### annarita ruberto

Shared publicly -**Gregorio Ricci- Curbastro, Father of Tensor Calculus**

Perhaps many people have never heard the name

**"Gregorio Ricci- Curbastro"**, even if he was a high-level mathematician.

The following text (translated by me in English) is an excerpt from a long article (in Italian), which I dedicated to such an extraordinary person:

[...]Ricci- Curbastro bequeathed to science the tensor calculus, by developing the theory of curved spaces of any dimension.

**Einstein**was the first to take advantage of tensor calculus power in his

**General Theory of Relativity**, but the concept of curvature (introduced by

**Carl Friedrich Gauss**and developed by

**Riemann and others**) was subsequently an extraordinary instrument, which made possible the solution of one among the greatest mathematical problems:

**the classification of three-dimensional manifolds (G. Perelman, 2003)**.

In fact, the

**"Ricci flow"**allowed to solve the

**Poincaré conjecture**, proposed a century ago by the great French mathematician of whom name it bears.

This conjecture was considered, throughout the mid-twentieth century, the most important unsolved problem in topology.

**Grigory Yakovlevich Perel'man**used in a brilliant way a strategy consisting in changing

**Richard Hamilton's geometrization program**by means of Ricci flow. Such a geometrization approach is particularly innovative compared to previous and more aimed programs of topological sort.

In conclusion, we specify that

**Ricci -Curbastro work**has also repercussions in image processing and in robotics, and many real-life applications in physics and engineering.

We can read on the plaque, placed on Ricci's home:

*"He gave science the absolute differential calculus, an essential tool for the theory of general relativity, new vision of the universe."*[...]

In my article, I pointed out of course that Ricci-Curbastro former student

**Tullio Levi-Civita**(another ingenious mathematician) had a relevant part in developing tensor calculus.

**Relevant links**:

►

**Ricci calculus >>**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricci_calculus

►

**Tensor calculus>>**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensor_calculus

►

**General Relativity and The Absolute Differential Calculus>>**

http://pme-math.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/pme100problemspart3formatted3.pdf

►

**Applications of the Absolute Differential Calculus by A.J. McConnell >>**https://archive.org/details/ApplicationsOfTheAbsoluteDifferentialCalculus

►

**Levi-Civita: Absolute Differential Calculus>>**

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Extras/Levi-Civita_Calculus.html

►

**Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro on Wikipedia>>**

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorio_Ricci-Curbastro

►

**Tullio Levi-Civita on Wikipedia>>**http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tullio_Levi-Civita

#mathematics #history_of_mathematics #great_mathematicians #scienceeveryday #sciencesunday #science

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