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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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annarita ruberto

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Thaumatrope "Bird in the Cage" Optical Illusion

A thaumatrope is a toy that was popular in the 19th century. A disk, with a picture on each side, is attached to two pieces of string. By spinning the image using two strings (one at each end of the card), the two pictures appear to blend into one due to the persistence of vision. The most well-known of these interesting effects is a bird in the cage.

Thaumatropes were one of a number of simple, mechanical optical toys that used persistence of vision. They are recognised as important antecedents of cinematography and in particular of animation.

The coined name translates roughly as "wonder turner", from Ancient Greek: θαῦμα "wonder" and τρόπος "turn".

Persistence of vision is the commonly used term to describe the optical illusion whereby multiple discrete images blend into a single image in the human mind and believed to be the explanation for motion perception in cinema and animated films. The causes of Persistence of Vision is a combination of the phi phenomenon, beta movement, and Flicker fusion.

Watch this video>>

► Image source>>

Further reading


Phi phenomenon>>

Beta movement>>

Flicker fusion>>

#optical_illusions #Thaumatrope #Persistence_of_Vision #animated_gifs
annarita ruberto's profile photomaria rosaria Dilella's profile photoStefano Muccinelli's profile photoThomas Phillips's profile photo
+Connie Sinclair I loved doing that togheter with my mother, when I was a kid...and later with my kids.
It is fun, indeed.☺
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The age of the universe
How can we figure out when the universe began?

I found an interesting article that tries to take stock of the situation about our current knowledge of the age of the universe.
Since the topic is presented in a clear and accessible way, I consider it suitable for an educational use at school.

I summarize the key points of that article, but I suggest that you read it completely.>>

Hubble and an expanding universe
In the 1920s, mathematician Alexander Friedmann predicted an expanding universe. Edwin Hubble confirmed this when he discovered that many galaxies were moving away from our own at high speeds. Hubble measured several of these galaxies and in 1929 published a paper stating the universe is getting bigger.

The Hubble puzzle
The Hubble constant has not been easy to measure, and the number has changed several times since the 1930s.
In the 1990s, scientists were puzzled when they found that their estimate of the age of the universe—based on their measurement of the *Hubble constant*—was several billion years younger than the age of these oldest stars.
In 1998, Riess and colleagues Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brian Schmidt of the Australian National Lab found the root of the problem: the universe wasn’t expanding at a steady rate. It was accelerating.

Recipe for the universe
Another way to estimate the age of the universe is by using the cosmic microwave background, radiation left over from just after the big bang that extends in every direction.
In 2013, the European Space Agency’s Planck space telescope created an even more detailed map of the CMB temperature fluctuations and estimated the universe to be 13.82 billion years old, plus or minus 50 million years—slightly older than WMAP’s estimate. Planck also made more detailed measurements of the components of the universe and found slightly less dark energy (around 68 percent) and slightly more dark matter (around 27 percent).

New puzzles
Even with these extremely precise measurements, scientists still have puzzles to solve. The measured current expansion rate of the universe tends to be about 5 percent higher than what is predicted from the CMB, and scientists are not sure why.

Image: Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago with Ana Kov

#universe #education #science
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+Stefano Muccinelli Let us hope, Stefano. I'm confident. ☺
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What would a binary black hole merger look like?

Black holes are the "topic of the day", due to the excitement generated by the recent proposal of Hawking (

This excellent animation is a simulation of a pair of black holes that are about to merge, with the Milky Way visible in the background.

It was created by SXS Lensing (, of the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) collaboration (, a group of researchers from Caltech and Cornell University that simulate extreme cosmological events to better understand physics in the cosmos.

They also produced a paper about the project called What would a binary black hole merger look like?

Watch the paper on arXiv>>

Read the abstract:
We present a method of calculating the strong-field gravitational lensing caused by many analytic and numerical spacetimes. We use this procedure to calculate the distortion caused by isolated black holes and by numerically evolved black hole binaries. We produce both demonstrative images illustrating details of the spatial distortion and realistic images of collections of stars taking both lensing amplification and redshift into account. On large scales the lensing from inspiraling binaries resembles that of single black holes, but on small scales the resulting images show complex and in some cases self-similar structure across different angular scales.

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#universe #black_hole #cosmology #physics #astrophysics
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+Ulf Gerhard Bäckström You didn't disturb me. Your comment is funny, indeed. I referred to situations happened in other Annarita's posts, due to a same person.
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Einstein in the Wild: Have You Seen Him?

This is a funny initiative of Scientific American, indeed. :P

Send us photos in honor of the 100th anniversary of general relativity>>

We’re looking for photos of Einstein dolls and bobble heads that may have been placed by certain people (you!) in curious or historic places, as well as pix of Einstein’s image already out there: a painting in a museum, figurine in a restaurant, mask in a Halloween shop, likeness on a magazine cover (not ours!), even Einstein graffiti on a building wall. Be on the lookout, be creative.

#Scientific_American #Einstein_photos #funny_stuff  
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+Jesse H ☺
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annarita ruberto

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Arachnocampa Luminosa: Wonderful and Strange Creatures 

Arachnocampa luminosa, commonly known as New Zealand glowworm or simply glowworm, is a species of fungus gnat ( endemic to New Zealand. Both the larval stage and the imago are luminescent. The species is known to dwell in wet caves, grottoes and sheltered, humid places in forests. Its Māori name is titiwai, meaning "projected over water".
The species was first described in 1871 when collected from a gold mine in New Zealand's Thames region. At first it was thought to be related to the European glowworm beetle, but in 1886 a Christchurch teacher showed it was a larva of a gnat, not a beetle. The species was called Bolitiphila luminosa in 1891, before being renamed Arachnocampa luminosa in 1924.

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These colonies of glowworms emit a blue-green light strong enough to illuminate the caves they live in.

Auckland photographer Joseph Michael documented the awe-striking creatures, which live in caves said to be as ancient as 30 million years old, by spending countless hours in the caves' ice-cold water.

Watch more breathtaking pictures>>

Further reading>>

#biodiversity #Arachnocampa_Luminosa
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Amazingly beautiful, ty annarita can't wait for the next thing you amaze me with
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Imaging Techniques Set a New Standard for Super-Resolution in Live Cells

New imaging methods dramatically improve the spatial resolution provided by structured illumination microscopy, one of the best imaging techniques for seeing inside living cells.

Scientists can now watch dynamic biological processes with unprecedented clarity in living cells using new imaging techniques developed by researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute's Janelia Research Campus. The new methods dramatically improve on the spatial resolution provided by structured illumination microscopy (SIM), one of the best imaging methods for seeing inside living cells.

The vibrant videos produced with the new technology show the movement and interactions of proteins as cells remodel their structural supports or reorganize their membranes to take up molecules from outside the cell. Janelia group leader Eric Betzig, postdoctoral fellow Dong Li and their colleagues have added the two new technologies -- both variations on SIM -- to the set of tools available for super-resolution imaging. Super-resolution optical microscopy produces images whose spatial resolution surpasses a theoretical limit imposed by the wavelength of light, offering extraordinary visual detail of structures inside cells. But until now, super-resolution methods have been impractical for use in imaging living cells.

Read the whole article>>

Journal Reference:
D. Li, L. Shao, B.-C. Chen, X. Zhang, M. Zhang, B. Moses, D. E. Milkie, J. R. Beach, J. A. Hammer, M. Pasham, T. Kirchhausen, M. A. Baird, M. W. Davidson, P. Xu, E. Betzig. Extended-resolution structured illumination imaging of endocytic and cytoskeletal dynamics. Science, 2015; 349 (6251): aab3500 DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3500

► Gifs created from videos courtesy of Li et al.

#research #microscopy #living_cells #science #technology #biology #imaging
Tiberiu Igrisan's profile photoAmi Iida (Google Nerd)'s profile photomaria rosaria Dilella's profile photoStefano Muccinelli's profile photo
+Stefano Muccinelli I agree, Stefano!
You're very welcome.
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annarita ruberto

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Lucil Garcia's profile photoArt Scott's profile photoSaeed Aziz's profile photoMadhu Rima's profile photo
Thank you mine is played out in Heaven my mind and Hell hell is now ;-) I must learn to master the material matter threw my will for heaven can be now now that's how to play with the imagination ;-)
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The Milky Way Over the Arizona Toadstools
from David Lane & R. Gendler 

Which is older -- the rocks you see on the ground or the light you see from the sky?
Usually it’s the rocks that are older, with their origin sediments deposited well before light left any of the stars or nebulas you see in the sky. However, if you can see, through a telescope, a distant galaxy far across the universe -- further than Andromeda or spiral galaxy NGC 7331 (inset) -- then you are seeing light even more ancient.

Featured here, the central disk of our Milky Way Galaxy arches over Toadstool hoodoos rock formations in northern Arizona, USA.

The unusual Toadstool rock caps are relatively hard sandstone that wind has eroded more slowly than the softer sandstone underneath. The green bands are airglow, light emitted by the stimulated air in Earth's atmosphere. On the lower right is a time-lapse camera set up to capture the sky rotating behind the picturesque foreground scene.

► Image & explanation from APOD>>

#astrophotography #MilkyWayGalaxy #Earth
J A Jones-Ford's profile photoWayne Arndt's profile photoJavier Luna's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photo
Good information,
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annarita ruberto

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Looking for Strings inside Inflation

Theorists from the Institute for Advanced Study have proposed a way forward in the quest to test string theory.

Two theorists recently proposed a way to find evidence for an idea famous for being untestable: string theory. It involves looking for particles that were around 14 billion years ago, when a very tiny universe hit a growth spurt that used 15 billion times more energy than a collision in the Large Hadron Collider.
Scientists can’t crank the LHC up that high, not even close. But they could possibly observe evidence of these particles through cosmological studies, with the right technological advances.

Read the whole article>>

Image: Artwork by Sandbox Studio, Chicago

#string_theory #inflation #physics #cosmology 
Aide Castro's profile photoStefano Muccinelli's profile photomaria rosaria Dilella's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photo
+annarita ruberto Well I can categorically state Anna, that we think String Theory is rubber-stamped, written in triplicate and 100% accurate and fully proven. And we reject the Theist-influenced distortion of reality that is the Big Bang Theory and consign it to the dustbin of history. For it is Human Consciousness that is the Creator. It is us. WE create Universes and in at least one of them.........

My comment makes sense;-)
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Record-high pressure reveals secrets of matter

A research team at Linköping University, together with colleagues in Europe and the United States, has shown that at extremely high pressure even the innermost electrons in the atomic nuclei of the metal osmium begin to interact with each other, a phenomenon never witnessed before. The findings have been published in Nature.

“If we know more about how a matter works, we will be in a better position to develop materials that withstand extreme conditions. In research we're constantly making advances, but in this case we’ve taken a giant leap”, says Igor Abrikosov, professor of theoretical physics at Linköping University, who also leads the theoretical team within the project.

Read the whole news>>

Paper The most incompressible metal osmium at static pressures above 750 gigapascals, published online 24 August 2015 in the journal Nature >>

Image: Both the outer "valence" electrons and inner-core electrons of atomic nuclei behave unexpectedly under extreme pressure, which suggests there may be as-yet-undiscovered states of matter. (Credit: Shutterstock)

Image source>>

#physics #states_of_matter #research
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So awesome and beautiful
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annarita ruberto

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...the 28th disk is the size of the Universe...

Matthew Henderson has just created an intriguing animation, in my opinion. What do you think?

Read what he writes:
Each disk is ten times larger than the previous one. If the first disk you see is the size of the palm of your hand, then the second is the size of a coffee table, the third the size of a room. The seventh is the size of Belgium. The ninth is the size of the Earth. The 23rd is around the size of the galaxy, and less than 2 minutes into watching, the 28th is the size of the Universe. 

► Source:

#mathematics #animations #creative_things
Abidemi Odeyemi's profile photoRoberta Rietti's profile photoCarmem Lucia Mathias Bermudo's profile photoRaj Karan's profile photo
+Vincent Sauve And other papers proving it is correct at least in part as it is an incomplete theory, and since it can't be "observed" it can never be 100% proven.  

Your lack of understanding of that, and latching onto whatever is the latest ideas out there without support, and again you not being an actual scientist yourself in the field, again I think I'll pass.  

You have some serious confirmation biases. 
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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