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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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The Meissner Effect

A magnet will levitate above a superconductor (or a superconductor above a magnet) because of the Meissner effect. This effect causes the magnetic flux to be expelled from a superconductor. A superconductor is an example of a diamagnetic material.

Diamagnetic materials create an induced magnetic field in a direction opposite to an externally applied magnetic field, and are repelled by the applied magnetic field. In contrast, the opposite behavior is exhibited by paramagnetic materials.

The German physicists Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld discovered this phenomenon in 1933 by measuring the magnetic field distribution outside superconducting tin and lead samples.

A permanent magnet has magnetic field lines emerging from the north pole and looping around the outside to re-enter at the south pole on the other end. When the magnet is hovering over a superconducting material its magnetic field lines are repelled or pushed away from the superconducting material because that material is diamagnetic
This means that the field lines emerging from the north pole of the permanent magnet cannot penetrate the diamagnetic superconductor. The magnet is forced to rise above the superconductor to give the magnetic field lines space to return into the south pole. That lifting effect leads to magnetic levitation.

In summary, a superconductor with little or no magnetic field within it is said to be in the Meissner state. The Meissner state breaks down when the applied magnetic field is too large.

Superconductors in the Meissner state exhibit perfect diamagnetism, or superdiamagnetism, meaning that the total magnetic field is very close to zero deep inside them (many penetration depths from the surface). 

The animation shows a magnet levitating above a superconductor cooled by liquid nitrogen.

Further reading and reference

► The origin of the Meissner effect in new and old superconductors>>;

► Meissner effect>>

► Diamagnetism>>

► Gif source:

#meissner_effect, #physics, #diamagnetism, #magnetic_field, #superdiamagnetism
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that my friends the key to space travel ....just need to harnis it BIG 
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Thursday February 11, 2016: Scientists to Provide Update on the Search for Gravitational Waves 

Finally we know that next Thursday February 11 there will be, at 10:30 EST, a press conference, announced by LIGO Scientific Collaboration to update the scientific community on efforts to detect gravitational waves. 

"Journalists are invited to join the National Science Foundation as it brings together the scientists from Caltech, MIT and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) this Thursday at 10:30 a.m. at the National Press Club for a status report on the effort to detect gravitational waves - or ripples in the fabric of spacetime - using the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). - "

Go to LSC website for knowing more>>

What will they announce? We have to wait for knowing if rumors were only futile chitchat or had a kernel of truth!

General Relativity- the most commonly accepted description of gravity-  predicts that a change in gravitational field will travel through the universe at the speed of light.  It is exactly these changes in gravitational field that are gravitational waves.

LIGO is a system of two identical detectors carefully constructed to detect incredibly tiny vibrations from passing gravitational waves.
Thursday February 11, the group will discuss publicly their ongoing efforts to observe gravitational waves.

Image via Wikimedia Commons: Two-dimensional representation of gravitational waves generated by two neutron stars orbiting each other.

#gravitational_waves, #LIGO_Scientific_Collaboration , #Physics , #astrophysics , #space , #universe
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+Isaac Calder I understand what you mean. Instead, I'm simply waiting... 
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Napoleon's Theorem

Given any triangle ABC, the triangle, having as vertices the centers of the Fermat circumferences, is equilateral.

Notice that, given any triangle ABC, is said Fermat circumference, relative to the side AB, the circumference c1 of the circumcircle of the equilateral triangle ABP, constructed on the side AB of the original triangle ABC.

So c2 and c3 are the Fermat circumferences relative to, rispectively, the sides BC and CA.

Napoleon's theorem states that, given any triangle, if we construct the Fermat circumferences relative to each side and if we construct the triangle having as vertices the centers O1, O2, O3 of these circumferences, we get an equilateral triangle.

The triangle (yellow, in the image below) thus formed is called the inner or outer Napoleon triangle.

Although this theorem is traditionally attributed to Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), it seems to have been published for the first time in an article by W.Rutheford (1825) in the journal "The Ladies' Diary".

Especially in the second half of nineteenth century, blossomed a set of studies and investigations about the properties of the triangle named "The Recent Geometry of the Triangle."
The word "recent" had the purpose to distinguish these new studies than ones of ancient origin that had led to indicate the four triangle centers: centroid, incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter.
To these centers "The Recent Geometry of the Triangle" added other ones, some of which named after the scholars who noted them (eg. Gergonne, Grèbe, Miquel, Lemoine, ...).
Furthermore, were identified also straight lines and circles that have significant links with the triangle shape.
The Mémoire sur quelques propriétès d’un point remarquables d’un triangle, proposed by E.Lemoine at the Lyon Congress in 1873, can be considered as birth of  "The Recent Geometry of the Triangle"

Further reading

► Napoleon's theorem>>

► The modern geometry of the triangle>>

► Napoleon's Theorem - from Wolfram MathWorld>>

► The image below has been made by me by using GeoGebra.

#geometry, #mathematics , #Napoleon_theorem
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I need it to be dumbed down a little
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Brain Volume Changes After Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

After just nine weeks of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy, the brain of patients suffering from social anxiety disorder changes in volume. Anxiety is reduced, and parts of the patients' brains decrease in both volume and activity. This study could help us develop more effective therapies for one of the most common problems in mental health.

We have known for many years that the brain is remarkably adaptable. For instance, previous studies have shown that juggling and video games affect brain volume. However many questions about how the brain adapts remain unanswered.

A group of researchers from Linköping University and other Swedish universities has studied how internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) affects brain volume and activity. The researchers focussed on patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), one of the most common mental health problems. Before and after treatment the brains of patients were examined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

The researchers found that in patients with SAD, brain volume and activity in the amygdala decrease as a result of ICBT. The results are presented in Translational Psychiatry, a Nature publication.

The greater the improvement we saw in the patients, the smaller the size of their amygdalae. The study also suggests that the reduction in volume drives the reduction in brain activity”, says doctoral student Kristoffer NT Månsson, who led the study together with Linköping colleague Gerhard Andersson and researchers from the Karolinska Institutet, Uppsala University, Umeå University and Stockholm University.

Read the full story>>

► The paper published in Translational Psychiatry
Neuroplasticity in response to cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder>>

Image credit: Shutterstock

#neuroscience, #brain, #cognitive_behavior_therapy, #amygdala, #biology, #science 
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brain activity,? 
try concentrating on Prof. X
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The Complex Ion Tail of Comet Lovejoy 

What causes the structure in Comet Lovejoy's tail? 

Comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), which was in 2015 January 21 at naked-eye brightness and near its brightest, showed an exquisitely detailed ion tail.
As the name implies, the ion tail is made of ionized gas -- gas energized by ultraviolet light from the Sun and pushed outward by the solar wind.

The solar wind is quite structured and sculpted by the Sun's complex and ever changing magnetic field. The effect of the variable solar wind combined with different gas jets venting from the comet's nucleus accounts for the tail's complex structure.
Following the wind, structure in Comet Lovejoy's tail could be seen to move outward from the Sun even alter its wavy appearance over time.

The blue color of the ion tail is dominated by recombining carbon monoxide molecules, while the green color of the coma surrounding the head of the comet is created mostly by a slight amount of recombining diatomic carbon molecules.
The featured three-panel mosaic image was taken on 2015 January 12 from the IRIDA Observatory in Bulgaria.
Comet Lovejoy made it closest pass to the Earth on 2015 January 6 and was at its closest to the Sun on late January 2015. After that, the comet faded as it headed back into the outer Solar System, to return only in about 8,000. years.

► Image and explanation via APoD>>

#solar_system, #comet_Lovejoy, #IRIDA_Observatory, #Sun, #space, #astronomy
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Any More to see?
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Spinning Cardioid

A cardioid is a plane curve traced by a point on the perimeter of a circle that is rolling around a fixed circle of the same radius.
It is therefore a type of limaçon and can also be defined as an epicycloid having a single cusp. It is also a type of sinusoidal spiral, and an inverse curve of the parabola with the focus as the center of inversion.

The name cardioid, which means heart-shaped, was introduced by Giovanni Salvemini called Castiglione (or even Johann Castillon) in an article written in Latin and published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, in 1741. However, in the study of that curve, he had been preceded already, in 1708, by Philippe de La Hire, who had determined its length.

► Animation source>> 

Further reading, from +Xah Lee 

#cardioid, #geometric_curves , #mathematics , #animations
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הדגמה ויזואלית מרתקת. איזה קבוצה למשל יש כרגע במכון?
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COPD May Cause Structural Changes Within The Brain

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a condition impacting nearly 24 million Americans, is often associated with disease-specific fears and avoidance of physical activity.

Little is known of the structural brain processes that occur in COPD patients. A study published in the February issue of the journal Chest found that patients with COPD demonstrated gray matter decreases in areas of the brain that process breathlessness, fear and sensitivity to pain.

The study found patients with COPD show regionally decreased gray matter volume in the anterior, mid, and posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.
Levels of degeneration in certain areas of the brain were also impacted by longer disease duration. Those individuals showed a greater fear of breathlessness and fear of physical activity, which can affect the course of the disease.

Read the full story>>

► The paper published in the journal Chest: Structural Brain Changes in Patients With COPD>>

► Image assembled by me, by using material found in the web.

#neuroscience, #brain, #COPD, #research, #health, #wellness, #medicine
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Really? I didn't know that.
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What Are The Bok Globules?

Bok globules are small interstellar clouds of very cold gas and dust that are so thick they are nearly totally opaque to visible light, although they can be studied with infrared and radio techniques. 

They were originally discovered as black splotches in front of dense fields of stars, and were even dubbed "holes in the heaven" because they appeared like holes in the stellar background.

Bok globules are typically less than 100 solar-masses in size, are relatively isolated, and often contain cores thought to be the embryos of new stars. It is this last feature that makes Bok globules particularly interesting to astronomers who want to use their relative simplicity to examine the very early stages of star formation under conditions much less confused than those in giant molecular cloud complexes like the Orion Nebula.
Moreover, the nearest Bok globules are as much as four times closer than the closest giant complexes, allowing more detailed observations. 

Some results suggest that slow, sequential star formation is underway in these relatively isolated dark clouds. 

The image below shows Blok globules that are absorbing light in the center of the nearby emission nebula and star-forming region, NGC 281, also known as the Pacman Nebula for its resemblance to the video game character.
NGC 281 is an H II region in the constellation of Cassiopeia and part of the Perseus Spiral Arm. It includes the open cluster IC 1590, the multiple star HD 5005, and several Bok globules
If Bok globules can capture enough mass, they may create stars in their cores. Others, including perhaps these, will just dissipate over time.
Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
► Image source>>

Further reading and references

► Bok Globules>>

► NGC 281>>

► Star Formation in Bok Globules>>

#universe, #bok_globules , #NCG281 , #MilkyWay , #space , #astronomy
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VOCE SABE!!! Está se aproximando da nossa galáxia umas nuvens negras de gás e de poeira cósmica e partículas energéticas chamadas nuvens de berçário da criação são escuras com formação de gel eu acho . Ela tem uns dez milhões de anos Luz extenção segundo a ciências especiais. Vamos torcer pra que ela não escoreça todo nosso sistema planetário e o sol. porque ela é muinto grande até ela passar pode ser que nos ficamos cem luz solar por muintos mil anos. Eu não acredito mas tudo é possível depende de onde ela vai entrar no sistema solar pode ocasionar isto ela está se aproximando mas vai demorar muinto tempo ainda. É ISTO AÍ Fim.
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What Is The Miura Fold?

The Miura fold is a method of folding a flat surface such as a sheet of paper into a smaller area. The fold is named for its inventor, Japanese astrophysicist Koryo Miura.

In fact, in 1995, Koryo Miura designed a folding mechanism intended to deploying solar panels in space. The method, called the Miura fold or miura-ori, allows you to open and close a folded piece of paper—like a map—with one swift motion. 

The crease patterns of the Miura fold form a tessellation of the surface by parallelograms. In one direction, the creases lie along straight lines, with each parallelogram forming the mirror reflection of its neighbor across each crease. In the other direction, the creases zigzag, and each parallelogram is the translation of its neighbor across the crease. Each of the zigzag paths of creases consists solely of mountain folds or of valley folds, with mountains alternating with valleys from one zigzag path to the next. Each of the straight paths of creases alternates between mountain and valley folds

The gif below displays the folding and unfolding of a Miura-creased material.

Further reading

► Miura fold>>

► The Miura-Ori map>>

► Origami Science>>

► Miura folding: Applying origami to space exploration>>

► Gif source>>

#Miurafold, #origami , #geometry , #mathematics , #science , #tech
Cynthia Eberly's profile photoMath Solver's profile photoHabib  Fateh's profile photoWill Williams's profile photo
i developed my own way!

i don't know how to show you so i will write,

get a piece of paper and ball it up
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Astronomers Predict Titanic Collision: Milky Way vs. Andromeda

The news dates back to 05.31.12.

NASA astronomers announced they can now predict with certainty the next major cosmic event to affect our galaxy, sun, and solar system: the titanic collision of our Milky Way galaxy with the neighboring Andromeda galaxy.

The Milky Way is destined to get a major makeover during the encounter, which is predicted to happen four billion years from now. It is likely the sun will be flung into a new region of our galaxy, but our Earth and solar system are in no danger of being destroyed.

"Our findings are statistically consistent with a head-on collision between the Andromeda galaxy and our Milky Way galaxy," said Roeland van der Marel of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. 

The solution came through painstaking NASA Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the motion of Andromeda, which also is known as M31. The galaxy is now 2.5 million light-years away, but it is inexorably falling toward the Milky Way under the mutual pull of gravity between the two galaxies and the invisible dark matter that surrounds them both.

Read the full story>>

Image explanation:
This series of photo illustrations shows the predicted merger between our Milky Way galaxy and the neighboring Andromeda galaxy.
First Row, Left: Present day.
First Row, Right: In 2 billion years the disk of the approaching Andromeda galaxy is noticeably larger.
Second Row, Left: In 3.75 billion years Andromeda fills the field of view.
Second Row, Right: In 3.85 billion years the sky is ablaze with new star formation.
Third Row, Left: In 3.9 billion years, star formation continues.
Third Row, Right: In 4 billion years Andromeda is tidally stretched and the Milky Way becomes warped.
Fourth Row, Left: In 5.1 billion years the cores of the Milky Way and Andromeda appear as a pair of bright lobes.
Fourth Row, Right: In 7 billion years the merged galaxies form a huge elliptical galaxy, its bright core dominating the nighttime sky.
(Credit: NASA; ESA; Z. Levay and R. van der Marel, STScI; T. Hallas, and A. Mellinger)

#universe, #milkyway, #andromeda_galaxy, #astronomy, #andromeda_milkyway_collision, #NASA, #space
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Wow. It looks so peaceful 
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Infrared Orion from WISE 

The Great Nebula in Orion is an intriguing place. Visible to the unaided eye, it appears as a small fuzzy patch in the constellation of Orion. But this image, an illusory-color four-panel mosaic taken in different bands of infrared light with the Earth orbiting WISE observatory, shows the Orion Nebula to be a bustling neighborhood of recently formed stars, hot gas, and dark dust.

The power behind much of the Orion Nebula (M42) is the stars of the Trapezium star cluster, seen near the center of the below wide field image. The orange glow surrounding the bright stars pictured here is their own starlight reflected by intricate dust filaments that cover much of the region. 

The current Orion Nebula cloud complex, which includes the Horsehead Nebula, will slowly disperse over the next 100,000 years.

Image and explanation via APoD>>

#universe, #orion_nebula, #Trapezium_star_cluster, #Horsehead_nebula, #APoD, #space, #astronomy
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:D nice

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The Salinon

The salinon is a geometrical figure bounded by four semicircumferences, obtained by considering, onto the diameter AB of a semicircle, two points C and D equidistant from A and B and by tracing the semicircles having diameter AC, CD and DB, as in the figure below.

It is spoken about this figure, along with the arbèlos, in Proposition 14 of the Book of Lemmas, a work attributed to Archimedes. This book arrived at us in a Latin translation from Arabic.

In absence of the original text written in Doric - Sicilian dialect, are justified various interpretations given to the name of the figure.
In the Latin text we find salinon = salt - cellar; other scholars instead derive the word from salos = the "rolling" of the sea wave, sélinon = acanthus leaf, selenion = lunula.

Archimedes noted that the area of the figure bounded by the circumferences of all the semicircles is equal to the area of the circle on EF as diameter.

The image below has been created by me by using GeoGebra.

Further reading


The Arbelos and the Salinon>>

#mathematics, #salinon , #Archimedes , #geometry , #history_of_mathematics
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+fiz ixx GeoGebra is a powerful tool and circles are fascinating.
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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