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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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Dense Dark Matter Hairs Spreading Out from Earth, Jupiter and Other Compact Bodies

The title above refers to a research paper, published on arXiv on November 23, 2015>>

The solar system might be a lot hairier than we thought.

This new study publishing this week in the *Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, proposes the existence of long filaments of dark matter, or "hairs."

Neither dark matter nor dark energy has ever been directly detected, although many experiments are trying to unlock the mysteries of dark matter, whether from deep underground or in space.

Based on many observations of its gravitational pull in action, scientists are certain that dark matter exists, and have measured how much of it there is in the universe to an accuracy of better than one percent. The leading theory is that dark matter is "cold," meaning it doesn't move around much, and it is "dark" insofar as it doesn't produce or interact with light.

"When gravity interacts with the cold dark matter gas during galaxy formation, all particles within a stream continue traveling at the same velocity," Prézeau said.

But what happens when one of these streams approaches a planet such as Earth? Prézeau used computer simulations to find out.

His analysis finds that when a dark matter stream goes through a planet, the stream particles focus into an ultra-dense filament, or "hair," of dark matter. In fact, there should be many such hairs sprouting from Earth.

Read the whole article>>

Image explanation:
This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs". 
A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average.

The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers).
Image source>>

#darkmatter #computer_simulation #JPL #NASA #research #physics #astrophysics  
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Broken image is what I see 
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Smoke Ring for a Halo

Two stars shine through the centre of a ring of cascading dust in this image taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The star system is named DI Cha, and while only two stars are apparent, it is actually a quadruple system containing two sets of binary stars.

As this is a relatively young star system it is surrounded by dust. The young stars are moulding the dust into a wispy wrap.

The host of this alluring interaction between dust and star is the Chamaeleon I dark cloud — one of three such clouds that comprise a large star-forming region known as the Chamaeleon Complex.

DI Cha's juvenility is not remarkable within this region. In fact, the entire system is among not only the youngest but also the closest collections of newly formed stars to be found and so provides an ideal target for studies of star formation.

ESA/Hubble & NASA
Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt (

Image source and explanation>>

Further reading

Binary star>>

Chamaeleon Complex>>

Di Cha>>

#universe #hubble_space_telescope #NASA #ESA #DICha_stars_ystem #ChamaeleonComplex
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Deuterium -Tritium Nuclear Fusion 

Nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei.
This process is called a nuclear reaction.
It releases a large amount of energy. The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. However, it is not as heavy as the combination of the original mass of the starting nuclei (atoms). This lost mass is changed into lots of energy. 
This is shown in Einstein's famous E=mc^2 equation.

The most promising of the hydrogen fusion reactions which make up the deuterium cycle is the fusion of deuterium and tritium. The reaction yields 17.6 MeV of energy but requires a temperature of approximately 40 million Kelvins to overcome the coulomb barrier and ignite it. The deuterium fuel is abundant, but tritium must be either bred from lithium or gotten in the operation of the deuterium cycle. 

In the animation below, we can see Deuterium-Tritium nuclear fusion.

Tritium, also known as hydrogen-3, is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons.
Deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen, is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium contains one proton and one neutron.

Animation source>>


#physics #nuclear_fusion #tritium #deuterium #helium  
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All those point sound bogus pictures from space , sticks in the ground ? Com on you got to be kidding me , you really believe that we are spinning thousand mile per hour ? traveling true galaxies ? You must believe on DNA and evolution as well , may God help you see love 
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Comet, Meteor or Meteorite?

I found this useful infographic in the Canadian Space Agency website.
Illustration summarizes, by a short overwiev, the characteristics of comets, asteroids, meteoroids, meteors, fireballs and meteorites.

Credit: Canadian Space Agency


Here is available the infographic's text. >>

► Here is a my post "Meteoroid, Meteor, Meteorite">>

#Space #meteor #meteoroid #meteorite #space  #universe #infographic #Canadian_Space_Agency #educational_resources #fireballs #comets #asteroids
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Regular Decagon Inscribed in a Circle

Via WikiMedia Commons

Author: Aldoaldoz

#regular_polygons #Euclidean_geometry #mathematics #educational_animations #regular_decagon
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+Vinit Mishra ☺
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Stunning Solar Flare in New Year's Day 2014 

Several wavelengths of light are combined in New Year's Day solar flare image, categorized as an M9.9 and peaking at 1:52 p.m. EST on Jan. 1, 2014.
Each wavelength represents material at a different temperature, helping scientists understand how it is moved and heated through these events.

This mid-level solar flare was captured by  NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on January 1, 2014. SDO collects new data on the Sun every 12 seconds.

A solar flare is a tremendous explosion on the Sun that happens when energy stored in 'twisted' magnetic fields (usually above sunspots) is suddenly released.

In a matter of just a few minutes they heat material to many millions of degrees and produce a burst of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum, including from radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays.

Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel. This disrupts the radio signals for as long as the flare is ongoing, anywhere from minutes to hours.

Image Credit: NASA/SDO

Image Source>>

Further reading

#solar_system #solar_flares #SDO #Sun #astronomy #space
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Fantastic!Really Spectecble!!!
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This Day in Science History: 1859, Origin of Species Is Published

On this day, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, which immediately sold out its initial print run. By 1872, the book had run through six editions, and it became one of the most influential books of modern times.

Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle.

By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London.


Further reading

► An annotated abridgement of Origin of Species>>

#evolution #biology #Darwin #history_of_science
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Thanks to Alfred Russell Wallace for sending him his paper on evolution by natural selection which Darwin put his name on. Its more like the Wallace theory of evolution.
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What’s a Space Headache?

Headaches can be a common complaint during spaceflight.

The Space Headaches experiment improves our understanding of such conditions, which helps in the development of methods to alleviate associated symptoms, and improve the well-being and performance of crew members in orbit
This can also improve our knowledge of similar conditions on Earth.

Via NASA tumblr>>

#health #wellness #space #NASA #astronauts
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+Guillermo Abreu touché...
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Anatomy of a Comet

The main components of a comet – nucleus, coma, hydrogen envelope, dust and plasma tails – indicating their composition, relative sizes and location. Below, the two main reservoirs of comets in the Solar System are shown: the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud.

As an example, the orbits of three famous comets are also included: two short-period comets, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (the target of ESA's Rosetta mission) and 1P/Halley, and a long-period comet, Siding Spring, which reached its closest approach to the Sun in late 2014.

The diagrams are representative and not to scale.

Infographic and explanation source>>

#comets #infographic #ESA #solar_system #infographic #astronomy #universe #KuiperBelt #OortCloud #space #universe
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Some people say there was new planet discovered 
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Moderate Coffee Drinking May Be Linked to Reduced Risk of Death

Drinking a second or third cup of coffee may do more than get you through a long day — it may also reduce your risk of death from heart disease and other illnesses.

In a study reported in the American Heart Association journal Circulation, people who regularly drank moderate amounts of coffee daily — fewer than five cups per day — experienced a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, Type 2 diabetes and suicide.

The benefit held true for drinking caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, suggesting it’s not just the caffeine providing health perks but possibly the naturally occurring chemical compounds in the coffee beans.

“Bioactive compounds in coffee reduce insulin resistance and systematic inflammation,” *Ming Ding, M.D., the study’s first author and doctoral student at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, said in a news release. “They might be responsible for the inverse association between coffee and mortality. However, more studies are needed to investigate the biological mechanisms producing these effects.”

The findings are based on data from three large ongoing studies: 4,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study; 93,054 women in the Nurses’ Health Study 2; and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

Read the whole article>>

Research paper: Ming Ding et al. Association of Coffee Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in Three Large Prospective Cohorts. Circulation, 2015 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017341>>

#cardiovascular_disease_prevention #coffeeconsumption #research #health #wellness
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+Jesse H Ha, well! Maybe you should limit the consumption.
What do you think? ☺
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Researchers Create Electronic Plants

Using semi-conductive polymers, both analog and digital electronic circuits can be created inside living flowers, bushes and trees, as researchers at Linköping University Laboratory for Organic Electronics have shown. The results are being published in Science Advances.

With the help of the channels that distribute water and nutrients in plants, the research group at the Laboratory for Organic Electronics, under the leadership of Professor Magnus Berggren, have built the key components of electronic circuits. In an article in Science Advances, they show how roses can produce both analog and digital electronic circuits, which over the long term could be used, for example, to regulate the plant’s physiology.

Traditional electronics send and process electronic signals, while plants transport and handle ions and growth hormones. In organic electronics, based on semi-conductive polymers, both ions and electrons can serve as signal carriers. With the help of organic electronics it therefore becomes possible to combine electric signals with the plant’s own, as if translating the plant’s signals into traditional electronics. With inexpensive organic electronics integrated into plants, a long range of possibilities opens up – such as utilizing energy from photosynthesis in a fuel cell, or reading and regulating the growth and other inner functions of plants.

“Previously, we had no good tools for measuring the concentration of various molecules in living plants. Now we’ll be able to influence the concentration of the various substances in the plant that regulate growth and development.  Here, I see great possibilities for learning more,” says Ove Nilsson, professor of plant reproduction biology at the Umeå Plant Science Center and co-author of the article.

Read the whole article>>

► Paper: Electronic Plants, Eleni Stavrinidou, Roger Gabrielsson, Eliot Gomez, Xavier Crispin, Ove Nilsson, Daniel T Simon, Magnus Berggren, Science Advances, DOI 10.1126/sciadv.1501136>>

#organicbioelectronics #conductingpolymers #plants #research #innovation #scitech
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+Vipin Kapoor Just so!
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A Plume on Betelgeuse

(artist’s impression with annotations)

This artist’s impression (released in July 29, 2009) shows the supergiant star Betelgeuse as it was revealed thanks to different state-of-the-art techniques on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, which allowed two independent teams of astronomers to obtain the sharpest ever views of the supergiant star Betelgeuse.
They show that the star has a vast plume of gas almost as large as our Solar System and a gigantic bubble boiling on its surface.

These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these mammoths shed material at such a tremendous rate. The scale in units of the radius of Betelgeuse as well as a comparison with the Solar System is also provided.

Credit: ESO/L. Calçada

► Illustration and explanation via ESO>>

#universe #Betelgeuse #supergiant_star @astronomy#space
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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