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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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Solar System For Kids!

I found, by serendipity, this nice image from>>

I quickly thought, because of professional bias, that it could be useful to very young students, at school.

The picture actually gives an overall view that can help kids in their first approach to solar system study.

So I want to share it with all (potentially) interested ones.

I also point out some relevant readings, related to solar system's topic for educational purposes.

Relevant readings and educational resources

#SolarSystem, #educational_resources, SolarSystemforkids
Omar Mubah's profile photoYeboah Richmond's profile photoEdmund Henry's profile photo孙新宇's profile photo
Thanks, if I have a kid, I will show him this picture in Chinese.
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Mammal-like Reptile Survived Much Longer Than Thought

Fossils in Japan overturn widely accepted theory about tritylodontid extinction

Teeth can reveal a lot, such as how the earliest mammals lived with their neighbors. Researchers have uncovered dozens of fossilized teeth in Kuwajima, Japan and identified this as a new species of tritylodontid, an animal family that links the evolution of mammals from reptiles. This finding suggests that tritylodontids co-existed with some of the earliest mammal species for millions of years, overturning beliefs that mammals wiped out mammal-like reptiles soon after they emerged.

Tritylodontids are the last known family of near-mammalian reptiles, before mammals with features such as advanced hearing evolved.

"Tritylodontids were herbivores with unique sets of teeth which intersect when they bite," explains study author Hiroshige Matsuoka, based at Kyoto University. "They had pretty much the same features as mammals -- for instance they were most likely warm-blooded -- but taxonomically speaking they were reptiles, because in their jaws they still had a bone that in mammals is used for hearing."

Read more>>

► The paper " A new Early Cretaceous tritylodontid (Synapsida, Cynodontia, Mammaliamorpha) from the Kuwajima Formation (Tetori Group) of central Japan" published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology>>

Image credit: Seishi Yamamoto/Hiroshige Matsuoka

#Biodiversity, #Biology , #Ecology , #Environment , #Paleontology , #Fossils , #Evolution , #Research , #Tritylodontids , #reptiles , #animals  
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+Stefano Muccinelli I am positively sure you are right ;-) 
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The Shakespearean Moons of Uranus

Thanks to the Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, astronomers have discovered a total of 27 known moons around Uranus. The five main are: Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon:

While most of the satellites orbiting other planets take their names from Greek mythology, Uranus' moons are unique in being named for Shakespearean characters, along with a couple of the moons being named for characters from the works of Alexander Pope.

Let's see them. 

The Rape of the Lock (a poem by Alexander Pope):
Ariel, Umbriel, Belinda

Plays by William Shakespeare.

A Midsummer Night's Dream: Titania, Oberon, Puck
The Tempest: (Ariel), Miranda, Caliban, Sycorax, Prospero, Setebos, Stephano, Trinculo, Francisco, Ferdinand
King Lear: Cordelia
Hamlet: Ophelia
The Taming of the Shrew: Bianca
Troilus and Cressida: Cressida
Othello: Desdemona
Romeo and Juliet: Juliet, Mab
The Merchant of Venice: Portia
As You Like It: Rosalind
Much Ado About Nothing: Margaret
The Winter's Tale: Perdita
Timon of Athens: Cupid

Miranda, the innermost and smallest of the five major satellites, has a surface unlike any other moon that's been seen. It has giant fault canyons as much as 12 times as deep as the Grand Canyon, terraced layers and surfaces that appear very old, and others that look much younger.

Ariel has the brightest and possibly the youngest surface among all the moons of Uranus. It has few large craters and many small ones, indicating that fairly recent low-impact collisions wiped out the large craters that would have been left by much earlier, bigger strikes. Intersecting valleys pitted with craters scars its surface.

Oberon, the outermost of the five major moons, is old, heavily cratered and shows little signs of internal activity. Unidentified dark material appears on the floors of many of its craters.

Cordelia and Ophelia are shepherd moons that keep Uranus' thin, utermost "epsilon" ring well defined.

If you want to learn more about all of Uranus’s moons, visit>>

Further reading

Image source>>

#SolarSystem, #Uranus, #Uranusmoons, #moons, #planets, #space, #astronomy, #Shakespearean _moons
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Wow +annarita ruberto​ that is so cool! I love it! 
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Did Black Hole “Mimickers” Produce LIGO Signal?

Recently detected gravitational waves might not be a signature of black holes but of other massive objects that lack an event horizon.

In September 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves for the first time. Although the presumed source was a black hole merger, a new theoretical analysis shows that other hypothetical objects, like so-called gravastars (or Gravitational Vacuum Stars), could produce a similar gravitational wave signal.
The authors argue that ruling out such black hole “mimickers” will require more detailed observations of the post-merger phase.

I invite you to read the synopsis at this link>>

► The scientific paper "Is the Gravitational-Wave Ringdown a Probe of the Event Horizon?" published in the Physical Review Letters>>

► Image credit: V. Cardoso, E. Franzin and P. Pani

Further reading

► Black hole mimickers>>

#astrophysics, #gravastars, #black_hole_mimickers, #LIGO, #black_holes, #gravitational_waves
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SDU Researchers Present a New Model for What Dark Matter Might Be and How to Test It

A theoretical investigation of super-heavy dark matter particles finds that their existence might be discerned in the cosmic microwave background.

Dark matter is all around us. Though no one has ever seen it, and no one knows what it really is, indisputable physical calculations state that approximately 27% of the universe is dark matter. Only 5% is the matter of which all known materials consist; from the smallest ant to the largest galaxy.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter, but, despite all initiatives, no dark particle has yet been detected. 

"Maybe it's because we have looked after dark particles in a way that will never be able to reveal them. Maybe dark matter is of a different character and needs to be looked for in a different way" says Martin Sloth, associate professor at The Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology (CP3-Origins), University of Southern Denmark.

Together with postdoc McCullen Sandora from CP3-Origins and postdoc Mathias Garny from CERN, he now presents a new model for what dark matter might be in the journal Physical Review Letters.

For decades, physicists have been working on the theory that dark matter is light and therefore interacts weakly with ordinary matter. This means that the particles are capable of being produced in colliders. This theory’s dark particles are called weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), and they are theorized to have been created in an inconceivably large number shortly after the birth of the universe 13.7 billion years ago.

"But since no experiments have ever seen even a trace of a WIMP, it could be that we should look for a heavier dark particle that interacts only by gravity and thus would be impossible to detect directly"- says Martin Sloth.

Sloth and his colleagues call their version of such a heavy particle a PIDM particle (Planckian Interacting Dark Matter). In their new model, they calculated how the required number of PIDM particles could have been created in the early universe.

Read the whole article for a full understanding>>

► Read the scientific paper "Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter" here>>

#astrophysics, #darkmatter, #research, #heavydarkparticle, #PlanckianInteractingDarkMatter, #early_universe
annarita ruberto's profile photopatrick lejeune's profile photo
I believe that the way we are following is a? ? good one. It's like a child's dream who's begining ! A very great TU for your answer. P 
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Fructose Is Very Bad For Your Brain

Fructose alters hundreds of brain genes, which can lead to a wide range of diseases. UCLA scientists report that diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids can reverse the damage.

A range of diseases — from diabetes to cardiovascular disease, and from Alzheimer’s disease to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder — are linked to changes to genes in the brain. A new study by UCLA life scientists has found that hundreds of those genes can be damaged by fructose, a sugar that’s common in the Western diet, in a way that could lead to those diseases.

However, the researchers discovered good news as well: An omega-3 fatty acid known as docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, seems to reverse the harmful changes produced by fructose.

“DHA changes not just one or two genes; it seems to push the entire gene pattern back to normal, which is remarkable,” said Xia Yang, a senior author of the study and a UCLA assistant professor of integrative biology and physiology. “And we can see why it has such a powerful effect.”

DHA occurs naturally in the membranes of our brain cells, but not in a large enough quantity to help fight diseases.

“The brain and the body are deficient in the machinery to make DHA; it has to come through our diet,” said Fernando Gomez-Pinilla, a UCLA professor of neurosurgery and of integrative biology and physiology, and co-senior author of the paper.

[...] The research team sequenced more than 20,000 genes in the rats’ brains, and identified more than 700 genes in the hypothalamus (the brain’s major metabolic control center) and more than 200 genes in the hippocampus (which helps regulate learning and memory) that were altered by the fructose. The altered genes they identified, the vast majority of which are comparable to genes in humans, are among those that interact to regulate metabolism, cell communication and inflammation. Among the conditions that can be caused by alterations to those genes are Parkinson’s disease, depression, bipolar disorder, and other brain diseases...[...]

Read the full story>>

► The research "Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders" is published online in EBioMedicine>>

#brain, #fructose, #brain_genes, #brain_diseases, #neuroscience, #health, #behaviour, #biologicalsciences, #research, #genetics, #brain_disorder
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Xmas v
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Star Cluster NGC 602 in the Flying Lizard Nebula

Near the outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy some 200 thousand light-years distant, lies 5 million year young star cluster NGC 602.
Surrounded by natal gas and dust, NGC 602 is just below center in this telescopic field of view with the angular size of the Full Moon on the sky.

The cluster itself is about 200 light-years in diameter. Glowing interior ridges and swept back shapes strongly suggest that energetic radiation and shock waves from NGC 602's massive young stars have eroded the dusty material and triggered a progression of star formation moving away from the cluster's center.
Of course, the more extended wings of emission in the region suggest a popular name for the complex cosmic environment, The Flying Lizard Nebula.

► Source APoD>>

Further reading

► Stellar evolution>>

► NGC 602>>

#universe, #NGC602, #StarCluster, #FlyingLizardNebula, #SmallMagellanicCloud, #Astronomy, #space
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Amazing galaxy of planets in sky
beyond limit ,Very beautiful
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IC 2184: Cosmic “Flying V” of Merging Galaxies

Galaxy mergers can occur when two (or more) galaxies collide. They are the most violent type of galaxy interaction. Although galaxy mergers do not involve stars or star systems actually colliding, due to the vast distances between stars in most circumstances, the gravitational interactions between galaxies and the friction between the gas and dust have major effects on the galaxies involved.
The exact effects of such mergers depend on a wide variety of parameters such as collision angles, speeds, and relative size/composition, and are currently an extremely active area of research. Galaxy mergers are important because the merger rate is fundamental measurement of galaxy evolution. The merger rate also provides astronomers with clues about how galaxies bulked up over time.

The image below shows a pair of interacting galaxies known as IC 2184:  this large “flying V” is actually two distinct objects, located some 162 million light-years away from Earth in the faint northern *constellation of Camelopardalis (The Giraffe). The pair is receding from us at about 3604 kilometers per second.

Both galaxies are probably barred spirals seen almost edge-on. The individual components are about 40 and 45 thousand light-years across, and the system is about 65 thousand light-years across. They can be seen as bright streaks of light surrounded by the ghostly shapes of their tidal tails.

These tidal tails are thin, elongated streams of gas, dust and stars that extend away from a galaxy into space. They occur when galaxies gravitationally interact with one another, and material is sheared from the outer edges of each body and flung out into space in opposite directions, forming two tails. They almost always appear curved, so when they are seen to be relatively straight, as in this image, it is clear that we are viewing the galaxies side-on.

Also visible in this image are bursts of bright blue, pinpointing hot regions where the stars from both galaxies have begun to crash together during the merger.

The image consists of visible and infrared observations from Hubble’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

A version of this picture was entered into the Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image-processing competition by contestant Serge Meunier.

References and sources

► Galaxy merger>>

► Cosmic “flying V” of merging galaxies>>

► Hubble’s Hidden Treasures>>

Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA 

#universe, #galaxymerger, #IC2184, #NASA, #ESA, #Hubble, #astrophysics, #CamelopardalisConstellation, #galaxies,  #colliding_galaxies,  #tidal_tails, #merging_galaxies
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Exercise Genes? Study Suggests Certain People with Depression May Benefit from Exercise

Call it personalized medicine for depression — but the prescription in this case is exercise, which University of Florida Health researchers have found helps people with certain genetic traits.

A UF study has found that specific genetic markers that put people at risk for depression also predict who might benefit from exercise, according to a study published recently in The Journal of Frailty & Aging. The researchers found that men who were carriers of two specific genes had the most significant response to exercise. The results suggest physical activity as part of a treatment plan — exercise as moderate as walking — could help the carriers of these genes.

“I want to better understand who could benefit most from physical activity. I’d like to take the same approach to exercise that we take to medication, which is to have a personalized medicine approach,” said Vonetta Dotson, Ph.D., the study’s first author and an assistant professor in the College of Public Health and Health Profession’s department of clinical and health psychology. “If we show through systematic research that exercise has a good chance of helping a patient because of their particular characteristics, I think that might help with patients’ motivation to exercise.”

The results came from a small pilot study, so more research needs to be done before this work can be translated into clinical practice. But in the future, it’s possible that blood or saliva could be tested to determine if a person could benefit from physical activity to lower depressive symptoms.

Read the full story>>

► The paper "Genetic moderators of the impact of physical activity on depressive symptoms" published in The Journal of Frailty & Aging>>

Image source>>

#brain, #depression, #health, #genetic_markers, #exercise_genes, #research, #clinical_health_psychology
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This study confirms that exercise is valid for health of human body in general.
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VISTA Captures Celestial Cat’s Hidden Secrets

The Cat’s Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat’s hidden young stars are revealed.

Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat’s Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy.

VISTA, the latest addition to ESO’s Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world’s largest survey telescope. It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light.

Read more>>

Image explanation: Highlights from the infrared view of the Cat’s Paw Nebula (NGC 6334) taken by VISTA. NGC 6334 is a vast region of star formation about 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius. The whole gas cloud is about 50 light-years across. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of young massive stars in our galaxy, some nearly ten times the mass of our Sun and most born in the last few million years.

► Credit: ESO/J. Emerson/VISTA
► Acknowledgment: Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit

#Universe, #CatPawNebula, #NGC6334, #constellation_of_Scorpius, #VISTA, #ESO, #MilkyWay, #space_exploration, #astronomy
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God creation. Amazing
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The Keenan's System

Individually, these galaxies are known as NGC 5216 (the perturbed spiral above left) and NGC 5218 (the globular galaxy below right), and they were discovered by William Herschel in 1790.

Collectively, they are known as Arp 104, and also as Keenan’s system, named after Philip C. Keenan, who published a paper in 1935 about the bridge connecting the interacting pair. The Keenan system lies about 17 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.

The mutual gravitational tides of the merging pair create distortions in each galaxy, and have fashioned a debris trail between them. That connecting string is a bridge of gas, dust and stars about 22,000 light-years long.
The tides disrupt the galaxies as they repeatedly swing close to one another. Drawn out over billions of years, the encounters will likely result in their merger into a single galaxy of stars. Such spectacular galactic mergers are now understood to be a normal part of the evolution of galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

► Image credit and copyright: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona>>


#Universe, #KeenanSystem, #Arp104, #NGC5218, #NGC52186, #constellationUrsaMajor, #space, #astronomy
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+Sandra Hall oh sorry. Didn't read yrs, till I txed..jinx
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Herschel’s View of the Eagle Nebula

The Eagle Nebula, also known as M 16, seen by ESA’s Herschel space observatory. The nebula lies about 6500 light-years away.

A group of young, bright stars, not visible at these infrared wavelengths, are located near the centre of the image. The powerful light emitted by these stars is setting the surrounding gas ablaze, causing it to shine; the stars also drive mighty winds that are carving the giant cavities in the cloud.

At the borders of these cavities, the interstellar mixture of gas and dust becomes denser, eventually collapsing and giving rise to a new generation of stars.

The image is a composite of the wavelengths of 70 microns (blue), 160 microns (green) and 350 microns (red).

► Acknowledgement: G. Li Causi, IAPS/INAF, Italy

► Source ESA>>

We can see Herschel's Galactic Panorama in a stunning video. The video shows a wealth of bright sources, wispy filaments and bubbling nebulas against the background of diffuse gas and dust, marking the spots where stars are being born in the Galaxy.
A set of individual images extracted from the video reveal several jewels nestled in the Galactic Plane, such as the Eagle Nebula, the Cat’s Paw Nebula, and the War and Peace Nebula. >>

#EagleNebula, #Herschelspaceobservatory, #M16, #ESA, #Astronomy, #Universe, #Space
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I have always been fascited with our Galxey. Since I was a little girl.I want to learn all that I can.Thank you so much for your photos they are very beautiful...... Mary
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Have her in circles
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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