I enjoyed reading this article...http://www.mathcoachscorner.com/2016/02/using-guiding-questions-to-probe-student-understanding/
The author, Donna Boucher, discusses "GUIDING QUESTIONS" in mathematics. Those are questions you ask the students that probe their general understanding of a concept - and most of the time they seem simple to us. :) For example, she asked some 4th grade students, "What are fifths?" and got surprising answers -- showing MISCONCEPTIONS in the students' thinking.
It reminded me of a conversation I recently had with my 2nd grader. It's not about math, but you'll see the similarity. We had been discussing weather. He had some idea that in some countries the weather was colder than where we live. So, I asked him, in front of a big world map, in which places did he think the weather was warm and where it was cold. :O
I got a pretty surprising answer... he pointed to the Americas as being the warm places, and then Europe, Africa, and Asia were cold. His "division" of the world to warm/cold was with a vertical line through the Atlantic!
But in another sense, it's NOT surprising... it reflects what little bits and pieces he's learned. He's heard Finland is cold, and his school book had pictures of snowy weather from Russia, so that probably was the major factor in his decision to delegate all of the Eastern hemisphere as chilly places.
You can do the same in ALL your teaching, and Donna has some great ideas of how to get started when it comes to math. Please do go check out her article! It's not long.