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patrick tinkham
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Revolutionary new electronic devices require new and novel material systems. Scientists from PNNL and the University of Minnesota showed that combining two oxide materials in one particular orientation gives rise to a densely packed sheet of highly mobile electrons. The density of these electrons – the highest ever observed at the junction of two materials – may well help create a new class of electronic devices. Learn more at http://goo.gl/6DBrPh.

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By depositing alternating, ultra-thin layers of NdTiO3 and SrTiO3 on a crystalline surface, and investigating their properties experimentally and theoretically, the researchers demonstrated that a very high density of mobile electrons can be generated and confined within the SrTiO3 layers. The mobile electrons jump from the NdTiO3 layers, where they cannot easily move, into the SrTiO3 layers, where they are free to move.

Why do the electrons jump? A certain number must jump from NdTiO3 into SrTiO3 to stabilize the combined material system. The charges that stabilize the neodymium (Nd) and titanium (Ti) ions in NdTiO3 cannot be reached without electron rearrangement, and part of this rearrangement involves some electrons jumping across the junction into the adjacent SrTiO3 layers. However, when the NdTiO3 layer reaches a certain thickness, it becomes energetically favorable for additional loosely bound electrons in the NdTiO3 layer to spill over into the adjacent SrTiO3 layer, like water running over a waterfall. Once this happens, the SrTiO3 layers become conducting channels with a high density of mobile electrons.

Why is this important? New kinds of electronic devices that exhibit novel functionalities are constantly being sought after to expand our technology base. One such device, which cannot be fabricated with existing electronic materials, is a high-frequency plasmonic field effect transistor. This device can turn a larger electronic signal on and off very fast, something not achievable with traditional semiconductor materials, such as silicon. The interface between NdTiO3 and SrTiO3 constitutes such a pathway, even though neither oxide conducts electricity as a pure material.

What's Next? This work is part of ongoing research into the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of doped metals at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Work at the University of Minnesota was supported primarily by the National Science Foundation through the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center under awards DMR-0819885 and DMR-1420013. The band offset work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering. The computational modeling at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was supported by the PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program.
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DNA extraction for the holidays??!! Yes!! 
If you're not a biologist, then 'DNA' is one of those vague Hollywood concepts that you know determines all kinds of phenotypic traits in you and basically anything living around you, but you've never actually seen it in person. Well, that is to say, you've seen plenty of DNA material, but not isolated, so you can point to it and say "Hey, that's DNA!" Well, let's remedy that, shall we?
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Helllllo winter! Via BuzzFeed Comics
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Rutherford Model of an Atom

Although, the existence of protons and electrons inside an atom was known by 1911, the arrangement of them inside the atom was still in infancy.

The plum pudding model  proposed by J. J Thompson, said both electrons and protons are distributed uniformly distributed in an atom.

Ernest Rutherford wanted to put this hypothesis to test: with his famous gold foil experiment - illustrated in the animation - Rutherford discarded Thomson's model and reasoned that most of the mass of the atom is concentrated on at its centre and it is positively charged - which later became to be known as the nucleus.

According the Rutherford model, electrons mimic the planets in the solar system while orbiting the nucleus. 

Animation Credit: David Harrison


#RutherfordModel  
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How ancient technology is mixed with current day tech to make something clean and simple for people who don't have access to electricity. This is a fun project that anyone can basically make but you just have to have the idea.
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Photo of the Day: The balconies of a hotel in Singapore overflow with greenery in this bird's-eye view captured by Lucas Foglia for the January issue of National Geographic magazine. #photography 
A swimmer takes a dip in the pool of a greenery-covered hotel in Singapore in this National Geographic Photo of the Day.
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"If I showed you a tulip and said, “this is a rose,” you could show me all the roses in the world and say, “no, these are roses, that is a tulip.” If I then changed the definition of a rose to include tulips, would that cause a tulip to become a rose? Or would I merely be turning a useful definition and distinction into a less useful one?"

Earlier this month, a conference was held devoted to the question of whether untestable scientific ideas like string theory and the multiverse are actually science or not. While many opinions were stated and no one changed their mind, the answer is apparent: unless you’re willing to change the definition of science to include ‘this thing that isn’t science,’ then no, string theory is not science. It’s a theory in the sense of a mathematical theory — like set theory, group theory or number theory — but it isn’t yet a scientific theory. Of course, it could become science, but that would require that it actually do the things a scientific theory does: make testable predictions that can be validated or falsified.
It sounds like science, it talks like science, and scientists work on it. But it isn't science. At least, not yet.
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How do the models change between supernovas and hypernovas? The story goes beyond: star runs out of fuel, implodes, shockwaves, and massive explosion. The folks at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and University of California, Berkeley are investigating and hope to learn more about hypernovas and how some of the heaviest elements in our universe formed. More after the jump.
Astrophysicists have created a computer model that simulates a dying stars' magnetic guts before generating a cosmic monster.
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