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脑残还是少动口 人丑就该多读书
脑残还是少动口 人丑就该多读书

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#识图看史
@hengcuo: 哈佛大学做的一个牛逼的中国地图,从古自今各种地理信息 http://worldmap.harvard.edu/maps/chinaX
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大和谐

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Propaganda

The art is red

Propaganda art is enjoying a new lease of life

Dec 20th 2014 | XI’AN | From the print edition



AS THE people of Xi’an file through the subway and along underpasses, rush past bus stops and buildings, they pass hundreds of posters. Some of these advertise the newest smartphone or fancy car, but many tout less marketable commodities: the importance of thrift, diligence, filial devotion, Chinese civilisation and the virtues of the ruling party. “The Communist Party is good, the people are happy” reads one, over an image of a couple bouncing their single child.

During the party’s rule, propaganda art has always been a feature of the urban landscape. But in recent years it has been relegated to the margins by the onslaught of commercial advertising. President Xi Jinping has been trying to revive it. Propaganda posters are now everywhere: on fences around construction sites, billboards and walls. The party is waging a low-tech, old-fashioned campaign to sell itself. At the same time it is tightening its grip on creative endeavours that do not have the party’s welfare in mind. Art for the sake of politics is back in vogue.



Art has a long political history in China. It was deployed by all sides in the revolutionary campaigns of the 20th century to fight for hearts and minds. In the 1920s the Communists used the arts to communicate their ideas to a largely illiterate population. In 1942, at Yan’an in northern China, Mao Zedong—then a guerrilla leader—famously called for all art to reflect the life of the working class and serve socialism.

Art and the party were aligned for the next 40 years. Art for art’s sake ceased to exist. Artists had little choice but to produce propaganda. Mao-era posters were often striking with their muscular steelworkers and relentlessly cheerful peasants. They provided a rare spot of colour in otherwise grey lives; many people decorated their walls with such images (unintentionally, the paper also proved useful as insulation).

The alliance between art and the party weakened almost as soon as commercial advertising started again in 1979. The party ceded its monopoly over public messages. Artists could earn more, and enjoy greater freedom and public standing in pursuit of goals other than political ones. The party’s message, meanwhile, became more nuanced. Deng Xiaoping’s “opening up and reform” did not lend itself to compelling imagery. Jiang Zemin, who took over as China’s leader in the early 1990s, summed up his political theory as the “three represents” in which the party represents China’s productive forces, advanced culture and the interests of its people. That was also tricky to depict visually.

The new posters appeal to a sense of pride in traditional Chinese culture and a common desire to make China strong again. Since taking office in 2012 Mr Xi has tried to tap into these sentiments by speaking of a “Chinese dream” and the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation”. The arts play a central role: schools run essay-writing contests to promote the dream; there is a nationwide photography competition to capture “My Chinese dream”; there are songs about it, too.

Posters are the most visible tool in Mr Xi’s campaign. Many praise the country or the party. (“Without the Communist party there would be no new China” sing three Chinese dolls in one poster.) Others promote moral values (a peasant girl with bows in her hair accompanies the platitude: “Everyone contributes a little love”). A handful call on people to protect the environment (a simple pen and ink drawing of a bicycle illustrates the wishful message: “Drive less, cycle more”). A ubiquitous one (pictured above) features an apple-cheeked girl and the words: “The Chinese dream is my dream”.

More than any leader since Mao, Mr Xi has embarked on a charm offensive to court public opinion. But he also wants to strengthen the party’s hold. By bombarding people with images, the party is trying to recover some of the psychological power it once enjoyed under Mao. The abundance of the posters and the uniformity of their style sends a message: the party is all-pervasive. In October, echoing Mao’s address in Yan’an, Mr Xi called on artists to promote socialism rather than be “slaves” to the market or chase popularity with “vulgar” works. This month the media regulator said artists, film-makers and television personalities should spend time in rural areas to “form a correct view of art”.

The imagery in the posters reflects Mr Xi’s artistic taste—nothing too adventurous. Many of them use works by an artist, Feng Zikai, who was popular during the party’s infancy in the 1920s and 1930s (he was criticised during Mao’s Cultural Revolution and died in 1975). They hark back to a traditional China with red lanterns and zodiac symbols.

By contrast, some of China’s living artists are feeling the squeeze of the state. Since the 1980s they have emerged from underground and have become part of the global contemporary-art scene. Constraints have remained on those who defy political taboos—Ai Weiwei, China’s best-known artist and an outspoken dissident, has not had his passport returned since it was confiscated more than three years ago. But the government is more suspicious of creative types than its immediate predecessor was. The annual Beijing Independent Film Festival was shut down in August, as were two others in 2013. Several artists who posted comments on social media about the recent protests in Hong Kong (seearticle) were arrested. The authorities are more vigorously enforcing rules that foreign artworks entering China must be vetted by the Ministry of Culture.

The government is wary of contemporary artists because their work reflects how people feel about society now, says Zhang Haitao, a curator and art critic in Beijing. It clearly irks Mr Xi that their vision of China’s future, their “Chinese dream”, is not always the same as his.



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做事要心静。
被这四个人吓的不敢睁开眼,作孽啊
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The United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy with Orion atop it lifted off at 7:05 a.m. EST from Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. 

The second stage of the Delta IV Heavy has completed its first engine burn, delivering Orion to its initial orbit. Approximately two hours into the flight test, the second stage of the Delta IV Heavy will undergo a second engine burn to send Orion on its way to its peak altitude of 3,600 miles.
 
The uncrewed flight is testing many of the riskiest events Orion will see when it carries astronauts and provide critical data to improve the spacecraft’s design and reduce risks to its future crews. During today's text, Orion will orbit Earth twice, reaching a peak altitude of 3,600 miles during its trip. The spacecraft is scheduled to splashdown in the Pacific Ocean in approximately 4.5 hours. Orion’s flight test is a critical step on NASA's Journey to Mars.

Watch live coverage now: http://www.nasa.gov/nasatv
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一朝天子一朝逼格

昨天是我蛤对香港记者发表重要谈话14周年,在占中如火如荼的当下于朋友圈里复盘了当时怒斥记者的文字版还觉得意犹未尽,便哆哆嗦嗦上了油土鳖重温了当时视频,思绪万千夜不能寐,有些话想说。14年了,这段视频常看常新,每看一遍受益良多,我蛤为何风趣幽默逼格高,窃以为跟其教育背景有关,良好的城市氛围和家庭教育背景使得我蛤从扬州著名的东关中心小学伊始,就「每天在融合东西方文化的唱歌和游戏中度过」,就是在这所小学,我蛤开始接触一生的挚爱——音乐。中学六年则就读于当时号称「北有南开中学 南有扬州中学」的扬中,有趣的是扬州往北100公里出生的周半旗早其20年就在南开读的中学。扬中当时实行的是西式教育,「英国的语法书、美国的三角数学都列入课程」,其英文老师李宗义当时就教授杰斐逊的讲演和林肯1863年的名文——葛底斯堡演说,很多年后我蛤都说「我们那时教的英文程度比现在大学都高」,而先我蛤毕业的朱自清和胡乔木亦充分彰显了该校在传统教育中的厚重,在校期间浸淫传统艺术的我蛤甚至为同学篆刻过私章。大学期间则分别就读于现在的南大和交大机电系,当时宁沪两城都领一时风气之先,我蛤在这里接受了完整的民国教育。如果你包是直男癌晚期、胡四是暖男的话,那我蛤就是大受姑娘欢迎的文艺向工科男。

再看胡四,扬州往东50公里就是胡读书的泰州中学,当时的泰州还隶属于扬州,现在的说法就是普通的苏北县中,与当时「市里的学校」扬中不可同日而语,官方口径里的胡在大学期间中规中矩,只参加了文工团舞蹈队和入选国庆游行方队。而同期的我蛤在学校被人称为指挥家,人们常常看到「他在钢琴上敲打,附身二胡拉唱,或者为当时抗议的学生高歌猛进做即兴指挥」。47年1月,全国学生抗议美国士兵强暴北京大学女生,我蛤被选派画出巨大的漫画招贴,4月,「他又手提二胡出现在上海学生组织的话剧演出」,抗议美国商人撞死交大学生逃逸。再说庆丰,大时代的悲剧也好,个人的命运也罢,和很多工农兵学员一样,从15岁到22岁在陕北插队的你包几乎未受过系统的教育,而清华大学在文革期间招收推荐的工农兵学员,实行「连队办学」的体制,教师还是「上、管、改」的对象,随队办学。包子入学期间,正赶上「梁效」的两位左棍红人迟群、谢静宜掌管清华,学校正常科研和教学几无法正常开展,这样缺乏完整且正常教育并在三观塑造期间经历文革的人会为带鱼站台也就不奇怪了,环境决定品位,那是后话。

所以谈到逼格,你包前段时间在文艺工作座谈会上称托尔斯泰比陀思妥耶夫斯基更能吸引他。清谈自己的读书经历和推崇作家逼格就low了,真正有逼格的文艺青年应该如何优雅表达对喜爱作者的仰慕,长者谢邀分分钟叫你包学做人。20年前的94年9月,一位长者独自搭了一架飞机飞到莫斯科,信步来到市中心文化公园附近一座两层木质建筑内,凝神看看那张窄小的书桌,托就是在这张桌上写下了《复活》在内的诸多著作,而托在这里期间许多俄罗斯文学巨擎都来这里做客过,我蛤一眼就阅尽了繁华。

世道变坏是从人们取笑文艺青年开始的,以前有人觉得是耸人听闻,仍热衷于对文艺青年的反讽以及文青们的自嘲的狂欢中,如此对一个拥抱理想主义和自由精神的群体进行污名化成为了一股反装逼的装逼潮流,结果周小平们的登堂入室一下让所有人的感受到了羞辱,自己没有坚持品位的勇气,就等着被这些权力夹裹的文革审美一次次的强奸。我蛤最难能可贵的一点也在于此,在越来越多的人急于表明自己的立场,与文艺青年划清界限的时候,他始终相信人是有更美好,更高尚的追求的,也愿意选择一种更加精致、甚至非常优雅的方式来生活,他从不羞于承认自己的文艺气质,他用西班牙语俄语演讲,用意大利语演唱《我的太阳》,表演京剧捉放曹,用尤克里里弹奏“Alloha,Hawaii”,他深知威权时代国家领导人对文艺生活的追求会让人民更看重尊严、优雅和审美,我蛤治下的1994年,王菲窦唯留了合影,晓波在与王朔对谈。冯小刚在拍北京人在纽约,王小波捧着黄金时代走出出版社。顾城举起斧头,红磡余音绕梁。那时文艺不受指点,生活更未消解斗志。人们敢为信仰而死,民族歌手才是大师。

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http://www.skylook.org/info/info/info_15390.html

2014年12月重要天象预报 

来源:《天文爱好者》杂志版权所有

□作者: 马 劲



12月2日 凤凰座流星雨 
推荐指数:★★★★☆ 

12月的天象被三场流星雨住在,首先来临的是我们几乎没听说过,今年却值得推荐的一场流星雨——凤凰座流星雨。 

凤凰座流星雨是一个很奇怪又神秘的流星雨,它只在1956年12月5日爆发过一次,ZHR达到300,从那之后就销声匿迹,每年的ZHR只有1~5左右。而它的母彗星D/1819 W1(Blanpain) 也只在1819年被观测到过一次。这些现象都给凤凰座流星雨蒙上了一层神秘的面纱。情况到了2005年才有所改观,天文学家人为小行星2003 WY25 就是那个失踪很久的 Blanpain 彗星,而如今它已经没有了会醒的模样。这颗小行星的公转周期只有5年多一点,在漫长的历史中,它多次在轨道上留下彗星的残骸,这些残骸是天文学家预测流星雨的来源。 

根据日本科学家 Mikiya SATO 预测,2014年是继1956年之后凤凰座流星雨最有可能爆发的年份。地球将在北京时间12月1日早上至2日早上穿过 Blanpain 彗星在20世纪初多次回归时流行的残骸,这情形非常类似1956年的爆发。根据预测,极大时间在北京时间2日早上8时左右,ZHR有可能达到150,超过每年三大流星雨的流量。而对我国来说,大部分地区只有在前半夜能够看到辐射点在地平线智商,因此只有在2日晚上的前半夜观测。 

最让人担心的莫过于辐射点过低的问题,因为凤凰座是一个南半球星座,在我国大部几乎看不到。但凤凰座流星雨辐射点漂移范围大的特点,又有可能给我们带来奇迹。今年的辐射点位置并不位于凤凰座,而是位于御夫座。天海后至午夜前后,辐射点一直在地平线之上。以北京为例,辐射点最高可升到20多度。我国越往南越往西,观测条件越好,哪里的辐射点高度更高,落下的时间更晚。有条件的话不妨关注一下这个神秘的流星雨吧,它或许真的爆发,也或许仍旧归于沉寂。 

12月14日 双子座流星雨 
推荐指数:★★★★★ 


每年三场流星雨盛宴,终于迎来了压轴的演出。双子座流星雨与每年1月的象限仪座流星雨和8月的英仙座流星雨并称为北半球三大流星雨,天顶流量(ZHR)均超过100。其中的双子座流星以流行亮、流量稳定著称,每年12月14日前后流量达到峰值,几乎从没有让人失望过。再加上正好临近圣诞和元旦,让双子座流星雨给这一年的天象画个圆满的句号,同时迎接新年的道来,再合适不过了。 

双子座流星雨的活跃期从12月4日就开始了,一直持续到12月17日,流量缓慢上升至极大然后回落。极大时间预报为北京时间12月14日晚上8时,ZHR为120。但双子座流星雨的极大时间较长,从12月13日至14日持续一天左右。而且在极大的前一天,ZHR通常都能达到60左右,远大于很多小规模的流星雨。因此12月13日和14日晚上都是观测最佳时机,14日晚上更佳。 



双子座流星雨的辐射点位于恒星北河二附近,非常容易找到,天黑后不久,辐射点就从东北方向升起,几乎整夜都可以观测。辐射点在午夜前后地平高度达到最高,对北半球的观测者来说,如果没有月光的影响,观测条件是非常好的。12月14日的月相是下弦月,月亮午夜过后从东方升起,前半夜没有月光干扰,后半夜逐渐受到月光的影响。综合极大时间、辐射点高度、月光影响等因素,14日的前半夜至接近午夜时间,观测条件是最好的,如果天气晴好、远离光污染,每小时应该可以看到几十颗流星。双子座流星雨还有亮流星多、速度较慢的特点,非常适合照相观测。把辐射点放在视场中的一个角落,连续拍摄同一个天区,就有非常大的希望捕捉到流星。后期将流星叠加在一张照片上,就能看出辐射点的位置了。 

冬天夜里非常寒冷,外出观测一定注意保暖防寒。如果去郊外观测,最好能找到靠近农家院的地方,安全而且容易安排饮食和休息。 

12月23日 小熊座流星雨 
推荐指数:★★☆☆☆ 


当双子座流星雨逐渐减弱下去时,另一个流星雨悄然来临,和双子座流星雨完美衔接。从12月17日至12月26日,是小熊座流星雨的活跃期,12月23日极大,预计ZHR为10,有可能有达到50的一个爆发。 

小熊座流星雨很少被观测,因为通常流量都很小,只有10左右,但偶尔有小的爆发,过去70年中该流星雨有过两次ZHR50以上的爆发。分别发生在1945年和1986年。近些年的观测数据表明,小熊座流星雨的流量与它的母彗星8P/塔特尔彗星的回归有关。比如2008年1月该彗星回归,而2006~2008年的流量就会有所上升。 

虽然今年不是母彗星的回归年,但是根据预测,今年有可能穿越1392年彗星回归时留下的尘埃颗粒而爆发,时间为北京时间12月23日8:40。但由于年代过去久远,预测的不确定性很大,有可能什么都不会发生,而且时间是我国东部的早上,无法观测,位于我国极西部的朋友倒是可以在天亮之前验证一下这个爆发。 

常规的极大时间预报为北京时间12月23日凌晨4点,ZHR为10左右。虽然流量不大,但是小熊座流星雨有几个优势非常利于观测,因此还是值得关注的。首先辐射点的位置位于小熊座β附近,赤纬达到76°,对于北半球中高纬度地区,辐射点整夜不落,天黑后辐射点处于较低位置,天亮前升到最高,整夜都可以观测;其次,极大时正处于冬至节气前后,黑夜长度达到全年最长,可观测时间也更长了;最后,今年极大日期前后,月相为朔月,整夜没有月光干扰。 

和双子座流星的观测环境一样,冬季的夜间十分寒冷,观测要注意保暖,到郊外观测要找安全、方便取暖取水休息的地方。  


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