Profile

Cover photo
Ernie R. Castro
Works at Cornerstone Engineering
Lives in Fresno, CA
1,048 followers|110,920 views
AboutPostsPhotosVideos+1's

Stream

Ernie R. Castro

Shared publicly  - 
1
Add a comment...

Ernie R. Castro

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
"Served with biscuits, this chunky stew makes a hearty supper. It's a great way to use extra turkey." Turkey Biscuit Stew Recipe is shared by Lori Schlecht of Wimbledon, North Dakota.

Get Recipe > http://trib.al/9HQtfJX
Pin Recipe > http://trib.al/Xr39kPh
Top 10 Turkey Leftover Recipes > http://trib.al/xqEB64p
2 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Ernie R. Castro

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
No outside for you!!!



Cat communication

Cat communication is the transfer of information by one or more cats that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal, including humans. Cats use a range of communication modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, chemical and gustatory.

The communication modalities used by domestic cats have been affected by domestication.


Vocalizations

Cat vocalisations have been categorised according to a range of characteristics.

Schötz categorised vocalizations according to 3 mouth actions: (1) sounds produced with the mouth closed (murmurs), including the purr, the trill and the chirrup, (2) sounds produced with the mouth open and gradually closing, comprising a large variety of miaows with similar vowel patterns, and (3) sounds produced with the mouth held tensely open in the same position, often uttered in aggressive situations (growls, yowls, snarls, hisses, spits and shrieks).

Brown et al. categorised vocal responses of cats according to the behavioural context: (1) during separation of kittens from mother cats, (2) during food deprivation, (3) during pain, (4) prior to or during threat or attack behavior, as in disputes over territory or food, (5) during a painful or acutely stressful experience, as in routine prophylactic injections and (6) during kitten deprivation. Less commonly recorded calls from mature cats included purring, conspecific greeting calls or murmurs, extended vocal dialogues between cats in separate cages, “frustration” calls during training or extinction of conditioned responses.

Miller classified vocalisations into 5 categories according to the sound produced: the purr, chirr, call, meow and growl/snarl/hiss.


Purr

The purr is a continuous, soft, vibrating sound made in the throat by most species of felines. Domestic cat kittens can purr as early as two days of age. This tonal rumbling can characterize different personalities in domestic cats. Purring is often believed to indicate a positive emotional state, but cats sometimes purr when they are ill, tense, or experiencing traumatic or painful moments.

The mechanism of how cats purr is elusive. This is partly because cats do not have a unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the vocalization. One hypothesis, supported by electromyographic studies, is that cats produce the purring noise by using the vocal folds and/or the muscles of the larynx to alternately dilate and constrict the glottis rapidly, causing air vibrations during inhalation and exhalation. Combined with the steady inhalation and exhalation as the cat breathes, a purring noise is produced with strong harmonics. Purring is sometimes accompanied by other sounds, though this varies between individuals. Some may only purr, while other cats include low level outbursts sometimes described as "lurps" or "yowps".

Domestic cats purr at varying frequencies. One study reported that domestic cats purr at average frequencies of 21.98 Hz in the egressive phase and 23.24 Hz in the ingressive phase with an overall mean of 22.6 Hz. Further research on purring in four domestic cats found that the fundamental frequency varied between 20.94 and 27.21 Hz for the egressive phase and between 23.0 and 26.09 Hz for the ingressive phase. There was considerable variation between the four cats in the relative amplitude, duration and frequency between egressive and ingressive phases, although this variation generally occurred within the normal range.

One study on a single cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) showed it purred with an average frequency of 20.87 Hz (egressive phases) and 18.32 Hz (ingressive phases). A further study on four adult cheetahs found that mean frequencies were between 19.3 Hz and 20.5 Hz in ingressive phases, and between 21.9 Hz and 23.4 Hz in egressive phases. The egressive phases were longer than ingressive phases and moreover, the amplitude was greater in the egressive phases.

It was once believed that only the cats of the genus Felis could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tigers, lions, jaguars and leopards) also produce sounds similar to purring, but only when exhaling. The subdivision of the Felidae into ‘purring cats’ on the one hand and ‘roaring cats ’ (i.e. non-purring) on the other, originally goes back to Owen (1834/1835) and was definitely introduced by Pocock (1916), based on a difference in hyoid anatomy. The ‘roaring cats’ (lion, Panthera leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus) have an incompletely ossified hyoid, which according to this theory, enables them to roar but not to purr. On the other hand, the snow leopard (Uncia uncia), as the fifth felid species with an incompletely ossified hyoid, purrs (Hemmer, 1972). All remaining species of the family Felidae (‘purring cats’) have a completely ossified hyoid which enables them to purr but not to roar. However, Weissengruber et al. (2002) argued that the ability of a cat species to purr is not affected by the anatomy of its hyoid, i.e. whether it is fully ossified or has a ligamentous epihyoid, and that, based on a technical acoustic definition of roaring, the presence of this vocalization type depends on specific characteristics of the vocal folds and an elongated vocal tract, the latter rendered possible by an incompletely ossified hyoid.





Meow

The meow is one of the most widely known vocalizations of domestic kittens. It is a call apparently used to solicit attention from the mother.

Adult cats commonly vocalise with a "meow" (or "miaow") sound, which is onomatopoeic. The meow can be assertive, plaintive, friendly, bold, welcoming, attention soliciting, demanding, or complaining. It can even be silent, where the cat opens its mouth but does not vocalize. Adult cats do not usually meow to each other and so meowing to human beings is likely to be an extension of the use by kittens.








Language differences

Different languages have correspondingly different words for the "meow" sound, including miau (Belarusian, Croatian, Hungarian, Dutch, Finnish, Lithuanian, Malay, German, Polish, Russian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish and Ukrainian), mnau (Czech), meong (Indonesian), niau (Ukrainian), niaou (?????, Greek), miaou (French), nya (??, Japanese), miao (?, Mandarin Chinese, Italian), miav/miao or mjav/mjau (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian), mjá (Icelandic), ya-ong (??, Korean), ????? / Miya?un_ (Urdu) and meo-meo (Vietnamese).In some languages (such as Chinese ?, mao), the vocalization became the name of the animal itself.

Read more : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat_communication


#Cats #Caturday #Kitty #lolcats #catgif #CutenessOverload #CaturdayEveryday #CatLovers #CatsRule #lolz #laugh #CuteCat #catsofgoogle #catsofinstagram #catsofgoogleplus #catsoftheday #catsongoogleplus #catsonyoutube #catsongoogle #caturdayeveryday #caturday #caturday2014 #catitude #catlove #catloversworld #catslogic #catloversnetwork #Animals #HappyCaturday #Kitten #LOLCats #Meme #Anime #Caturday2014 #Cute #Funny #Gif #CatLovers #LOL #FunnyCats #FunnyPics #Caturday2014 #CatsAllOverTheWorld #OneCatADayKeepsTheDoctorAway #animallovers #cute #cuteanimals #cuteness #cutenessoverload #animaloftheday #gifoftheday #gifofthedayindeed #gifoftheweek
188 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Ernie R. Castro

Shared publicly  - 
 
 
Enjoy all your favorite Thanksgiving flavors in one delectable bite with this hearty Thanksgiving Leftovers Casserole. http://kraft.us/18JBpRW
20 comments on original post
1
Add a comment...

Ernie R. Castro

Shared publicly  - 
1
Add a comment...
People
In his circles
4,825 people
Have him in circles
1,048 people
Artemis Westenberg's profile photo
Burt Lum (Bytemarks)'s profile photo
Jacob Easlick's profile photo
Bonnie Pickartz's profile photo
Arsenis Mesimeris's profile photo
Thanigai Bharathi's profile photo
Ruthie Smith's profile photo
kostum badut's profile photo
Andy Morse's profile photo
Work
Occupation
Principal
Employment
  • Cornerstone Engineering
    Principal, 1995 - present
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Story
Tagline
CORNERSTONE ENGINEERING-----DSA, OSHPD, ICC Construction Inspectors.
Introduction
Independent CA State Certified DSA, OSHPD Construction Inspectors
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Fresno, CA
Links
Ernie R. Castro's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Clash of Clans Hack
getclashgems.com

On this site you can hack clash of clans to get unimited gems

Virgin Unite
plus.google.com

We connect amazing people and great ideas to make positive change happen in the world.

Los Angeles Times
plus.google.com

Hand-picked stories and more from the Los Angeles Times.

Google Chrome
plus.google.com

Moving the web forward

TIME
plus.google.com

Breaking news & current events from around the globe.

Twitter
market.android.com

Official Twitter app for Android. Follow your interests: instant updates from your friends, industry experts, favorite celebrities, and what

Google+ Your Business
plus.google.com

The official page for businesses using Google+ to connect with their customers

Think with Google
plus.google.com

Google’s take on fresh marketing insights and a look at what’s next

Finding Hope Now Teaser Trailer
www.youtube.com

Finding Hope Now teaser trailer.

CNET (cnet)
pinterest.com

CNET is using Pinterest, an online pinboard to collect and share what inspires you.

GPLUS RANK - Vote for People on Google plus, . Filter people by name, o...
gplus-rank.com

HOME; TOPLISTS. TOPLISTS STARS & CHARACTER WORLD WIDE; TOPLISTS CONTENT WORLD WIDE; TOPLISTS COUNTRY; TOPLISTS OCCUPATION WORLD WIDE; TO

Deep Sleep Battery Saver
market.android.com

Deepsleep battery saver - reclaim your batteryDeepsleep battery saver constantly puts the device to deepsleep mode while screen offDuring de

Product reviews and prices, software downloads, and tech news - CNET
www.cnet.com

CNET is the premier destination for tech product reviews, news, price comparisons, free software downloads, videos, and podcasts.

3D Printer Could Transform Moon Dirt Into Lunar Base
www.space.com

On-demand printing would allow astronauts to repair broken parts, manufacture spare ones and maybe even build structures, all out of the dir

Highwayman Super Hits
market.android.com

Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Waylon Jennings, and Kris Kristofferson released two albums together on Columbia Records, 1985's chart-topping H

Parrish Hansen Inc
plus.google.com

Parrish Hansen Inc hasn't shared anything on this page with you.

iPhone 5 Giveaway: Win The iPhone 5 Before it Even Comes Out!
deals.maclife.com

Get social and win the NEW iPhone 5 before it even comes out! We'll even stand in line for you!

DocScanner
market.android.com

PDF creating Scanner that works with Evernote and Google Docs DocScanner enables users to scan documents on the road. DocScanner vastly impr