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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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annarita ruberto

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51 Pegasi b, the First Planet Orbiting a Star Similar to the Sun, 51 Pegasi

On October 6, 1995, Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced that they had discovered a planet, 51 Pegasi b (51 Peg b), in orbit around its star, 51 Pegasi - the first exoplanet found orbiting a star similar to the Sun.

The presence of a Jupiter-mass companion to the star 51 Pegasi was inferred from observations of periodic variations in the star's radial velocity on a telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence in France and using the ELODIE spectrograph.

On October 12, 1995, confirmation came from Geoffrey Marcy from San Francisco State University and Paul Butler from the University of California, Berkeley using the Hamilton Spectrograph at the Lick Observatory near San Jose in California.

The planet lies only about eight million kilometres from its star, which would be well inside the orbit of Mercury in our Solar System. This object might be a gas-giant planet that has migrated to this location through orbital evolution, or from the radiative stripping of a brown dwarf. It takes 51 Pegasi b only four days to orbit its star.

The planet has been informally named Bellerophon. After its discovery, many teams confirmed its existence and obtained more observations of its properties, including the fact that it orbits very close to the star, experiences estimated temperatures around 1200 °C, and has a minimum mass about half that of Jupiter. At the time, this close distance was not compatible with theories of planet formation and resulted in discussions of planetary migration. It has been assumed that the planet shares the star's inclination of 79 degrees. However, several "hot Jupiters" are now known to be oblique relative to the stellar axis.

The first exoplanet was discovered orbiting a pulsar, in 1992. Hundreds of exoplanets have been discovered since.

Image source>>

The discovery was announced in the journal Nature>>

Further reading

#space_exploration   #51pegasib   #exoplanets   #space   #universe   #astronomy  
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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2015 to

Takaaki Kajita
Super-Kamiokande Collaboration
University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan


Arthur B. McDonald
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Collaboration
Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada

“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

Metamorphosis in the particle world

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 recognises Takaaki Kajita in Japan and Arthur B. McDonald in Canada, for their key contributions to the experiments which demonstrated that neutrinos change identities. This metamorphosis requires that neutrinos have mass.
The discovery has changed our understanding of the innermost workings of matter and can prove crucial to our view of the universe.

Around the turn of the millennium, Takaaki Kajita presented the discovery that neutrinos from the atmosphere switch between two identities on their way to the Super-Kamiokande detector in Japan.

Meanwhile, the research group in Canada led by
Arthur B. McDonald could demonstrate that the neutrinos from the Sun were not disappearing on their way to Earth. Instead they were captured with a different identity when arriving to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

Read the whole Press Release>>

Image explanation: Torn between identities – tau-, electron- or muon-neutrino?

Image source>>

Read more about this year's prize

Information for the Public>>

Scientific Background>>

#nobelprize_inphysics2015 #physics #research #neutrinos
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I have always believed that neutrinos were a subclass defined by ist spin, and that they have mass.
But just a general philisophical level not deserving any prize.
Just my own happiness.
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The Hubble Sequence throughout the Universe's History

The Hubble sequence is a morphological classification scheme for galaxies invented by Edwin Hubble in 1926. It is often known colloquially as the “Hubble tuning-fork” because of the shape in which it is traditionally represented. Hubble’s scheme divides galaxies into three broad classes based on their visual appearance (originally on photographic plates):

Elliptical galaxies have smooth, featureless light distributions and appear as ellipses in images. They are denoted by the letter E, followed by an integer n representing their degree of ellipticity on the sky.
Spiral galaxies consist of a flattened disk, with stars forming a (usually two-armed) spiral structure, and a central concentration of stars known as the bulge, which is similar in appearance to an elliptical galaxy. They are given the symbol "S". Roughly half of all spirals are also observed to have a bar-like structure, extending from the central bulge. These barred spirals are given the symbol "S.B.".
Lenticular galaxies (designated S0) also consist of a bright central bulge surrounded by an extended, disk-like structure but, unlike spiral galaxies, the disks of lenticular galaxies have no visible spiral structure and are not actively forming stars in any significant quantity.

To this day, the Hubble sequence is the most commonly used system for classifying galaxies, both in professional astronomical research and in amateur astronomy.

The image below shows "slices" of the Universe at different times throughout its history (present day, and at 4 and 11 billion years ago).

Each slice goes further back in time, showing how galaxies of each type appear. The shape is that of the Hubble tuning fork diagram, which describes and separates galaxies according to their morphology into spiral (S), elliptical (E), and lenticular (S0) galaxies. On the left of this diagram are the ellipticals, with lenticulars in the middle, and the spirals branching out on the right side. The spirals on the bottom branch have bars cutting through their centres.

The present-day Universe shows big, fully formed and intricate galaxy shapes. As we go further back in time, they become smaller and less mature, as these galaxies are still in the process of forming.

This image is illustrative. the Hubble images of nearby and distant galaxies used were selected based on their appearance; their individual distances are only approximate.

NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser


Watch for a larger view>>

Further reading

#history_of_science #history_of_universe #hubble_sequence #space #astronomy #galaxy_classification #astronomy
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+annarita ruberto Thanks for the answer.
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How Many Asteroids Are in our Neighborhood?

The effort to find objects that might threaten Earth is far from complete, and NASA admits it won’t meet a 2020 congressional deadline to find the bigger ones.

Two years ago, without warning, a house-sized meteor exploded 30 km above Chelyabinsk, Russia; it produced a shock wave that damaged thousands of buildings and injured around 1500 people (see the article by David Kring and Mark Boslough, Physics Today, September 2014, page 32). It was a startling reminder of the sea of asteroids and other near-Earth objects (NEOs) through which our planet moves.

Of the nearly 13 000 NEOs that have been cataloged, 1600 are considered potentially hazardous in that their paths might cross Earth’s orbit. Scientists have estimated that around 22 500 NEOs are larger than 100 m in diameter. But the Minor Planet Center, the central registry of NEOs, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has cataloged just 7840 of them, says the center’s acting deputy director José Luis Galache.

The good news is that astronomers have located more than 90% of the objects larger than 1 km, including 200 potentially hazardous ones. None of those have been determined to pose a threat to Earth for at least the next 100 years or so, says Jim Green, director of planetary science at NASA.

Read the whole article>>

Watch Scott Manley video: Asteroid Discovery 1980 – 2012>>

Further reading

Animation via It's Okay To Be Smart>>

#asteroids #space #research #NASA #astronomy #universe #planeth_earth   #solarsystem  
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+Johann the Greek In the most immediate locations, Chelyabinsk's blast was able to knock down some walls and free-standing structures, but most people were injured because they saw a peculiar and amazing sight of the fireball's tail, gathered around the windows to check it out, and then the shockwave shattered all the glass... :/
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Visions of Future Physics

Nima Arkani-Hamed is championing a campaign to build the world’s largest particle collider, even as he pursues a new vision of the laws of nature.

Do you know who Nima Arkani-Hamed is?

Born April 5, 1972, he is an American-Canadian theoretical physicist with interests in high-energy physics, string theory and cosmology. Arkani-Hamed is now on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He was formerly a professor at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley.

One of the leading particle physics phenomenologists of his generation, Nima Arkani-Hamed is concerned with the relation between theory and experiment. His research has shown how the extreme weakness of gravity, relative to other forces of nature, might be explained by the existence of extra dimensions of space, and how the structure of comparatively low-energy physics is constrained within the context of string theory.
He has taken a lead in proposing new physical theories that can be tested at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland.

He won notable awards: Gribov Medal of the European Physical Society in 2003; Sackler Prize of Tel Aviv University in 2008; Phi Beta Kappa Teaching Award in 2005; Fundamental Physics Prize in 2012.

Quanta Magazine published a very interesting article about him, which deserves to be read.

Here is the introduction:

Get Nima Arkani-Hamed going on the subject of the universe — not difficult — and he’ll talk for as many minutes or hours as it takes to transport you to the edge of human understanding, and then he’ll talk you past the edge, beyond Einstein, beyond space-time and quantum mechanics and all those tired tropes of 20th-century physics, to a spectacular new vision of how everything works. It will seem so simple, so lucid. He’ll remind you that, in 2015, it’s still speculative. But he’s convinced that, someday, the vision will come true.

Read the whole article>>

#physics #NimaArkaniHamed #future_physics
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+The interesting universe Just a suggestion. Google ' Science in society '. You might find some interesting sites & leads.
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Hot, Dense Material Surrounds O-type Star with Largest Magnetic Field Known

Findings have implications on evolution of massive stars.

Observations using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed that the unusually large magnetosphere around an O-type star called NGC 1624-2 contains a raging storm of extreme stellar winds and dense plasma that gobbles up X-rays before they can escape into space.

The findings from a team of researchers led by Florida Institute of Technology Assistant Professor Véronique Petit may help scientists better understand the lifecycle of certain massive stars, which are essential for creating metals needed for the formation of other stars and planets.

The massive O-type star – the hottest and brightest type of star in the universe – has the largest magnetosphere known in its class. Petit found NGC 1624-2’s magnetic field traps gas trying to escape from the star and those gases absorb their own X-rays.

The star’s powerful stellar winds are three to five times faster and at least 100,000 times denser than our Sun’s solar wind. Those winds grapple violently with the magnetic field and the trapped particles create the star’s huge aura of hot, very dense plasma.

Read the whole article>>

Image: The magnetic field of the O-type star called NGC 1624-2 is unusually large for its class.
Credit: SOHO/[instrument] Consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

#research #massive_stars #universe #NGC1624_2
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+Stefano Muccinelli I agree, Stefano. ☺
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Quantum computing: First Two-Qubit Logic Gate in Silicon

Andrew Dzurak and his team have built a quantum logic gate in silicon for the first time.

An Australian team of engineers has built a quantum logic gate in silicon for the first time, making calculations between two qubits of information possible – and thereby clearing the final hurdle to making silicon quantum computers a reality. Their work was published online in the international scientific journal, Nature, on 5 October 2015 (London time). 

It’s the first time calculations between silicon quantum bits has been demonstrated. To achieve this, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) team constructed a device, known as a ‘quantum logic gate’, that allows calculations to be performed between two quantum bits, or ‘qubits’. The advance completes the physical components needed to realise super powerful silicon quantum computers. [...]

[...] The benefits of quantum computing
A functional quantum computer will provide much faster computation in a number of key areas, including:
searching large databases, solving complicated sets of equations, and modelling atomic systems such as biological molecules and drugs. This means they’ll be enormously useful for finance and healthcare industries, and for government, security and defence organisations.

For example, they could be used to identify and develop new medicines by greatly accelerating the computer-aided design of pharmaceutical compounds (and minimizing lengthy trial and error testing); develop new, lighter and stronger materials spanning consumer electronics to aircraft; and achieve much faster information searching through large databases. 

Functional quantum computers will also open the door for new types of computational applications and solutions that are probably too premature to even conceive. [...] 

Read the whole article>>

Paper in the journal Nature>>

Watch, on arXiv, the open access version>>

Image explanation: Artist’s impression of the two-qubit logic gate device developed at UNSW. Each electron qubit (red and blue in the image) has a ‘spin’, or magnetic field, indicated by the arrows. Metal electrodes on the surface are used to manipulate the qubits, which interact to create an ‘entangled’ quantum state.
Credit: Tony Melov/UNSW

#technology #science #innovation #quantumcomputing
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It seems that the new device uses quantum chromatics.
Seems to be a great job.
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A rope is supported at its ends. What shape do you think it assumes?
Galileo, some 400 years ago, thought a parabola (red, thin line). He was wrong: the right answer is a so-called catenary (black), which, however, resembles a parabola quite well!

The curve a hanging flexible wire or chain assumes when supported at its ends and acted upon by a uniform gravitational force. The word catenary is derived from the Latin word for "chain". In 1669, Jungius disproved Galileo's claim that the curve of a chain hanging under gravity would be a parabola.
The curve is also called the alysoid and chainette. The equation was obtained by Leibniz, Huygens, and Johann Bernoulli in 1691 in response to a challenge by Jakob Bernoulli.

Huygens was the first to use the term catenary in a letter to Leibniz in 1690, and David Gregory wrote a treatise on the catenary in 1690. If you roll a parabola along a straight line, its focus traces out a catenary.
As proved by Euler in 1744, the catenary is also the curve which, when rotated, gives the surface of minimum surface area (the catenoid) for the given bounding circle.


Animation via mathani>>

#catenary #mathematics #animations
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The Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri, is in the shape of inverted catenary. It was designed by a Finnish architect Eero Saarinen. It was imagined to represent "gateway to the West", when St. Louis was the last stop before entering the Wild West. It sits at the right bank of Mississippi river, two miles downstream from where Missouri and Mississippi rivers meet.
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Hubble Views the Star that Changed the Universe

On the night of October 5 1923, the US astronomer Edwin Hubble identified the first Cepheid variable star in the Andromeda galaxy. This proved that the galaxy was not part of the Milky Way.

Though the universe is filled with billions upon billions of stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has been trained on a single variable star that in 1923 altered the course of modern astronomy

The star goes by the inauspicious name of Hubble variable number one, or V1, and resides two million light-years away in the outer regions of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy, or M31. V1 is a special class of pulsating star called a Cepheid variable that can be used to make reliable measurements of large cosmic distances.

The star helped Edwin Hubble show that Andromeda lies beyond our galaxy. Prior to the discovery of V1 many astronomers, including Harlow Shapley, thought spiral nebulae, such as Andromeda, were part of our Milky Way galaxy. Others weren't so sure. In fact, Shapley and Heber Curtis held a public debate in 1920 over the nature of these nebulae. But it took Edwin Hubble's discovery just a few years later to settle the debate.

The following text is excerpted from the article "Hubble Views the Star that Changed the Universe":

For example, Andromeda, the largest of the spiral nebulae, presented ambiguous clues to its distance. Astronomers had observed different types of exploding stars in the nebula. But they didn't fully understand the underlying stellar processes, so they had difficulty using those stars to calculate how far they were from Earth. Distance estimates to Andromeda, therefore, varied from nearby to far away. Which distance was correct?
Edwin Hubble was determined to find out.

The astronomer spent several months in 1923 scanning Andromeda with the 100-inch Hooker telescope, the most powerful telescope of that era, at Mount Wilson Observatory in California. Even with the sharp-eyed telescope, Andromeda was a monstrous target, about 5 feet long at the telescope's focal plane. He therefore took many exposures covering dozens of photographic glass plates to capture the whole nebula.

He concentrated on three regions. One of them was deep inside a spiral arm. On the night of Oct. 5, 1923, Hubble began an observing run that lasted until the early hours of Oct. 6. Under poor viewing conditions, the astronomer made a 45-minute exposure that yielded three suspected novae, a class of exploding star. He wrote the letter "N," for nova, next to each of the three objects.

Later, however, Hubble made a startling discovery when he compared the Oct. 5-6 plate with previous exposures of the novae. One of the so-called novae dimmed and brightened over a much shorter time period than seen in a typical nova.

Hubble obtained enough observations of V1 to plot its light curve, determining a period of 31.4 days, indicating the object was a Cepheid variable. The period yielded the star's intrinsic brightness, which Hubble then used to calculate its distance. The star turned out to be 1 million light-years from Earth, more than three times Shapley's calculated diameter of the Milky Way.

Taking out his marking pen, Hubble crossed out the "N" next to the newfound Cepheid variable and wrote "VAR," for variable, followed by an exclamation point.

For several months the astronomer continued gazing at Andromeda, finding another Cepheid variable and several more novae. Then Hubble sent a letter along with a light curve of V1 to Shapley telling him of his discovery. After reading the letter, Shapley was convinced the evidence was genuine. He reportedly told a colleague, "Here is the letter that destroyed my universe."

By the end of 1924 Hubble had found 36 variable stars in Andromeda, 12 of which were Cepheids. Using all the Cepheids, he obtained a distance of 900,000 light-years. Improved measurements now place Andromeda at 2 million light-years away.

Read more>>

About the image
Views of a famous pulsating star taken nearly 90 years apart and a portrait of its galactic home are shown in this image collection.

The pancake-shaped disk of stars, gas, and dust that make up the Andromeda galaxy, or M31, is shown in the image at left. Andromeda is a Milky Way neighbor and resides 2 million light-years away.

The tiny white box just above center outlines the Hubble Space Telescope view. An arrow points to the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field Camera 3. The snapshot is blanketed with stars, which look like grains of sand.

The white circle at lower left identifies Hubble variable number one, or V1, the Cepheid variable star discovered by astronomer Edwin Hubble in 1923. Cepheid variables are pulsating stars that brighten and fade in a predictable pattern. Astronomers use them to calculate how far away they are from Earth.

The large white box outlines the region imaged by astronomer Edwin Hubble, who used the 100-inch Hooker telescope, the most powerful telescope of that era. An arrow points to a copy of Hubble's image of Andromeda, which was made on a 4-inch-by-5-inch glass plate and dated Oct. 6, 1923.

Illustration Credit: NASA, ESA, and Z. Levay (STScI)
News release images>>
Further reading

#history_of_science   #Edwin_Hubble   #universe   #cepheid_stars   #first_cepheid_variable_star   #astronomy   #space  
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+John Mitchell You're welcome! ☺
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An interesting construction which results in a golden ratio rectangle (one with sides a and b such that (a+b)/a = a/b)

► Here is the code>>

► Source>>

#mathematics #golden_ratio_rectangle #animation
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NGC 6960: The Witch's Broom Nebula 

Ten thousand years ago, before the dawn of recorded human history, a new light would have suddenly have appeared in the night sky and faded after a few weeks.
Today we know this light was from a supernova, or exploding star, and record the expanding debris cloud as the Veil Nebula, a supernova remnant. This sharp telescopic view is centered on a western segment of the Veil Nebula cataloged as NGC 6960 but less formally known as the Witch's Broom Nebula.

Blasted out in the cataclysmic explosion, the interstellar shock wave plows through space sweeping up and exciting interstellar material. Imaged with narrow band filters, the glowing filaments are like long ripples in a sheet seen almost edge on, remarkably well separated into atomic hydrogen (red) and oxygen (blue-green) gas.

The complete supernova remnant lies about 1400 light-years away towards the constellation Cygnus. This Witch's Broom actually spans about 35 light-years.
The bright star in the frame is 52 Cygni, visible with the unaided eye from a dark location but unrelated to the ancient supernova remnant.

Image & explanation via APOD >>

Image Credit & Copyright: Martin Pugh (Heaven's Mirror Observatory)

#universe #NGC6960 #space #astronomy 
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Galaxy Cove Vista 

To see a vista like this takes patience, hiking, and a camera. Patience was needed in searching out just the right place and waiting for just the right time. A short hike was needed to reach this rugged perch above a secluded cove in Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park in California, USA. And a camera was needed for the long exposure required to bring out the faint light from stars and nebulae in the background Milky Way galaxy.

Moonlight and a brief artificial flash illuminated the hidden beach and inlet behind nearby trees in the above composite image taken about two weeks ago. Usually obscured McWay Falls is visible just below the image center, while the Pacific Ocean is in view to its right.

Image & explanation source via APOD>>

Image Credit: Rogelio Bernal Andreo (Deep Sky Colors)

#astrophotography #milkywaygalaxy 
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
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Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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