます or ぞんじます, but these forms are probably considered archaic in modern Japanese:

adjective: 嬉しい (ureshii)
adverb: 嬉しく (ureshiku)
u-onbin: 嬉しゅうございます (ureshū gozaimasu)

adjective: 寒い (samui)
adverb: 寒く (samuku)
u-onbin: お寒うございます (o samū gozaimasu)

お寒うございます can be used as a greeting on a cold winter day.
It literally means "it is cold".

adjective: 暑い (atsui)
adverb: 暑く (atsuku)
u-onbin: お暑うございます (o atsū gozaimasu)

adjective: 高い (takai)
adverb: 高く (takaku)
u-onbin: 高うぞんじます (takō zonjimasu)

ウ音便 also appears in words like:
仲人(なこうど) which was previously pronounced なかびと.
弟(おとうと) which was previously pronounced おとひと.
妹(いもうと) which was previously pronounced いもひと.

references:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/je/9510/meaning/m0u/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF/
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%9F%B3%E4%BE%BF
http://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1081014095
http://www.akenotsuki.com/kyookotoba/bumpoo/keiyooshi.html
http://kids.gakken.co.jp/jiten/1/10014180.html
 ·  Translate
1
Add a comment...

hisao m

General Discussion  - 
 
How many of you have switched to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary?

Because sooner or later you have to.
At first everybody will study with a Japanese-English dictionary.
But there is a limit to what these dictionaries can provide.
Most translations are just approximations. They will not be exact translations.
If you want to know the exact meaning of word you will have to go to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary.

For example what is the meaning of 手?
Most dictionaries will say "hand".
http://jisho.org/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&keyword=%E6%89%8B

But that is not what Japanese dictionaries say:
The first meanig of 手 is the part of the human body from the shoulder to the fingertips:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/jn/148831/meaning/m1u/%E6%89%8B/

Even though 手 may also be translated as "hand", that is not the first meaning of the word.

Can you think of other words whose meanings are not exactly correct in a Japanese-English dictionary?
10
Add a comment...

hisao m

Discussion (incl. Introductions)  - 
 
How many of you have switched to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary?

Because sooner or later you have to.
At first everybody will study with a Japanese-English dictionary.
But there is a limit to what these dictionaries can provide.
Most translations are just approximations. They will not be exact translations.
If you want to know the exact meaning of a word you will have to go to a Japanese-Japanese dictionary.

For example what is the meaning of 手?
Most dictionaries will say "hand".
http://jisho.org/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&keyword=%E6%89%8B

But that is not what Japanese dictionaries say:
The first meaning of 手 is the part of the human body from the shoulder to the fingertips:
http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/jn/148831/meaning/m1u/%E6%89%8B/

Even though 手 may also be translated as "hand", that is not the first meaning of the word.

Can you think of other words whose meanings are not exactly correct in a Japanese-English dictionary?
2
Ilya Gritsenko's profile photo
 
I think the best way is to use common Kokugo jiten. I had bought one of 82,000 Japanese words. And I found it very useful for words understanding. 
Add a comment...

hisao m

ASK QUESTIONS HERE!  - 
 
I have a question.
Are Google+ pages searchable by search engines?
I never see Google+ pages in the results of Google searches.
5
Dirk Jan Lekkerkerker's profile photoStephen L's profile photoJohn R. Ellis's profile photohisao m's profile photo
6 comments
hisao m
 
Thanks!
Add a comment...

hisao m

» General - 総合  - 
 
What is the difference between が and は?

This question gets asked again and again, and what is worse, nobody seems to be able to come up with a simple, good answer.
Let's be short and to the point:

これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

は is used to make a flat statement, without emphasis.
が is used to put emphasis in the preceding word.

それは何ですか? (sore wa nan desu ka) What is that?
これは本だ。(kore wa hon da) This is a book.

どれが本ですか?(dore ga hon desu ka)? Which one is the book?
これが本だ。(kore ga hon da) This one is the book.

They are not interchangeable, they have different meanings.
は and が often indicate the subject of the sentence, but not always.
That is probably the source of all confusion.
Maybe it is better to think that they have nothing to do with the subject.

は usually indicates the topic of the sentence.
The topic of the sentence is what the sentence is talking about, which is not necessarily the subject.
Let's see an example:

コーヒーは毎日飲んでいます。kōhī wa mainichi nonde imasu.
Speaking of coffee, I drink it every day.

When I say "コーヒーは", it means that I am going to talk about coffee.
As long as I don't change the topic, all subsequent sentences will all be about coffee. But coffee may not necessarily be the subject of the sentence.

Speaking of coffee,
I drink it every day
I love it,
I think it is delicious.

コーヒーは (kōhī wa)
毎日飲んでいますし、 (mainichi nonde imasu shi)
大好きだし、 (dai suki da shi)
とても美味しいと思います。 (totemo oshii to omoimasu)

Coffee is not the subject of the sentence. But all sentences after コーヒーは talk about coffee. Coffee is the topic of the sentences.
The subject is the pronoun "I" which can be omitted because it is obvious who the subject is.

Another example:

Speaking of Mr. Tanaka,
his house is tiny
but his dog is enormous.

田中さんは (Tanaka san wa)
家がとても小さいけど、 (uchi ga totemo chiisai kedo)
犬が凄く大きい。 (inu ga sugoku ookii)

Mr. Tanaka is neither the subject nor object of the sentences. But we are talking about his house and his dog, so he is the topic of the sentences.
The particle は has nothing to do with the subject or object of the sentence.

Both sentences below are acceptable:
田中さんの犬が大きい。(Tanaka san no inu ga ookii) Mr. Tanaka's dog is big.
田中さんは犬が大きい。 (Tanaka san wa inu ga ookii) Speaking of Mr. Tanaka, his dog is big.

http://hcm9999.blogspot.jp/2015/09/what-is-difference-between-and.html
 ·  Translate
8
Tetsu Saru's profile photoOfficial HollyTM's profile photo
2 comments
 
ありがとうございました!
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Story
Tagline
Brasileiro no Japão. Brazilian in Japan.日本に住んでいるブラジル人です。
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