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Baban Sadik
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Am slim, shy, average height and always my self
Am slim, shy, average height and always my self

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Dabarun Neman Bayanai a Intanet (2)
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5. Kalmomi masu kamaiceceniya da juna

Idan aka yi amfani da alamar tsakure wajen neman kalma kai tsaye kamar yadda aka shigar (exact word), a daya bangaren kuma, ana iya amfani da alamar “Tilde” ( ~ ) – ba Tilden Bauchi ba.  Alamar “Tilde” na daga cikin maballan dake allon shigar da bayanai, kamar yadda aka gani a baka biyu.  Ana amfani da wannan alama ne don neman kalma da wata kalma mai ma’ana irin nata, ko wacce ke wakiltarta; a ka’idar lugga ne, ko a ka’idar al’adar zamani.  Misali, idan ana son kasida mai dauke da kalmar “Islam” da wasu kalmomi na turanci masu ma’anar “Islam”, sai a rubuta:

~islam

Nan take za a miko amsoshi masu kalmar “Islam” da wasu kalmomin da ke wakiltar kalmar, kai tsaye.

6. Alamar tauraro (komai da ruwanki)

Wannan ita ce alamar da ake kira “Asterisk” a harshen Turancin kimiyya da fasahar sadarwa, wato ( * ).  Akwai wannan alama a allon shigar da bayanai, wato “Keyboard.”  Ni kuma a bangare na ina kiranta alamar “Komai da ruwanki.”  Domin idan ana neman bayanan da suka shafi wata kalma gaba dayanta ne, ko wata jimla gaba dayanta, da ita ake amfani.  Misali, idan ana son sanin cikakken bayani kan kamfanin Google, sai a rubuta:

Google*  

(dole alamar ta kasance a manne da goshin kalmar ko kalmar karshe a jimlar).  

Idan ana son bayani cikakke kan tsarin tattalin arzikin kasar Najeriya misali, sai a rubuta:

Nigerian Economy*

Idan ana son sanin wasu kamfanoni da Google ta saye su, da yawan kudin da ta sayi kowane kamfani, a rubuta:

Google purchased * for * dollars

Za a samu bayanai kai tsaye.

7. Tazarar lokaci

Idan ana bukatar samun bayanai masu bayani kan wani tazara na zamani, abu ne mai sauki sosai.  Misali, idan ana son sanin ci gaban musulunci a kasasashen Afirka daga shekarar 1800 zuwa 1900, sai a rubuta:

Islam in Africa 1800..1990

Nan take za a samu amsoshi na iya wannan tazarar lokaci ko zamani.

8. Nau’in Bayanai

Akwai wasu bayanai masu inganci da galibi ake taskance su a wani nau’in jakar bayanai (wato: File type).  Misali, galibin kasidun binciken ilimi na jami’a ana samunsu ne a nau’in jakar bayanai na “Portable Document Format,” ko “pdf” a gajarce.  Galibin darussan malaman jami’a (Lesson Notes) kuma sukan taskance su ne a yanayin “Power Point” ko “ppt” a gajarce.  Wannan ya fi fa’ida ga daliban ilimi da ke son samun bayanai masu alaka da abin da suke karanta a jami’a don warware wasu mas’alolin ilimi.  Misali, idan dalibi na son samun kasidu kan tattalin arzikin kasa, amma wadanda aka rubuta su da kwarewa irin ta ilimi (Research Papers), sai ya rubuta:

Filetyp:pdf welfare economics

Nan take za a turo masa kasidu masu take kan fannin “Welfare economics” a yanayin pdf, sai ya saukar.  Idan kuma yana son samun samfurin darussan malaman jami’a kan fannin, sai ya rubuta:

Filetype:ppt welfare economics

Har wa yau, akwai wata kasida da na rubuta a shekarar 2010 kan kabilar fulani, mai take: “The Cattle Complex Theory”.  Idan mai karatu na son isa ga kasidar kai tsaye, sai a rubuta:

Filetype:pdf The Cattle Complex Theory

Bayan nau’ukan jakar bayanai na pdf da ppt, akwai su word (doc ko docx), da excel (xl ko xlx), da html, da kuma text (txt).  

9. Alamar Zabi (wannan ko wancan)

Alama ko harafin “OR” (da manyan harafi) na taimaka wa mai bincike ne wajen gaya wa masarrafar nemo bayanai na kamfanin Google cewa: “Kalma kaza nake nufi ko kaza,” a misali.    Ana rubuta wannan harafi na OR ne a tsakiyar kalmomin guda biyu.  Mu kaddara ana son bayanai masu dauke da kalmar “Gold” ko kalmar “Silver,”  sai a rubuta:

gold OR silver

Nan take za a samu bayanai masu dauke da dukkan kalmomin biyu, ko dayan cikinsu.  Wannan alama ce ta zabi.  Haka idan ana son mai dauke da kalmar “Islam” ko “Muslim,” sai a rubuta:

islam OR muslim

Nan take za a dace da kowanne.  Ko ana son mai dauke da sunan “Baban Sadik” ko “Baban Sadiq” sai a rubuta:

baban sadik OR baban sadiq

Babban fa’idar wannan alama wajen bincike shi ne, tana bayar da damar fadada bayanai ne, da kuma samar da zabi; mai bincike bai takura kansa ba, sannan kuma zai samu bambancin da ke tsakanin kalmomi ko maudu’in ilimi guda biyu masu kama ko masu akasin juna.

10. Neman Ma’anar Kalma

Masarrafar binciken bayanai na Google wani Kamus ne mai zaman kansa.  Idan mai karatu na tare da kwamfutarsa mai jone da Intanet ko wayarsa ta salula, kada wata kalma ta Turanci ko Larabci ta ba shi tsoro.  Idan ana bukatar sanin ma’anar wata kalma, sai a yi amfani da alamar  “define” a biye ta da kalmar da ake so.  Misali, ana son sanin ma’anar kalmar “Islam,” sai kawai a rubuta:

define:islam

Kada a bar tazara a tsakanin alamar “define” da alamar “ruwa biyu” da kalmar da ake son sanin ma’anarta.  Nan take za a samu ma’anar kalmar a shafin farko daga sama.  Wani abin sha’awa ma shi ne, ba wai ma’anar a rubuce ba kadai, za a samu ma’anar a sauti, da bidiyo, da hotuna.  Dankari!

11. Lissafi 

Bayan sanin ma’anar kalma, masarrafar Google ma taska ce ta lissafi.  Mu kaddara mai karatu na son sanin amsar wata ka’ida ta lissafi (Equation), yana iya rubuta ta kai tsaye a inda ake shigar da kalma.  Misali, ga wata ka’ida nan: 

(3 + 7) * (8 / 2)

Da zarar an shigar da wannan ka’ida ta lissafi aka danna “Enter”, nan take amsar za ta bayyana.  (amsar ita ce: 40.  Saboda 3 + 7 = 10. Sannan 8 / 2 = 4 ne.  Kuma 10 x 4 = 40 ne).  Ba wannan kadai ba, duk lissafin da mai karatu ke son aiwatarwa, ana shigarwa nan take za a ga amsa.  Abin gwanin ban sha’awa.

12. Ma’aunin Tazara, da Zafi, dsr

Masarrafar Google taska ce da ke tattare da ma’aunin tazara da yawa ko kimar abubuwa (Unit Conversion).  Misali, idan ana son mayar da tazarar tafiya daga mil (mile) zuwa kilomita (kilometer), abu ne mai sauki.   Mu kaddara mai karatu ya yi tafiya daga Abuja zuwa Birnin Dabo (Kano), sai motarsa ta bashi tazarar a mil 197 (197 miles), maimakon kilomita.  Don sanin yawan kilomitan, sai a rubuta:

197 miles in kilometers

Nan take za a juyar da wannan tazara daga mil zuwa kilomita.  

Kammalawa

Wadannan kadan ne daga cikin dimbin dabarun da masana ke amfani dasu wajen neman bayanai wadanda suka saba wa hanyar da aka saba amfani da ita a al’adance, ta Google.  Da wadannan ma kadai, mai karatu na iya hada dabaru uku ko hudu cikin bincike daya, don samun amsa mai kayatarwa.  

Allah sa a dace, amin.
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Tsarin Babbar Manhajar Android (1)
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Gabatarwa

Shekaru biyar da suka gabata a Najeriya da sauran kasashe masu tasowa, an samu bayyanar wata sabuwar babbar manhajar wayar salula da tsarinta da kintsinta suka sha bamban da wadanda aka saba gani da mu’amala dasu, irin babbar manhajar Symbian (S60 da S40) da Java da kuma Asha da ta bayyana daga baya.  Wannan bakuwar babbar manhaja da ta bayyana ta hanyar wayoyin kamfanin Tecno da Samsung da Sony da Motorola kuwa, ita ce: Babbar Manhajar Android ko Android Operating System a harshen kimiyyar sadarwar zamani.  Sadda wannan sabuwar babbar manhajar wayar salula ta fara bayyana ko zuwa a wasu wayoyi na zamani (Smartphones), da yawa cikin mutane sun yi farin ciki sosai.  Domin saukinta da kyaun siffarta sun kayatar dasu matuka, sannan ta basu damar isa gidajen yanar sadarwa cikin sauki sanadiyyar ingantaccen tsarin sadarwa na Intanet da take dauke dasu.  Da wayoyi masu dauke da wannan babbar manhaja ta Android suka ci gaba da shigowa, sai jama’a suka fara tambayar bambancin dake tsakaninta da sauran manhajojin wayoyin salula dake dauke cikin wayoyin Nokia (kamar Symbian, da Asha da Windows Phone).  

Shafin Kimiyya da Kere-kere ya sha samun tambayoyi kan haka da yawa a baya.  Kasancewar a bangaren tambayoyi ne kadai nake amsa su, wanda hakan ke nufin bayanan a takaice suke zuwa, yasa na ga dacewar rubuta kasida ta musamman don samun gamsarwa ga masu bukata.  

Kalmar Android ta shahara a bakunanmu, musamman a Arewacin kasar nan.  Wasu matasa ma har bagu suke; idan wayarka ba Android bace, ka zama bakauyen birni.  To amma, wannan kalma ta Android me take nufi?  Wa ya samar da wannan babbar manhaja mai matukar tasiri a duniyar yau?  Shin, wai ma ita babbar manhajar Android nau’i daya ce? In a a, meye bambancin dake tsakaninsu?  Sannan, a na’urar wayar salula kadai ake samun babbar manhajar Android?  In a a, wasu na’urorin sadarwa ko na’urorin amfanin gida suke amfani da babbar manhajar Android?  Ba wannan kadai ba, wa ke gina manhajoji ko masarrafan (Applications) dake cikin Android ta hanyar Play Store?  Yaya ake gina su?  Shin, idan mai karatu yana son gina ire-iren wadannan manhajoji, shi ma zai iya? In eh, wasu hanyoyi zai bi wajen gina manhajoji ko masarrafan (Applications) da za a iya amfani dasu a wannan babbar manhaja?  Wasu kayayyakin aiki yake bukata wajen yin haka?  Kuma yana bukatar dole sai ya je makaranta an koya masa, ko dai zai iya alkafira kawai ya kama ginawa ta hanyar karatu da kwatantawa?  Idan kuma ya gama gina manhajarsa, ta wace hanya zai dora ta a kan wannan Cibiya ta Play Store?  Shin, a cibiyar Google Play ko Play Store, akwai manhajoji da aka gina cikin harshen Hausa?  Wadannan, da ma kari  akansu, su ne abin da wannan kasida za ta duba, ta hanyar bincike mai zurfi, a aikace, don baiwa mai karatu samun gamsuwa.  A halin yanzu za mu fara da bayanin “Asali da Tarihin Babbar Manhajar Android” a duniya.

Asali da Tarihin Android

Idan aka ce: “Android” ana nufin wata babbar manhajar wayar salula ce da wata kungiya mai suna: Open Handset Alliance (www.openhandsetalliance.com) ta gina kuma take lura da ita, tare da bayar da lasisin amfani da ita ga masu kera wayoyin salula, da ka’idojin da za su bi wajen kayatar da manhajar, don sayarwa ga jama’a.  Asalin madarar wannan babbar manhaja (Operating System Kernel) ana tafiyar dashi ne a tsarin “Bude ga kowa” (Open Source).  Abin da wannan ke nufi shi ne, idan kai masani ne a fannin dabarun gina manhajar kwamfuta da wayar salula ko na’urorin sadarwa, kamfani kake ko gama-garin masani ne kai mai zaman kansa, za ka iya saukar da asalin madarar wannan babbar manhaja ta Android (Android Source Code) kyauta daga shafin kungiyar Open Handset Alliance (OHA), ka inganta, ka tsara, sannan ka kayatar da ita daidai da ka’idojin dake dauke cikin kundin Google mai take: Compatibility Test Suite (CTS).

An kafa wannan kamfani na OHA ne a ranar 5 ga watan Nuwamba, shekarar 2007.  Jagorar wannan gamayya shi ne kamfanin Google Inc., wanda shi ne ya sayi asalin babbar manhajar Android daga kamfanin Android Inc.  Daga nan ya kafa wannan kungiya don hada karfi da karfe tare da bunkasa wannan babbar manhaja a tsarin “Bude ga kowa.”  Wannan kungiya ta OHA na dauke da mambobi 80 ne a halin yanzu, shahararru daga cikinsu su ne: Google, da Samsung, da HTC, da Motorola, da LG, da Sony, da Texas Technologies, da Dell, da Intel, da Nvidia, da Qualcomm da sauransu.  Wadannan kamfanoni ne da suka yi dumu-dumu a fannin kera wayoyin salula, ko masarrafar wayar salula, ko kwamfutoci da sauran makamantansu.  Babbar manufarsu dai, kamar yadda yake rubuce a shafinta, shi ne samar da wayoyin salula ko na’urorin sadarwa masu kayatarwa, masu karancin cin makamashin batir, kuma masu sauki ga jama’a.

Kafa wannan Kungiya ya zo daidai da lokacin da kamfanin Nokia, shahararren kamfanin kera wayoyin salula na duniya a lokacin, wanda ya kwashe shekaru sama da goma yana rike da kambin shugabanci a fannin kerawa da tallatawa da sayar da wayoyin salula masu inganci, ya kwace kasuwa, yayi kane-kane; ba wanda ke iya motsawa, idan ka kebance kamfanoni irin su Samsung, da Sony(Ericsson) da Motorola, a lokacin da yake yayi.  Babbar kalubale da sauran kamfanoni suka fuskanta kafin bayyanar babbar manhajar Android a wayoyin salula shi ne: saye kamfanin Symbian Inc (wanda a baya shi ne ke baiwa sauran kamfanoni lasisin ginawa da kayatar da babbar manhajar Symbian a wayoyinsu) da kamfanin Nokia yayi, don yin babakere a kasuwar baki daya.  Wannan yazo daidai da lokacin da kamfanin Google ya sayi wannan babbar manhaja ta Android a shekarar 2005, da kuma kafa kungiyar Open Handset Alliance da aka yi daga bisani.   
Daga nan kamfanin Nokia ya fara samun kishiya mai tasiri, wanda a karshe hakan ya tilasta masa komawa don yin kawancen kasuwanci da kamfanin Microsoft da ke gina babbar manhajar wayar salula mai suna Windows Phone.  To amma kafin ya fadaka, tuni wadancan sauran kamfanoni kawancensu da Google tayi nisa, tayi karfi har ta fara haifar da tasiri mai inganci da a karshe hakan ya basu damar kwace kasuwar gaba daya daga kamfanin Nokia.  A halin yanzu kamfanin dake tashe a duniya wajen yawan adadin wayoyin salula, da kayatattun manhajojin waya, shi ne kamfanin Samsung.  A halin yanzu duk inda ka san ana jera sunayen kamfanonin wayar salula a duniya, za ka samu kamfanin Samsung ne a gaba.  Meye dalili?

Zan ci gaba in Allah yaso.
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Dabarun Neman Bayanai a Intanet (1)
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Neman bayanai a Intanet shi ne abin da yafi komai shahara daga fa’idojin da mai mu’amala da fasahar Intanet yake samu.  Wannan fa’ida  tana dada kara fadi da girma musamman idan mai mu’amala da fasahar Intanet ya san hanyoyin da za su taimaka masa samun bayanai cikin sauki, masu inganci, wadanda kuma suka dace da abin da yake nema.  Sabanin abin da muka saba dashi,  na shiga gidan yanar sadarwar Google ko Yahoo misali, da rubuta kalmar da muke neman ma’anarta, ko jimlar da muke son samun kasidu ko makaloli kanta, akwai dabaru masu dimbin yawa da masarrafar Google ke iya fahimtarsu, don samun sakamako mai inganci da ma’ana.  

Wani abin da zai birge mai karatu ma shi ne, babu abin da ba za a iya nema kuma a samu ba ta hanyar Google, in Allah Ya so.  Kai, a takaice, hatta adireshin Imel, da kalmomin sirri (Password), da lambobin waya, da adireshin gidaje, duk ana iya nema kuma a same su.  Illa ya danganci kwarewa wajen sani da iya mu’amala da dabarun neman bayanai.  Ba  a bukatar wata manhaja ko masarrafa (application) ta musamman don yin haka.   Abu ne mai sauki, wai cire wando ta ka.

Wadannan dabaru duk ana iya amfani dasu a manhajar tambaya ta Google (Google Search program), da ma na wasu gidajen yanar sadarwa; duk da cewa na Google din ya fi tabbas, saboda inganta shi da ake yi a kullum.  Ga kadan daga cikin dabarun neman bayanai nan:

1. Alamar tsakure (“ “)

Idan ana son samun kasida ko makala ko wasu bayanai masu dauke da wata kalma ta musamman, daidai wa daida, ana iya sa kalmar a tsakanin alamun tsakure, wato “Quotation mark.”  Misali:  “Baban Sadik”  ko “Islam in China” ko “List of Muslims in America” ko “Owners of Google” ko “Dan Gaye” duk za a samu amsoshi masu dauke da kalma ko jimlar da aka shigar, babu kwange.  Wannan ya fi tasiri wajen neman kasidun da suka dace da taken da mutum ya rubuta.

2. Alamar “I am Feeling Lucky”

Ga duk wanda ya saba shiga Google ta kwamfuta, a kasan inda ake shigar da kalmar tambaya, akwai alamu guda biyu; da alamar “Search” da kuma alamar “I am feeling lucky.”  Idan ana son samun gidan yanar sadarwa mai dauke da bayanin kalmar da aka shigar, kai tsaye, sai a latsa alamar “I am feeling lucky.”  Wannan alama ce ta takar sa’a, kamar yadda daya daga cikin abokan fassara da muka yi aiki dashi a tsakanin shekarar 2005 – 2007 wajen fassara manhajar Google zuwa harshen Hausa ya kira ta, cewa: “Ina jin na taki sa’a.”  Misali, ana son zuwa shafin Gamji, ko Facebook, ko Twitter, kai tsaye, amma an mance adireshin gidan yanar sadarwar, sai a rubuta:

Gamji ko Facebook ko Twitter

Ana matsa alamar “I am feeling lucky” kai tsaye za a samu shafin.

3. Alamar kaidi ( - )

Idan ana son neman bayanai amma ba a son wata kalma ta kasance daga cikin bayanan, sai ayi amfani da alamar “kaidi”, wato “Sign of exclusion”  a sa alamar – a farkon kalmar.  Misali, ana son kasida mai dauke da bayanai kan dukkan tashoshin Google, amma ban da tashar kasuwanci mai suna “Ad Words” sai a rubuta haka: 

All google sites  –Ad words

Da zarar masarrafar ta ga haka, ba za ta dauko bayanai masu dauke da wannan tasha mai suna Ad words ba.

4. Neman kasida a gidan yanar sadarwa na musamman

Idan ana son neman wasu bayanai daga wani gidan yanar sadarwa na musamman da aka sani, amma ba a son jigilar bin bayanai daya bayan daya, abu ne mai sauki.  Misali, ana son kasidu da aka rubuta a shafin Gamji.com kan arewacin Najeriya kadai, sai a rubuta:

Site: gamji.com northern nigeria

Nan take za a ga kasidu ne zalla wadanda aka rubuta kan arewacin najeriya.  Haka idan ana bukatar kasidu ko makalolin da malaman jami’a ne kadai suka rubuta ko wadanda suka shafi tsantsar binciken ilimi ne, ana iya rubuta haka, a misali:

Site:.edu

Kasidun da aka taskance daga shafukan jami’o’i ne kadai za a gani, sai a zabi wanda ake so.

(zan ci gaba)
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