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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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annarita ruberto

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Colors of Thermal Pools at Yellowstone National Park

The brilliant visible colors of various hot springs and pools in Yellowstone National Park are explained with a combination of scattering from the water and from microbial mats that coat the bottoms of these thermal features.

A simple 1D radiative transfer model was used to simulate the colors recorded in visible photographs and the spectrum of light making up these colors. The model includes attenuation in water by absorption and molecular scattering as well as reflection characteristics of the microbial mats and surface reflection of the water. Pool geometries are simulated as simple rough cones scaled to have depths and widths that match published data. Thermal images are also used to record the spatial distribution of water skin temperature. The measurements and simulations confirm that colors observed from shallow-water features arise primarily from the spectral properties of the microbial mat, which is related to the water temperature, while colors observed from deeper water arise primarily from the wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering in the water. 

Read the study>>

Image credit: Shutterstock

#microbes,   #yellowstone ,   #rainbow ,   #trippy ,   #pollution , #Thermal_Pools #Atmospheric _and_oceanic_optics, #Water #environmental_science
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Todd C
Been there many times, a wooden walkway leads you around showing you all different type of geological thermal pools, we used to skinny dip in some of them in the park when we were kids, allot of fun memories!
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Mars to Lose its Largest Moon, but Gain a Ring

Mars’ largest moon, Phobos, is slowly falling toward the planet, but rather than smash into the surface, it likely will be shredded and the pieces strewn about the planet in a ring like the rings encircling Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune.

Though inevitable, the demise of Phobos is not imminent. It will probably happen in 20 to 40 million years, leaving a ring that will persist for anywhere from one million to 100 million years, according to two young earth scientists at the University of California, Berkeley.

In a paper appearing online this week in Nature Geoscience", UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow *Benjamin Black and graduate student Tushar Mittal estimate the cohesiveness of Phobos and conclude that it is insufficient to resist the tidal forces that will pull it apart when it gets closer to Mars.

Read the whole story in the Berkeley News>>

Image explanation: Mars could gain a ring in 10-20 million years when its moon Phobos is torn to shreds by Mars gravity. Image by Tushar Mittal using Celestia 2001-2010, Celestia Development Team.

► Research paper: The demise of Phobos and development of a Martian ring system (Nature Geoscience)

#Solar_System, #Mars, #Phobos, #research, #science, #astronomy
Kersti Mägi's profile photoTiberiu Igrisan's profile photoAtheep Aralin's profile photoCraig Wallace's profile photo
I know.  I saw he ring and assumed.,,  I freely admit I'm stupid.
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Star-Forming Region NGC 346

This new portrait of the bright star-forming region NGC 346, in which different wavelengths of light swirl together like watercolours, reveals new information about how stars form.

NGC 346 is located 210,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud, a neighbouring dwarf galaxy of the Milky Way. The image is based on data from ESA XMM-Newton (X-rays; blue), ESO's New Technology Telescope (visible light; green), and NASA's Spitzer (infrared; red).
The infrared light shows cold dust, while the visible light denotes glowing gas, and the X-rays represent very hot gas. Ordinary stars appear as blue spots with white centres, while young stars enshrouded in dust appear as red spots with white centres.

Image source and explanation>>

ESO/ESA/ JPL-Caltech/NASA/ D. Gouliermis (MPIA) et al.

#Universe, #ESO, #ESA, #NASA, #NGC346, #dwarf_galaxy, #Small_Magellanic_Cloud #Astronomy #space
Dhyaa Gm Alsafeer's profile photoMaitrayee Ray's profile photoDenise Vauthier's profile photoEric Templeton's profile photo
Looks like a fenix. ...wonderful 
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A Breathing Earth

This breathaking animation dates back to 2013, but I found it just today. There's a view looking at one year of seasonal transformations on Earth.

His author John Nelson explains how and why created that one, by using NASA imagery from NASA Visible Earth team (see:

Go to John Nelson project>>

#Planet_Earth, #NASAVisibleEarth, #animation, #seasontranformations
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+Teklar Meeps ☺
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This Day in Science History: 1859, Origin of Species Is Published

On this day, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, which immediately sold out its initial print run. By 1872, the book had run through six editions, and it became one of the most influential books of modern times.

Darwin, the privileged and well-connected son of a successful English doctor, had been interested in botany and natural sciences since his boyhood, despite the discouragement of his early teachers. At Cambridge, he found professors and scientists with similar interests and with their help began participating in scientific voyages. He traveled around South America for five years as an unpaid botanist on the HMS Beagle.

By the time Darwin returned, he had developed an outstanding reputation as a field researcher and scientific writer, based on his many papers and letters dispatched from South America and the Galapagos Islands, which were read at meetings of prominent scientific societies in London.


Further reading

► An annotated abridgement of Origin of Species>>

#evolution #biology #Darwin #history_of_science
Stefano Muccinelli's profile photomaria rosaria Dilella's profile photoJekyll H's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photo
What balls! It must have been scary as hell to be out in front of the thing. I think it would have been a lot scarier than Galileo facing off against the Catholic Church.
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What’s a Space Headache?

Headaches can be a common complaint during spaceflight.

The Space Headaches experiment improves our understanding of such conditions, which helps in the development of methods to alleviate associated symptoms, and improve the well-being and performance of crew members in orbit
This can also improve our knowledge of similar conditions on Earth.

Via NASA tumblr>>

#health #wellness #space #NASA #astronauts
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+Guillermo Abreu touché...
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LHC Re-Creates First Moments of the Universe and Sets New Energy Record

After the successful restart of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its first months of data taking with proton collisions at a new energy frontier, the LHC is moving to a new phase, with the first lead-ion collisions of season 2 at an energy about twice as high as that of any previous collider experiment.

Following a period of intense activity to re-configure the LHC and its chain of accelerators for heavy-ion beams, CERN’s accelerator specialists put the beams into collision for the first time in the early morning of 17 November 2015 and ‘stable beams’ were declared at 10.59am today, marking the start of a one-month run with positively charged lead ions: lead atoms stripped of electrons. 

The four large LHC experiments will all take data over this campaign, including LHCb, which will record this kind of collision for the first time. Colliding lead ions allows the LHC experiments to study a state of matter that existed shortly after the big bang, reaching a temperature of several trillion degrees.

► Read the whole story>>

► Image explanation: Lead ions collide in the CMS detector (Image: CMS)

#large_hadron_collider #CERN #BigBang #phisycs #astrophisycs#space #astronomy
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i pw by 3
where or need
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Today in Mathematics History: Norbert Wiener, Mathematician who Found the Science of Cybernetics

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician. He was Professor of Mathematics at MIT.
A famous child prodigy, Wiener later became an early researcher in stochastic and noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems.

He founded a new discipline – cybernetics the study of control and communication in animals and machines. This has had a powerful
influence on a generation of post WWII scientists, inspiring a great deal of research into the potential to extend human capabilities with interfaces to sophisticated electronics.
Wiener sought to understand the principles governing the relationship between computing machines and the human nervous system.
While his vision was that of a society in which machines would free people from repetitive drudgery so they might have time for more creative pursuits, he also was concerned about the dangers of
dehumanization and displacement. His predictions about the coming “automatic age” included his view that many machines would have “brains of brass and sinews of iron.” He wrote in The Human Use of Human Beings (1950/1954):

“…the machine … which can learn and can make decisions on the basis of its learning,
 will in no way be obliged to make such decisions as we should have made, or will be  acceptable to us. For the man who is not aware of this, to throw the problem of responsibility  on the machine, whether it can learn or not, is to cast his responsibility to the winds, and to  find it coming back seated on the whirlwind. ”

Further reading

► A biography>>,%20Norbert.pdf

► Norbert Wiener's place in the history of science and philosophy>>

► Norbert Wiener>>

#historyofMathematics, #cybernetic , #NorbertWiener
picoFlamingo Project's profile photoDorin Rus's profile photoChristopher Andrukiewicz's profile photoCharles Filipponi's profile photo
+annarita ruberto I read he graduated from Tufts at fourteen with a degree in mathematics and then entered Harvard. Actually a true prodige!

Furthermore, no single discipline was large enough to hold all his interests. For example, while recuperating from a fall, he spurred the development of an improved prosthetic arm. 
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Aging Star’s Weight Loss Secret Revealed

Giant star caught in the act of slimming down

A team of astronomers using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) has captured the most detailed images ever of the hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris.
These observations show how the unexpectedly large size of the particles of dust surrounding the star enable it to lose an enormous amount of mass as it begins to die. This process, understood now for the first time, is necessary to prepare such gigantic stars to meet explosive demises as supernovae.

VY Canis Majoris is a stellar goliath, a red hypergiant, one of the largest known stars in the Milky Way. It is 30–40 times the mass of the Sun and 300 000 times more luminous. In its current state, the star would encompass the orbit of Jupiter, having expanded tremendously as it enters the final stages of its life.

The new observations of the star used the SPHERE instrument on the VLT. The adaptive optics system of this instrument corrects images to a higher degree than earlier adaptive optics systems. This allows features very close to bright sources of light to be seen in great detail. SPHERE clearly revealed how the brilliant light of VY Canis Majoris was lighting up clouds of material surrounding it.

Read the whole story>>

► This research was presented in a paper entitled “Large dust grains in the wind of VY Canis Majoris”, by P. Scicluna et al., to appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.>>

► Image credit: ESO

#ESOsVeryLargeTelescope, #VYCanisMajoris, #MilkyWay, #hypergiantstar, #Universe, #space, #Astrophysics
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+Kevin Wright Yes, SPHERE adaptive optics system works well.
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Dense Dark Matter Hairs Spreading Out from Earth, Jupiter and Other Compact Bodies

The title above refers to a research paper, published on arXiv on November 23, 2015>>

The solar system might be a lot hairier than we thought.

This new study publishing this week in the *Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, proposes the existence of long filaments of dark matter, or "hairs."

Neither dark matter nor dark energy has ever been directly detected, although many experiments are trying to unlock the mysteries of dark matter, whether from deep underground or in space.

Based on many observations of its gravitational pull in action, scientists are certain that dark matter exists, and have measured how much of it there is in the universe to an accuracy of better than one percent. The leading theory is that dark matter is "cold," meaning it doesn't move around much, and it is "dark" insofar as it doesn't produce or interact with light.

"When gravity interacts with the cold dark matter gas during galaxy formation, all particles within a stream continue traveling at the same velocity," Prézeau said.

But what happens when one of these streams approaches a planet such as Earth? Prézeau used computer simulations to find out.

His analysis finds that when a dark matter stream goes through a planet, the stream particles focus into an ultra-dense filament, or "hair," of dark matter. In fact, there should be many such hairs sprouting from Earth.

Read the whole article>>

Image explanation:
This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs". 
A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average.

The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers).
Image source>>

#darkmatter #computer_simulation #JPL #NASA #research #physics #astrophysics  
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+Roberto Trejo You're welcome!
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Smoke Ring for a Halo

Two stars shine through the centre of a ring of cascading dust in this image taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The star system is named DI Cha, and while only two stars are apparent, it is actually a quadruple system containing two sets of binary stars.

As this is a relatively young star system it is surrounded by dust. The young stars are moulding the dust into a wispy wrap.

The host of this alluring interaction between dust and star is the Chamaeleon I dark cloud — one of three such clouds that comprise a large star-forming region known as the Chamaeleon Complex.

DI Cha's juvenility is not remarkable within this region. In fact, the entire system is among not only the youngest but also the closest collections of newly formed stars to be found and so provides an ideal target for studies of star formation.

ESA/Hubble & NASA
Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt (

Image source and explanation>>

Further reading

Binary star>>

Chamaeleon Complex>>

Di Cha>>

#universe #hubble_space_telescope #NASA #ESA #DICha_stars_ystem #ChamaeleonComplex
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wonder when ?
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Deuterium -Tritium Nuclear Fusion 

Nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei.
This process is called a nuclear reaction.
It releases a large amount of energy. The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. However, it is not as heavy as the combination of the original mass of the starting nuclei (atoms). This lost mass is changed into lots of energy. 
This is shown in Einstein's famous E=mc^2 equation.

The most promising of the hydrogen fusion reactions which make up the deuterium cycle is the fusion of deuterium and tritium. The reaction yields 17.6 MeV of energy but requires a temperature of approximately 40 million Kelvins to overcome the coulomb barrier and ignite it. The deuterium fuel is abundant, but tritium must be either bred from lithium or gotten in the operation of the deuterium cycle. 

In the animation below, we can see Deuterium-Tritium nuclear fusion.

Tritium, also known as hydrogen-3, is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons.
Deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen, is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen. The nucleus of deuterium contains one proton and one neutron.

Animation source>>


#physics #nuclear_fusion #tritium #deuterium #helium  
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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