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SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer
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SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer
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• Physics  - 
 
 
The story of the battery :  Luigi Galvani first noticed a frog leg twitching when he touched it with a scalpel. He called it 'animal electricity.' For a long time, researchers dissected the electric eel, hoping to see what made it possible for the animal to hold charge.

Alessandro Volta hypothesized that the frog's leg twitched due to two metals being joined by a via-media. He then came up with the voltaic pile (pictured) which was Zinc and Copper plates separated by cloth or cardboard soaked in brine.

Even today, this basic design is still the same in batteries. While materials have changed, the plates and the electrolytes is what is needed to create a battery. Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the French National Institute invited him to lectures at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with the experiments, drawing sparks from the battery, melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements.

How do Eels generate electricity? : The cells of all living things generate electrical charges. In an electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), thousands of modified muscle cells in the thick tail are lined up like batteries in a flashlight. Though each cell generates only about 0.15 volts, in a large electric eel, six thousand cells may be stacked to make one giant battery that can generate as much as 600 volts for a short pulse. A standard car battery generates 12 volts, so an electric eel has 50 times the shocking power of a car battery.

Can an eel power your car? : The dream of the electric eel car is not all that crazy. The fish generates a current by pumping charged potassium and sodium ions out of its special muscle cells. The negatively charged ions inside the cells increase until it opens just the right channels to cause electrons to flood out of the cell. Quite a shock ensues. Researchers from Yale University and the National Institute of Standards and Technology envision synthetic eel cells with improved energy efficiency bundled together in a bio-battery.  We’re not quite to the point where we can build artificial versions of complex cells, but the researchers  have created a simplified battery based on the principles of the electric eel: two artificial cells, each containing a salt solution within a lipid wall. If the salt concentrations are different, then poking the cells produces a slight charge. One day this technology may power implanted medical devices or even wearable, near-organic electronics — maybe even your car. But for now, however, you’ll have to make due with a boring, everyday electric car.

How Frankenstien was imagined : Mary Shelley knew all about Galvani, Volta and Aldini. Humphry Davy and William Nicholson -- the era's leading electrical researchers -- were friends of her father. In 1816, at age 19, she spent the summer in Geneva, Switzerland with Lord Byron and her future husband, Percy Shelley. The season was cold and rainy, and they spent many evenings around the fire, reading German ghost stories and discussing electricity's potential to reanimate corpses.

Links and Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery

http://www.stufftoblowyourmind.com/blog/electric-eels-power-car/

http://askanaturalist.com/how-do-electric-eels-generate-electricity/

http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/10/22/2398277.htm

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/when_was_the_battery_invented

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta#See_also

http://www.insidescience.org/content/science-made-frankenstein/1116

Pics courtesy: w1tp.com and bioexpedition.com

Since Volta's birthday popped up on my Google page.

#science #battery #eel  
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Thanks you +Gary Ray R .... honored!
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The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  
Dranke watched the proceedings with nervousness. It always felt like this when dealing with new personnel. He rested his clammy hands on the guardrail on the bridge as he watched the formation change. The Jexx had their own t...
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Plussing today causes floaty hearts. I hope it's not just me.
 
War Games : The new Captains show better discipline in managing their formations as Dranke gets a handle on his new responsibilities in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 30th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY

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Unlike what one would have expected, the simulations were much more realistic than the mock-battles they had practiced on the ships. The simulators allowed for huge numbers of Jexx ships to be built into the simulation. . The...
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lol +Donna Zachare ... at first I thought it might be some bug. Literally.
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Just saying : There be holes. I did enjoy the film. But there be holes.
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What I hate about this video, is more then half the things he points out are actually talked about in the movie, he just doesn't talk about those scenes. it is like this guy only watched random scenes with no context. yes, they don't make sense in that regard. Was the movie perfect, no, show me one that is--but it did a much better job then this guy gives it credit for.
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Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one major road leading in and out of it. Known as the "Road of Bones," it was built by gulag inmates under Stalin's regime.

Schools don't close unless the temperatures fall below minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Farmers bring their cows to the village's watering hole—a "thermal" spring that stays a few degrees above freezing—then lead them back to their insulated stables.

Wearing glasses outdoors can cause them to stick to the wearer’s face. This is just one of the more menial problems of the extremely cold weather.

Bathrooms are mostly outdoors, because indoor plumbing presents a challenge due to frozen pipes. Residents have cars, but must leave them running outside, sometimes overnight, so the mechanics don't freeze up. Even so, sometimes more extreme measures are necessary. "A guy I was staying with left his car running all night, but even so, in the morning, the drive shaft was completely frozen. Without any ceremony, he pulled out a little flamethrower, went under the truck and started fanning the bottom of his truck with a flamethrower."

Expensive city : Emergency fuel shipments to Siberian cities cost Russia an estimated $500 million per year. According to Clifford Gaddy, it would be less expensive for the country to simply fly laborers into Siberia to extract the natural resources and then fly them out again instead of paying to keep Siberian cities functioning.

References and sources

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/photos-coldest-city-earth-180953888/?no-ist

http://www.wired.com/2015/01/amos-chapple-the-coldest-place-on-earth/#slide-id-1700585

http://www.weather.com/travel/news/breathtaking-photos-coldest-city-world-20140128

http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/01/31/yakutsk_siberia_surviving_winter_in_the_world_s_coldest_city.html

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/09dec_coldspot/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowest_temperature_recorded_on_Earth

Pic courtesy: Smithsonianmag

#cold #facts  
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Beautifil ssrs crane.
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I've liked some of the stories which had multiverses. I think this may be relevant....
 
The infinite multiverse hypothesis : Three physicists recently came together to debate the pros and cons of the hypothesis. The multiverse has been used as a Science Fiction trope for long, but the real physics and mathematics behind it exists. While we still need to have experimental data to support it, (one wonders how we can get that!) there are detractors and critics who say it may be a bias we have.

Many worlds : Quantum objects can be described using what's called a wavefunction, which can predict where it's going to be and how it's moving. But those predictions take the form of probabilities. The problem is that, as far as we know, there's no reason to have the wavefunction stop working. Yet measurements, in Levin's terminology, "break" the wavefunction. In the many-worlds interpretation, the wavefunction keeps working, but reality breaks, or at least fragments a bit. In this view, there are particles in every location the wavefunction predicts we'll find them. It's just that those locations end up in different universes once the measurement happens.Even Levin, the ostensibly agnostic moderator, finished her description by saying, "obviously, it's a bit nuts."

The other multiverse problem : Thanks to a different theory: cosmic inflation, the sudden and rapid expansion of the universe allows the Big Bang to produce a universe that looks like the one we inhabit. If inflation is right—and most physicists think it is—then the universe we see is only a small fraction of the whole. And, if you could somehow go past the observable universe, you'd come to a region where inflation is an ongoing process, rapidly expanding space and ultimately creating additional universes.

Article link: http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/11/an-infinite-multiverse-a-bad-idea-or-inescapable/

Research paper: http://iopscience.iop.org/1475-7516/2014/05/005

Discussion article in Nature : http://www.nature.com/news/big-bang-blunder-bursts-the-multiverse-bubble-1.15346

Wikipedia link : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse#Non-scientific_claims

Scientific american link: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/does-the-multiverse-really-exist/

Pic credit : http://iai.tv/assets/Uploads/multiverse-2.jpg

#science #scienceeveryday #cosmology
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+C. A. Wilke wordsmith with his new episode of flashfiction.
 
SaturdayScenes

Eternal Assassin Episode 20: Innocence's End (Pt 1)

Just a note for this episode. Innocence's End turned out to be a little (lot) longer than I anticipated. However, it still feels, to me, like one episode. So, while I'm going to post half now and half next week, they are the same chapter and will be linked to as such on Writerwilke.com. If you finish this first half, and can't wait, you can finish it there.

Introducing Eternal Assassin, created just for #SaturdayScenes

If you are not up to date, you can read the other chapters here: http://bit.ly/EternalAssassin
You can also find Eternal Assassin on Wattpad here: http://www.wattpad.com/myworks/26512664-eternal-assassin

In the not-too-distant future, a being named Elerezel is cursed with a twisted, parasitic form of immortality. He is a serial killer and angel of vengeance in one. His whole existence is to hunt the targets given to him by some supernatural power and exterminate them. If his host dies, Elerezel is thrust into a new body and is given a new set of names.

This is the story of Elerezel, the Eternal Assassin, and he has a list.

And now… 

Eternal Assassin: Episode 20, Innocence's End (Part 1)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I explain the plan to Rho and she nods the whole time. When I’m done, she looks up at me. Her brown eyes full of worry. “It’s a good plan, but what about the ship? We don’t have any explosives or weapons that could do that kind of damage. Without that, we might as well just kill our hosts and reboot.”

“No. That doesn’t help us in the long run. I’ll take care of the ship. You just get down to the Terminalis room and wait for me. Stay hidden but near by.”

Rho agrees then gives me quick directions to the super-capacitor room. She goes to leave but turns and holds out a gun. “Here, it’s from the guard. You’ll need it more than me.”

I take the pistol and shove it into my back waistband. A part of me feels like our departure should be something more. Maybe like a quick peck on the cheek for luck like in the Hollywood movies. Of course, I realize that’s completely corny and ridiculous.

Snapping out of my short daze, I blink and she’s gone. Oh well.

The super-capacitor room is just below the bridge. I turn and face that direction, trying to calculate my route. Will they think I've headed for the side of the ship to jump off? Or will they be searching the middle?

With nowhere else to go, I go with the theory that they’ll expect me to jump ship right away. But if I’m wrong...My gaze scans the shipping containers for another way. They’re stacked three and four high. But the sides. The sides of the containers are climbable.

About half way up, the sound of running boots hits me. I look down just as three guards in black, tactical uniforms run by. I freeze. And even though I know they can’t hear me, I hold my breath. A few seconds later, they’re gone, none the wiser to me being right above them.

I finish making my way to the top and take a second to let the view sink in. Above me, the star-filled sky is marred only by a few wispy clouds and the brilliant-white moon. Row after row of multicolored shipping containers create an artificial horizon of muted hues under the moonlight. Beyond the corrugated steel landscape, I see just the edges of the black water, flickering with the silvery reflection, before the real horizon.

To might right, red and green blinking lights point the way to the ship’s bridge. Running over the containers, the moon gives off plenty of light to see. The gaps between the containers, where the aisles are, are small enough to jump across, so it only takes a couple of minutes to get to my destination.

I reach the edge and peek over. Below, two more guards in black flank both sides of the door I want. I’m way too high to jump down on them, so I trace my steps back a few containers and climb down.

With my pistol in hand, I make my way back to the door. I peek around one more time. There is only one way to get into that room: fast and dirty. It’ll draw plenty of attention, but I can’t see a way around it. Besides, maybe the distraction will help Rho.

The guards are standing casually, holding sub-machine guns with both hands. One of them starts to turn my way. I pull back away from the corner.

I’m pretty sure he didn't see me. Can’t wait to find out. With a single deep breath, I whip around the container and fire. My first two shots miss. My third shot takes one guard right in the head. He drops, his mouth open from surprise.

The next guard takes one of my bullets to the shoulder, but he’s already lifting his gun. I squeeze off one more round, hitting his throat. He gurgles on his own blood and falls to the floor. I've already grabbed their weapons and opened the door when his eyes close for the last time.

Three technicians await me in the Super-capacitor Room. No time to worry about whether they’re hoppers or not, or whether they’re bad guys or just captives. Something in me doesn't care either.

I’m tired of running and playing this stupid game. It’s been two hundred years and I finally have a chance at really knowing what the hell is going on. I’m not taking any chances.

All three die.

Massive rows of black super-capacitor systems line the walls to my left and right. A red neon light cuts across the length of each one, giving an eerie glow about the room. Right in the middle, though, there’s a single computer station.

It takes a couple of minutes of learning the operating system, but I get the super-capacitors rigged. Voices outside catch my attention. With one of the submachine guns, I obliterate the computer station. Sparks and bits of silicon and glass fly everywhere. No one is fixing this system anytime soon.

<To Be Concluded>
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Thank you for reading this.  This is Part 1 of Episode 20. Part 2 will be in #SaturdayScenes  next week. 

#SaturdayScenes is a writing event that happens every week on Saturday, wherever you are. There are no rules other than to label the post with your scene with "#SaturdayScenes". You can share something new or something old, it doesn't matter. Or, if you are just a reader, that's fine too. Read, comment and enjoy.

#OpenforCritique is a hashtag intended to notify the audience that as a writer, I am always looking to grow and improve. As such, I'm open to comments and criticisms intended to help me improve. Please keep your comments to those that are constructive, helpful and polite. I will read all comments as if they are intended as such, so don't worry too much about offending.
Eternal Assassin, Episode 19: On The Run. February 13, 2015; • C. A. Wilke; • Eternal Assassin, Fiction. Introducing Eternal Assassin If you are not up to date, you can read the other chapters here: http://bit.ly/EternalAssassin In the not-too-distant future, a being named Elerezel is cursed ...
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SciFi Author: Lacerant Plainer

Book and Blog Promotion  - 
 
My space opera episodic Science Fiction series.The 31st episode has been posted.
 
The Defense of Earth : The new fleets of darkmatter starcraft face off against the Jexx invasion in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 31st installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

Here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG
Part 30: http://goo.gl/0YHzlY
Part 31: http://goo.gl/sTS4We

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#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  
Dranke watched the proceedings with nervousness. It always felt like this when dealing with new personnel. He rested his clammy hands on the guardrail on the bridge as he watched the formation change. The Jexx had their own t...
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I've been having some ridiculous internet issues : It took a lot of time to figure out that for some reason the DNS which has been entered into the 3 laptops at home are the reason for the internet borking.

The ISP's DNS : ends up giving 404 on a lot of pages, including PopSci.com and Natgeo.com. That was junk. So I changed to Google's DNS which is 8.8.8.8 | 8.8.4.4, which solved some of the problems, and all sites started to magically work.

But now, the internet has become magically slow. Nothing streams okay. I actually have a ping of 7 ms and a download speed of 7 mbps (most of the time).

The ISP people are completely unhelpful and have recommended keeping the DNS blank. What happens then is that I get similar issues to using the ISP's DNS. Most websites don't open, 404 errors and dead ends.

Anyone has an idea what I should do? Tagging +Charlie Hoover and +Heidi Bouman since you guys know stuff.
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Yeah in that case anything goes... It could be someone's basement... 
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Flea vs the scribbler!
The eternally stupendous and ever so amazing +Yoon-Mi Kim has taken her crochet skills to dizzying heights by taking on the Scribbler... er, me! Check out this amazing little stitch-scribble - her #valentines gift to me! ♥ I feel so very loved :)
If you're not following scribblegraph on twitter, add it now - there's a bit of a special treat lined up for the big day tomorrow. Those who have been following me since the rock-age of Google+ may remember these, but I hope you all enjoy the #LoveIs  journey.
» https://twitter.com/scribblegraph
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Cake is a baseline for our New World

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Formation : Both captains and the Admiral have to learn together as preparations and training maneuvers are afoot  in this installment of the story of Mission Impossible. Keep reading to know more!

Mission Impossible is a space opera series written in flash fiction style. This is the 29th installment. If you haven't read the series before, please start from the first episode.

If you haven't read the earlier stories, here is the chronology:
First Part: http://goo.gl/jWKDn2
Part 2 : http://goo.gl/8wRbHE
Part 3 : http://goo.gl/eIGokJ
Part 4 : http://goo.gl/gaEZS0
Part 5 : http://goo.gl/bXYxiy
Part 6 : http://goo.gl/mmVbF9
Part 7 : http://goo.gl/i3DDVi
Part 8  : http://goo.gl/IoWcF0
Part 9  : http://goo.gl/B6OQOG
Part 10: http://goo.gl/IP0ORs
Part 11: http://goo.gl/Gn8RDY
Part 12: http://goo.gl/0zEqPI
Part 13: http://goo.gl/dXTYrs
Part 14: http://goo.gl/ZybKaL
Part 15: http://goo.gl/FrUZqX
Part 16: http://goo.gl/no9buZ
Part 17: http://goo.gl/G6KJeo
Part 18: http://goo.gl/ml0Y1A
Part 19: http://goo.gl/DBJjHf
Part 20: http://goo.gl/PT3jCj
Part 21: http://goo.gl/DXrXgp
Part 22: http://goo.gl/e1kEuu
Part 23: http://goo.gl/1EtW6U
Part 24: http://goo.gl/rK4EqX
Part 25: http://goo.gl/b7Vl04
Part 26: http://goo.gl/FQisEJ
Part 27: http://goo.gl/0Ywy0D
Part 28: http://goo.gl/RNuKtL
Part 29: http://goo.gl/dqdIYG

Notifying select people who have opted in. If you wish to be notified, let me know in the comments. If you wish to stop notifications, let me know.

#sciencefiction #saturdayscenes #scifi  
Dranke watched as his darkmatter starcraft wove their way into the desired formation. He preferred to have a quarter-moon formation since it allowed for a strong defensive position, but he worried about the edges. They were t...
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Coldest city on Earth : If you thought you had it bad, Oymyakon (which literally means 'unfrozen water') in Siberia, is a bone-chilling minus 71.2  C (minus 96.16 F) at its lowest temperature. The high of -40F in January is quite seasonable for this place. The closest city of Yakutsk is surprisingly wealthy with an abundance of natural resources (diamonds, oil and gas). Amos Chapelle gives us a view into life in this frigid environment - “I remember feeling like the cold was physically gripping my legs, the other surprise was that occasionally my saliva would freeze into needles that would prick my lips."

The coldest place on Earth? Russian Vostok Research Station in East Antarctica. Read on....

Cool facts : Yakutsk is an economically vibrant place but it's extremely remote. There is a small airport but no railway, and the town boasts but one major road leading in and out of it. Known as the "Road of Bones," it was built by gulag inmates under Stalin's regime.

Schools don't close unless the temperatures fall below minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit. Farmers bring their cows to the village's watering hole—a "thermal" spring that stays a few degrees above freezing—then lead them back to their insulated stables.

Wearing glasses outdoors can cause them to stick to the wearer’s face. This is just one of the more menial problems of the extremely cold weather.

Bathrooms are mostly outdoors, because indoor plumbing presents a challenge due to frozen pipes. Residents have cars, but must leave them running outside, sometimes overnight, so the mechanics don't freeze up. Even so, sometimes more extreme measures are necessary. "A guy I was staying with left his car running all night, but even so, in the morning, the drive shaft was completely frozen. Without any ceremony, he pulled out a little flamethrower, went under the truck and started fanning the bottom of his truck with a flamethrower."

Expensive city : Emergency fuel shipments to Siberian cities cost Russia an estimated $500 million per year. According to Clifford Gaddy, it would be less expensive for the country to simply fly laborers into Siberia to extract the natural resources and then fly them out again instead of paying to keep Siberian cities functioning.

References and sources

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/photos-coldest-city-earth-180953888/?no-ist

http://www.wired.com/2015/01/amos-chapple-the-coldest-place-on-earth/#slide-id-1700585

http://www.weather.com/travel/news/breathtaking-photos-coldest-city-world-20140128

http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/01/31/yakutsk_siberia_surviving_winter_in_the_world_s_coldest_city.html

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2013/09dec_coldspot/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowest_temperature_recorded_on_Earth

Pic courtesy: Smithsonianmag

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Science Fiction writer, Lacerant Plainer.
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I am a self-published SF writer. I post about Science and geeky stuff. I write about transhumanism, near as well as distant futures, and like to dream of the possibilities that face us. We are uniquely poised to take advantage, or face the consequences of our actions in the near term and this fascinates me.

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