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patrick tinkham
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Scientists have been stumped as to why temperatures in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere are comparable to those found at Earth, yet Jupiter is more than five times the distance from the sun. New research suggests that Jupiter’s Great Red Spot may be the mysterious heat source. Details: http://go.nasa.gov/2aizPi6
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Despite its size, each reactor at a proposed EM² plant would produce electricity at higher power density, a measure of the energy flow, and at much higher temperatures, boosting thermal efficiency from the 33% seen in current reactors to 53%.
The scientists and engineers at General Atomics think the future of nuclear energy is coming on the back of a flatbed truck.
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Basilica of St Paul and St Peter, Prague, Czech Republic
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#Prague is now on my bucket list.
 
Golden Gate, St. Vitus Cathedral,
Prague, Czech Republic

(Na Zlatej bráne v južnom priečelí sa nachádza mozaika, ktorá zobrazuje Posledný súd a postavy českých patrónov Karla IV. s Eliškou Pomoranskou)

#praha #praga #prague #prahapragaprague #czechrepublic #česko #czech #czechia #VitusCathedral #KatedrálaSvatéhoVíta #GoldenGate #ZlatáBrána #city #cathedral #church #night #nightviews #streetphotography #street #lumixdmclx100 #lumix100 #lumixlx100 #lx100
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Scientists at PNNL demonstrated how any research-grade optical microscope could be used to record spectrally resolved optical images. They replaced a standard 2D camera of an optical microscope with a 3D "hyperspectral" detector. The resulting instrument was then used to record spatially and spectrally resolved dark field optical images of hundreds of silver nanoparticles in a matter of about 30 seconds. The technique can be used to study live cells, biological specimens, engineered metallic substrates with unique optical properties and atmospheric nanoparticles. Learn more about the impact of this work at http://goo.gl/CYyGRO.
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While there are presently more than ~10^23 stars in the Universe shining today, each one of them is fated to live only for a finite amount of time. While more and more will continue to form, we're already past the point of peak star formation in the Universe. How long will we have until, for the last time, the Universe's last star goes out?

Find out on this edition of the Starts With A Bang podcast!
Ethan Siegel
Starts With A Bang #10: The Last Star In The Universe by Ethan Siegel
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“Dimensional reduction is an attractive idea because quantizing gravity is considerably easier in lower dimensions, where the infinities that plague traditional attempts to quantize gravity go away. A theory with a reduced number of dimensions at the shortest distances therefore has a much higher chance to remain consistent, and therefore to provide a meaningful theory for the quantum nature of space and time. Not so surprisingly, among physicists, dimensional reduction has received quite some attention lately.”

In a four-dimensional Universe (3 space and 1 time), it’s easy to get lost. If you take a random walk, the chances of you coming back to your original starting point in a finite number of steps gets lower and lower the more dimensions you have. If all you could do was walk along a sheet of paper – or even better, along the surface of a pipe – you’d have a much greater chance of return than if you had all three spatial dimensions to deal with. There’s an interesting property of mathematics that if you treat all four dimensions as “space” rather than spacetime and you add in the laws of quantum mechanics, then at very short distance scales, the probability of a random walker returning to their original position behaves like they’re in a two dimensional Universe, rather than four.

Could this be a way of reducing the quantum gravity problem from a difficult (perhaps unsolvable) 4D case to an easier (and solvable) 2D one? Sabine Hossenfelder investigates!
Perhaps looking at our Universe as three dimensions of space is too restrictive. What if we were more -- and less -- all at once?
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A step towards future collider development

A new furnace for building superconducting magnet coils for High-Luminosity LHC and future particle accelerators arrived at CERN last month and is currently being installed and tested.
A new furnace arrived at CERN’s Large Magnet Facility last month and is currently being installed and tested. The furnace completes the equipment required for the production of superconducting coils, which are needed for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade and future circular colliders.  Superconducting accelerator magnets are key for reaching higher energies and luminosities in particle accelerators.
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Ripple Tank - Interference

The animation shows how two sets of wave fronts are combined to produce interference.

In addition, the effect of the change in the separation between the two sources and wavelength are shown here too.

Due to the size of the animation, the changing options have been curtailed; it is already over 5MB!

HTML5 Canvas Coding Credit: S Reddy

#RippleTank  
#RippleTankAnimation  
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Kepler's Laws

1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with one of the foci being the Sun.

2) The line that joins the Sun and the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal lengths of time

3) The square of the orbital period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis.

In the animation, the first two laws are depicted.

Animation Credit: Michael Fowler

#KeplersLawsAnimation
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“It means that as time goes on, the light emitted by distant galaxies gets shifted quite heavily towards the red part of the spectrum, resulting in a cosmological redshift. It means that there are some portions of the Universe that are so distant that light emitted from them will never be able to reach us. Currently, that point is anything beyond about 46.1 billion light years from us, given our Universe, to the best we can measure it, that’s been around 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang.”

One of the toughest things to wrap your mind around in the natural world is the idea of special relativity: the faster you move, the closer you get to the speed of light, the more difficult it becomes to increase your speed at all. While you might approach the speed of light arbitrarily and asymptotically, you’ll never reach it. And yet, we have the Universe, expanding all the time, where the expansion rate itself is even speeding up. You might wonder, then, if these distant galaxies — the farther and farther away you look — might ever be seen moving away from us faster than the speed of light? Surprisingly and mind-bendingly, the answer is yes.
Special relativity limits all particles to the speed of light. But space itself, thanks to general relativity, can do better.
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