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Imaggeo on Mondays: A fold belt within a grain

Tiny crinkly folds form the main basis of today’s Imaggeo on Mondays. Folding can occur on a number of scales; studying folds at all scales can reveal critical information about how rocks behave when they are squeeze and pinched, as described by Sina Martin, from the University of Basel.

Although many geoscientists have seen such fold structures many times before, if you noticed the scale bar in the lower left of the image, you might be surprised of the small scale of these folds!
The presented image is a high-magnification image taken on an electron microscope, showing sub-micrometer scale folds developed within a deformed pyroxene grain – a chain silicate mineral, for example common in the oceanic crust of the earth. The folded layers are primary exsolution lamellae of more calcium rich and calcium poor chemical composition. These lamellae formed during the early, magmatic history of the pyroxene grain, where it crystallized and cooled down in a shallow intrusion. The folding subsequently took place during deformation and the following text will try to give a short overview on why and how these folds have formed.

To find out more, head over to the ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬: egu.eu/01PJ90
‪#‎folds‬ ‪#‎structuralgeology‬ ‪#‎electronmicroscopy‬ ‪#‎pyroxene‬ ‪#‎layers‬
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Can you believe it’s been just over a month since the EGU General Assembly 2015 in Vienna?

The conference this year was a great success with 4,870 oral, 8,489 poster, and 705 PICO presentations. There were 577 unique scientific sessions, complimented by an impressive 310 side events, making for an interesting and diverse programme. The conference also brought together 11,837 scientists from 108 countries, 23% of which were students.

During the conference we made a video of the best bits of a very productive week. Head over to the ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬ to find out what went on: egu.eu/12NZ9A

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOEKbJntAvk
‪#‎EGU15‬ ‪#‎conference‬ ‪#‎Vienna‬ ‪#‎GeneralAssembly‬ ‪#‎PICO‬ ‪#‎sessions‬ ‪#‎sideevents‬ ‪#‎GeoCinema‬ ‪#‎ShortCourses‬ ‪#‎interdisciplinary‬ ‪#‎networking‬
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Happy birthday Mary Anning!

Mary Anning was born on 21 May 1799 in Lyme Regis, UK.
Mary was an avid fossil collector. Along with her brother, Joseph, she made major contributions to palaeontology. Their father, a humble carpenter, was a keen fossil collector who showed them the art of fossil hunting.

The sibbling's first major discovery came in 1811, they discovered half of the body of an Ichthyosaur. In 1812 they discovered the second half, making a complete specimen, which was described in a paper by Everard Home, read before the Royal Society in 1814. She was only 12 years old when she made the discovery!

Mary Anning was propelled into palaeontology stardom following the discovery, in 1824, of a virtually complete example of a Plesiosaurus.
Her ability as a fossil hunter did not end there and she continued to find excellently preserved, Jurassic and Cretaceous aged specimens: ink bags from fossilised squids, the flying reptile Pterodactylus and more!

Mary's 215th birthday was celebrated by Google last year with a brilliant google doodle!

To find out more about this fascinating lady see the links bellow.

Mary Anning (1799-1847) by the Geological Society of London: egu.eu/20NOYK

Mary Anning: Plesiosaurs, Pterosaurs and The Age Of Reptiles: egu.eu/1M8BE7

Educational resource, from the BBC: egu.eu/6XMH2G

‪#‎palaeontology‬ ‪#‎womeninscience‬ ‪#‎maryanning‬ ‪#‎fossils‬ ‪#‎Cretaceous‬ ‪#‎Jurassic‬ ‪#‎Devon‬ ‪#‎UK‬ ‪#‎Jurassiccoast‬ ‪#‎Ichthyosaur‬ ‪#‎Plesiosaurus‬
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Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems indexed in Web of Science

The EGU open access journal Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems (GI) has just been accepted for inclusion in the Web of Science, an important indexing site widely used by the scientific community for article search and discovery.

Read more: http://egu.eu/6G4YJC/
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How do hydrothermal gases change soil biology?

The biosphere is an incredible thing – whether you’re looking at it through the eye of a satellite and admiring the Amazon’s vast green landscape, or looking at Earth’s surface much more closely and watching the life that blossoms on scales the naked eye might never see, you are sure to be inspired. Geochemist, Antonina Lisa Gagliano has been working on the slopes of Pantelleria Island in an effort to find out what can make soil and its biota change enormously over just a few metres. Following her presentation at the EGU General Assembly, she spoke to Sara Mynott, shedding light on what makes volcanic soils so special.

To read the full interview, head over to the ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬: egu.eu/4NYS52

‪#‎biology‬ ‪#‎biogeochemistry‬ ‪#‎biosphere‬ ‪#‎soils‬ ‪#‎geochemistry‬ ‪#‎biota‬ ‪#‎Pantelleria‬
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New study shows Antarctic ice shelf is thinning from above and below.

A decade-long scientific debate about what’s causing the thinning of one of Antarctica’s largest ice shelves has now been settled. The Larsen C Ice Shelf – whose neighbours Larsen A and B collapsed in 1995 and 2002 – is thinning from both its surface and beneath. The research, by scientists from the UK and the US, is published today (Wednesday 13 May) in The Cryosphere, an open access journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

For years scientists were unable to determine whether it is warming air temperatures or warmer ocean currents that is causing the Antarctic Peninsula’s floating ice shelves to lose volume and become more vulnerable to collapse. This new study takes an important step forward in assessing Antarctica’s likely contribution to future sea-level rise.

The study published today in The Cryosphere was carried out by scientists from the British Antarctic Survey, the United States Geological Survey, University of Colorado, University of Kansas and Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

You can find out more by taking a look at the Press Release: egu.eu/4TEIG9

‪#‎Antarctica‬ ‪#‎iceshelf‬ ‪#‎thinning‬ ‪#‎sealevel‬ ‪#‎rise‬
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GeoEd: Why So Serious?

In this edition of GeoEd, Sam Illingworth, a lecturer in science communication at Manchester Metropolitan University, explores the benefits of a more informal teaching style and how the incorporation of play into everyday teaching can help to engage and enthuse students who otherwise struggle to connect with the sciences. Despite the hard work, there are some real perks to being a scientist: field work, conferences, travelling, and collaborations, to name but a few. The key is to show school-age children the fun side of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) related subjects!

Sam writes "my scientific career has also involved countless hours sat reading technical documents and debugging code, but ultimately science is an extremely engaging and exciting career. If that element of fun is something that we are failing to communicate to children studying science at school, then it is no wonder that so many of them are turning away from science before they have had the chance to do something truly spectacular."

To read more about how to engage youngsters with science head over to the ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬: egu.eu/9OWRFL

‪#‎STEM‬ ‪#‎science‬ ‪#‎engagment‬ ‪#‎education‬ ‪#‎fun‬ ‪#‎perksofthejob‬
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Indian Ocean may be key to global warming 'hiatus'.

"Upper ocean may be storing heat, giving atmosphere a break.
The Indian Ocean may be the dark horse in the quest to explain the puzzling pause in global warming, researchers report on 18 May in Nature Geoscience1. The study finds that the Indian Ocean may hold more than 70% of all heat absorbed by the upper ocean in the past decade.

In the model generated in the studyl, a surge of water produces dramatic warming in the upper Indian Ocean starting in the early 2000s, in agreement with the WOA data, the authors write. This explanation also fits with measurements of flow through the largest Indonesian channel — the Makassar Strait — which increased over the same period of time," reports Julian Rosen in Nature.

To read the full story head over to: egu.eu/989GRU
‪#‎ocean‬ ‪#‎heat‬ ‪#‎atmosphere‬ ‪#‎globalwarming‬ ‪#‎hiatus‬ ‪#‎model‬
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Unsettled Earth continues to rattle ‪#‎Nepal‬ - what triggered this week's ‪#‎earthquake‬?

Following the M7.8 on April 25th, a M7.3 earthquake hit Nepal again. Whilst the strength of the earthquake is less, the damage caused is still significant. So why did the land of the Himalayas see two devastating quakes over such a short period?

During April's earthquake, one of the fault systems which runs parallel to the Himalayas ruptured, releasing some of the stress which builds up as the Asian plate continues its movement northwards into the Eurasian plate. The fault system rupture eastwards from the epicentre for 150km. Analysis of the most recent data suggests that the most recent tremor occurred right at the eastern edge of this failure. Meaning that this second earthquake was almost certainly triggered by the stress changes caused by the first one.

The story, covered on the BBC Science pages, has a great infographic which compares the behaviour of the two earthquakes. Why not head over and take a more detailed look? egu.eu/809ESM

#earthquake #Nepal ‪#‎Nepalearthquake‬ ‪#‎sesimicity‬ ‪#‎stress‬ ‪#‎rupture‬ ‪#‎fault‬ ‪#‎Himalayas‬ ‪#‎platetectonics‬ ‪#‎geodynamics‬.
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Improvements in drilling techniques have meant that over the last years basins which where not previously economically viable, have now become so now. In the US this has meant a rise in methane emissions too.

Methane is the primary constituent of natural gas and can contribute significantly to global warming as it is a greenhouse gas. However, when emissions are kept under control and it is burnt cleanly, it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Its climate benefits are reduced, if the emissions are large, when compared to total natural gas production.

There have been several recent atmospheric studies, using the aircraft mass-balance approach, which aim to quantify the methane emissions from oil & gas producing basins in the US. One of the main disadvantages of this method is that it is difficult to identify the source of the methane gas measured. Landfills and concentrated animal feeding operations, for example, contribute a significant amount to the methane inventory. If located within oil & gas producing basins, they can skew the results of the aircraft mass-balance measurements. In some cases, this might mean the burning of methane is no longer seen as beneficial to climate.

A new, innovative instrument, presented in the ‪#‎openaccess‬ journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, detects the source of the emissions. The instrument is easy to use, field deployable and highly precise, meaning it is great for individual source characterisation as well as quantification of the overall methane atmospheric signature.
To read more about the instrument and its applications, download your own copy of the paper here: egu.eu/8QL58V

‪#‎atmosphere‬ ‪#‎methane‬ ‪#‎emissions‬ ‪#‎greenhousegases‬ ‪#‎carbondioxide‬ ‪#‎intruments‬ ‪#‎measurments‬
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My first journey to Antarctica by Brice Van Liefferinge.

"On 19 November 2014, the Iliuchine 76 gently lands on the runway of the Russian Antarctic station, Novolazarevskaya, in Dronning Maud Land. For the first time, I’m in Antarctica! It is 4 o’clock in the morning and we need to hurriedly offload 2 tons of material intended for our field mission near the Belgian Princess Elisabeth Station. I’m deeply impressed by the landscape although it is dotted with containers, people and machines. I am impressed by the fuzz. I am impressed by the novelty. I am impressed by the icescape. It is cold, but I don’t feel it."

This is Brice's introdustion to his adventures on the icy continet. The post is longish, but stick with it, there are some excellent stories and beautiful photographs.

"I know it is my first time to Antarctica, and as most first-timers, an unforgettable experience of vastness, whiteness, silence, laughter, hard work and fun. When I board the plane I feel delighted and fulfilled and ready to find back green landscapes and city soundscapes in less than ten hours."

For the full post over on the Cryosphere blog see here: egu.eu/1J1FTS

‪#‎cryosphere‬ ‪#‎Antarctica‬ ‪#‎ice‬ ‪#‎cold‬ ‪#‎adventure‬ ‪#‎fieldwork‬ ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬
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Today's Google Doodle honours an inspiring female scientist: Inge Lehmann, on what would have been her 127th birthday.

Inge Lehmann, a Danish seismologist, discovered that Earth has both an inner and outer core by studying P-Waves. The behavior the seismic waves, didn't match what would be expected "if the earth simply consisted of a hard mantle surrounding a fluid or soft core." Inge considered different models, and discovered an interesting result. "The existence of a small solid core in the innermost part of the earth was seen to result in waves emerging at distances where it had not been possible to predict their presence." Wrote Dana Hunter earlier on this year in an informative blog post over on Scientific American magazine.

Inge had to work hard for her contributions to be recognised in a time when science was dominated by men, "You should know how many incompetent men I had to compete with — in vain".

Do you know an inspiring female scientist, who should be recognised for her contributions to the geosciences? Then why not nominate her for one of our EGU Awards and Medals?

It is easier than ever to nominate candidates for the awards, it's all done online and you've got until 15 June. Find out more: egu.eu/2VG6EW

To read more about Inge Lehmann follow the links below:
A short summary of Lehmann's life on the ‪#‎EGUBlogs‬: egu.eu/1QGLKM
A write up of today's Google Doodle in Time Magazine: egu.eu/1EM4BV
Inge Lehmann blog post by Dana Hunter: egu.eu/6BUAGT
Lehmann looks back at her own career (sadly, paywalled): egu.eu/6I3QK9
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Have them in circles
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Introduction

The European Geosciences Union (EGU, www.egu.eu) is Europe’s premier geosciences union, dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the geosciences and the planetary and space sciences for the benefit of humanity, worldwide. It was established in September 2002 as a merger of the European Geophysical Society (EGS) and the European Union of Geosciences (EUG), and has headquarters in Munich, Germany. 

It is a non-profit international union of scientists with over 11,000 members from all over the world. Membership is open to individuals who are professionally engaged in or associated with geosciences and planetary and space sciences and related studies, including students and retired seniors.

The EGU has a current portfolio of 16 diverse scientific journals, which use an innovative open access format, and organises a number of topical meetings, and education and outreach activities. Its annual General Assembly is the largest and most prominent European geosciences event, attracting over 11,000 scientists from all over the world. The meeting’s sessions cover a wide range of topics, including volcanology, planetary exploration, the Earth’s internal structure and atmosphere, climate, as well as energy and resources.