Cover photo
annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
34,628 followers|69,544,190 views


annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
A 212-Hour Exposure of Orion 

The constellation of Orion is much more than three stars in a row. It is a direction in space that is rich with impressive nebulas. To better appreciate this well-known swath of sky, an extremely long exposure was taken over many clear nights in 2013 and 2014.

After 212 hours of camera time and an additional year of processing, the featured 1400-exposure collage spanning over 40 times the angular diameter of the Moon emerged. Of the many interesting details that have become visible, one that particularly draws the eye is Barnard's Loop, the bright red circular filament arcing down from the middle.

The Rosette Nebula is not the giant red nebula near the top of the image -- that is a larger but lesser known nebula known as Lambda Orionis.

The Rosette Nebula is visible, though: it is the red and white nebula on the upper left. The bright orange star just above the frame center is Betelgeuse, while the bright blue star on the lower right is Rigel. Other famous nebulas visible include the Witch Head Nebula, the Flame Nebula, the Fox Fur Nebula, and, if you know just where to look, the comparatively small Horsehead Nebula.
About those famous three stars that cross the belt of Orion the Hunter -- in this busy frame they can be hard to locate, but a discerning eye will find them just below and to the right of the image center.

Image and explanation via APOD >>

#APOD, #Orion_constellation, #Rosette_nebula, #universe, #stars, #astronomy, 
Kawahara Masayoshi's profile photoMarcio Hübner's profile photoLotus Dean's profile photoLuis Machado's profile photo
Maravilhas do universo. 
 ·  Translate
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
To Save on Weight, a Detour to the Moon Is the Best Route to Mars

For a piloted mission to Mars, fueling up on the moon could streamline cargo by 68 percent.

Launching humans to Mars may not require a full tank of gas: A new MIT study suggests that a Martian mission may lighten its launch load considerably by refueling on the moon.

Previous studies have suggested that lunar soil and water ice in certain craters of the moon may be mined and converted to fuel. Assuming that such technologies are established at the time of a mission to Mars, the MIT group has found that taking a detour to the moon to refuel would reduce the mass of a mission upon launch by 68 percent.

The group developed a model to determine the best route to Mars, assuming the availability of resources and fuel-generating infrastructure on the moon. Based on their calculations, they determined the optimal route to Mars, in order to minimize the mass that would have to be launched from Earth — often a major cost driver in space exploration missions.

They found the most mass-efficient path involves launching a crew from Earth with just enough fuel to get into orbit around the Earth. A fuel-producing plant on the surface of the moon would then launch tankers of fuel into space, where they would enter gravitational orbit. The tankers would eventually be picked up by the Mars-bound crew, which would then head to a nearby fueling station to gas up before ultimately heading to Mars.

Read the whole information at MIT News>>

► Paper published in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, A Generalized Multi-Commodity Network Flow Model for Space Exploration Logistics>>

Illustration: Christine Daniloff/MIT

#Mars, #Research, #Space_exploration, #space, #astronomy, #planetaryscience, #NASA, #Technology_and_society, #Aeronautics_and_Astronautics, #School_of_Engineering, #EngineeringSystems
Umberto Genovese's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photoArshad Ali's profile photoMarcio Hübner's profile photo
+HOGAN S How can you say so?
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
The Male and Female Brain Are More Similar Than Once Assumed

New study debunks widely-held belief that hippocampus size varies by gender.

Neuoroscientists currently believe that the male and female brain are much more similar than once assumed. Traditionally, differences observed in memory and spatial skills suggested that males and females have gender-specific differences in the structure and function of their hippocampus.

However, a new meta-analysis of 76 published papers, involving over 6,000 healthy individuals, has debunked the widely-held assumption that hippocampus size varies by gender.
Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that allows researchers to combine the findings from many independent studies into a comprehensive review.

The hippocampus was given its name because it resembles the shape of a seahorse. Hippocampus comes from the Greek hippos, "horse," and kampos, "sea monster."
Humans have two hippocampi, one in the left hemisphere of the brain, and one in the right hemisphere. The hippocampus plays an important role in the consolidation of learning from short-term memory to long-term memory and in spatial navigation.

The October 2015 paper, “The Human Hippocampus Is Not Sexually-Dimorphic: Meta-Analysis of Structural MRI Volumes (link is external),” was published in the journal NeuroImage

This study is the first meta-analysis of male–female differences in hippocampal volume based on published MRI studies of healthy participants of all ages to investigate whether the hippocampus is sexually dimorphic.

Read the whole article>>

► The paper, published in the journal NeuroImage>>

Image: Hippocampus in red. 
Source: Wikimedia/Life Sciences Database

#neuroscience, #human_brain, #research, #Human_Hippocampus, 
Lynn Russell's profile photoRiziki Modesta's profile photoRonald Brown's profile photoCam Adiantum's profile photo
wonder full research thanks god
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Animated Satellite Image Sequences Provide a Novel Look at Glacier Dynamics

Although animated images are very popular on the internet, they have so far found only limited use for glaciological applications.
With long time series of satellite images becoming increasingly available and glaciers being well recognized for their rapid changes and variable flow dynamics, animated sequences of multiple satellite images reveal glacier dynamics in a time-lapse mode, making the otherwise slow changes of glacier movement visible and understandable to the wider public.

A glaciologist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland, Frank Paul, used images from 1990 to 2015 captured by three different Landsat satellites to create timelapse sequences of four regions in the central Karakoram, in Asia: Baltoro, Panmah, Skamri–Sarpo Laggo and Shaksgam.

The animations play automatically in a web browser and reveal highly complex patterns of glacier flow and surge dynamics that are difficult to obtain by other methods. 

Published on November 26, 2015 in The Cryosphere journal, these new animations provide a novel look at glacier dynamics, revealing changes over a much longer time and at a much larger scale than ever before.

Since 25 years of satellite coverage is compressed into one second, speeding up glacier movement by some 800 million times.

Dr Paul said, “The most interesting insight is to really see how the glaciers flow and how the individual parts of the glaciers such as the tributary streams interact.”

The animations show that they are not actually retreating, but are advancing or surging and flowing into each other.

Read the article in ESA website>>

Image: Panmah and Choktoi glaciers

► Read the paper in The Cryosphere journal "Revealing glacier flow and surge dynamics from animated satellite image sequences: examples from the Karakoram">>

#esa, #glacier_flow , #glacier_dynamics , #animated_satellite_images , #planet_earth , #environmental_science , #Landsatsatellites
Aleksandar Savin's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photoRonald Brown's profile photoOmar Cornejo Hernandez's profile photo
I saw this yesterday and was amazed.
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Hot Young Stars

New stars emerge from inside the Rosette Nebula, seen in this image taken by the National Science Foundation’s 0.9-meter telescope’s Mosaic camera at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

The brightest cluster of stars in the center of this photo lives about 5,000 light-years away from Earth

To identify the atoms and ions in these clouds, scientists filter the telescope images to reveal just the light coming from certain ionized gases.

The nebula would look reddish-pink to the naked eye. But only three atoms and ions are imaged here: Neutral hydrogen atoms show up in characteristic red, O²⁺ in green, and S⁺ in blue.

Credit: T. A. Rector, B. Wolpa & M. Hanna/University of Alaska Anchorage, WIYN & AURA/NOAO/NSF


#chemistry_in_space, #Rosette_Nebula, #stars, #universe, #space,  #nebula,  #spectroscopy,  #astronomy,
picoFlamingo Project's profile photoDigvijay Singh Rajpurohit's profile photoMaxine Johnstone (MX)'s profile photoKimberly Busby's profile photo
+Richard Amantite You haven't to think of the gases like they are here on Earth.
Stars originate by huge molecular clouds, which are found in interstellar space, composed mainly of hydrogen, whose mass can reach thousands if not millions of times the Sun's mass. These molecular clouds condense and eventually result in the birth of new stars.
It is obvious that we can't directly observe the birth of a star, but the scientist make it through powerful telescopes such as ALMA, for example.
See here >>
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
On November 28, 1967 the First Pulsar Was Observed 

PSR B1919+21 is a pulsar with a period of 1.3373 seconds, and a pulse width of 0.04 second. It was the first radio pulsar discovered on November 28, 1967 by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish. The power and regularity of the signals was thought to resemble a beacon, so for a time the source was nicknamed "LGM-1" (for "Little Green Men").

The original designation of this pulsar was CP 1919 which stands for Cambridge Pulsar at R.A. 19h 19m. It is also known as PSR J1921+2153 and is located in the constellation of Vulpecul.

Jocelyn Bell Burnell was a graduate student  and professor Antony Hewish was her thesis supervisor and head of the astronomy department at the University of Cambridge.
The two radio astronomers noted that the observed emission from the pulsar was pulses separated by 1.3373 seconds, originated from the same location on the sky, and kept to sidereal time. 

► In the article at the following link, Jocelyn Bell Burnell tells a delightful, personal story of how she first encountered the signals and what ensued.>>

► In 1974, when Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish were awarded the physics prize for discovery of pulsars, the cosmologist Fred Hoyle rose in wrath at the omission of Jocelyn Bell, the student astronomer who had made the initial radio-telescope observation that led to the discovery. Miss Bell, now Dr. Bell Burnell, has serenely ignored the claim.

Before the nature of the signal was determined, the researchers, Bell and her Ph.D supervisor Antony Hewish, somewhat seriously considered the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

Further reading

The Discovery of Pulsars and the Aftermath>>

The SETI Episode in the 1967 Discovery of Pulsars>>


The animated gif is excerpted from another my post, dedicated to PSR B1919+21 in 2013. Watch there, for further information>>

#history_of_science #JocelynBellBurnell #discovery_of_pulsars #PSRB1919 +21
Shamil Bikineyev's profile photoDENIO VALE's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photopicoFlamingo Project's profile photo
+Roger Henderson I meant poetic, graceful, imaginative... all togheter in a word. My English language conveys my way of thinking and my human formation.

So interesting the video.
Add a comment...
Have her in circles
34,628 people
Spencer S (Heronet)'s profile photo
Jaimes Gener's profile photo
Penny Walter's profile photo
Ayaan Khan's profile photo
Muhammad Qayyuum's profile photo
Teddy “teddy33” TED's profile photo
Funky Mechanic's profile photo
Chris Clark's profile photo
glm65's profile photo

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Octopus Makes Own Quicksand to Build Burrow on Seabed

Scientists at the University of Melbourne first spotted this unusual behavior during a night dive in Port Philip Bay, Australia, in 2008. According to New Scientist, after shining a light on a southern sand octopus, the frightened specimen began to shoot jets of water into the sand below, creating a pit of quicksand into which it buried its entire body.

According to a research, published on September 2015, this is the first time a cephalopod has been observed forming a complete burrow beneath the sand.

Cephalopods are often celebrated as masters of camouflage, but their exploitation of the soft-sediment habitats that dominate the ocean floor has demanded other anti-predator strategies.

Here, we report on the first known sub-surface burrowing in the cephalopods, by Octopus kaurna, a small benthic species that uses advanced sand-fluidisation and adhesive mucus for sediment manipulation.

Source New Scientist >>

Journal reference: Behaviour, DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003313>>

Animated Gif source>>

#environment, #biodiversity, #Octopus_kaurna, #research
Nizam Uddin's profile photoSteve Zimmerman's profile photoLjuky Bolf's profile photoJ.J. Serio's profile photo
+Ami Iida ;)
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Scientists Get First Glimpse of Black Hole Eating Star, Ejecting High-Speed Flare

John Hopkins astrophysicist leads team observing 'extremely rare' event

An international team of astrophysicists led by a Johns Hopkins University scientist has for the first time witnessed a black hole swallowing a star and ejecting a flare of matter moving at nearly the speed of light.

The finding reported November 26, 2015 in the journal Science tracks the star—about the size of our sun—as it shifts from its customary path, slips into the gravitational pull of a supermassive black hole and is sucked in, said Sjoert van Velzen, a Hubble fellow at Johns Hopkins.

"These events are extremely rare," van Velzen said. "It's the first time we see everything from the stellar destruction followed by the launch of a conical outflow, also called a jet, and we watched it unfold over several months."

Black holes are areas of space so dense that irresistible gravitational force stops the escape of matter, gas and even light, rendering them invisible and creating the effect of a void in the fabric of space.
Astrophysicists had predicted that when a black hole is force-fed a large amount of gas, in this case a whole star, then a fast-moving jet of plasma—elementary particles in a magnetic field—can escape from near the black hole rim, or "event horizon." This study suggests this prediction was correct, the scientists said.

"Previous efforts to find evidence for these jets, including my own, were late to the game," said van Velzen, who led the analysis and coordinated the efforts of 13 other scientists in the United States, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Australia.

Read the whole article>>

Journal Reference:
S. van Velzen, G. E. Anderson, N. C. Stone, M. Fraser, T. Wevers, B. D. Metzger, P. G. Jonker, A. J. van der Horst, T. D. Staley, A. J. Mendez, J. C. A. Miller-Jones, S. T. Hodgkin, H. C. Campbell, R. P. Fender. A radio jet from the optical and X-ray bright stellar tidal disruption flare ASASSN-14li. Science, 2015; DOI: 10.1126/science.aad1182>>

 Artist’s conception of a star being drawn toward a black hole and destroyed (left), and the black hole later emitting a “jet” of plasma composed of the debris left from the star’s destruction. Modified from an original image by Amadeo Bachar.

#universe, #black_hole, #research, #JohnHopkins, #astrophysics
Sri Ram's profile photoPaolo Pascucci's profile photoArshad Ali's profile photoMusa  Ahmad 's profile photo
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Northern lights, Iceland
by Nydia Lilian

Nydia Lilian is a photographer & graphic designer from the city of Monterrey, Mexico. One of her greatest passions is traveling, being the perfect combination between her craft and meeting and documenting new places. She was the typical daydreamer, traveling inside her vivid imagination and with a strong inner world. Now, all this is projected in her professional work, creating new, fantastic alternate dimensions.

Read more about her>>

#Northern_lights, #photograph, #graphic_designer, #creativity, #Art
SAMUEL STANA's profile photoBOBBY SOKMAN's profile photoMichael Schuh (M.)'s profile photoBrandon Michael's profile photo
Good morning all friends..
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
Today in Mathematics History: Christian Andreas Doppler

Born: 29 November 1803 in Salzburg, Austria
Died: 17 March 1853 in Venice, Italy

Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist. He is celebrated for his principle — known as the Doppler effect — that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer. He used this concept to explain the color of binary stars.

Doppler was raised in Salzburg, Austria, the son of a stonemason. He could not work in his father's business because of his generally weak physical condition. After completing high school, Doppler studied philosophy in Salzburg and mathematics and physics at the k. k. Polytechnisches Institut (now Vienna University of Technology) where he began work as an assistant in 1829. In 1835 he began work at the Prague Polytechnic (now Czech Technical University), where he received an appointment in 1841.

He published widely, but was known as a harsh instructor who was not popular among his students. 

In 1842, Doppler gave a presentation called "Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne" ("On the colored light of the double stars and certain other stars of the heavens") at the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences. The paper theorized that since the pitch of sound from a moving source varies for a stationary observer, the color of the light from a star should alter according to the star's velocity relative to Earth. This principle came to be known as the "Doppler effect." The Doppler effect has been used to support the Big Bang Theory and is often referenced in weather forecasting, radar and navigation.

Doppler left Prague in 1847 and accepted a professorship in mathematics, physics and mechanics at the Academy of Mines and Forests in the Slovakian town of Banska Stiavnica. When revolution broke out in the region in 1848, Doppler was forced to return to Vienna.

In 1850, Doppler was appointed head of the Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Vienna. One of his students there was Gregor Mendel, known for his tremendous contributions to the field of genetics, who did not impress Doppler at the time. Another member of faculty, Franz Unger, served as a mentor to Mendel.

He was often ill and died while convalescing in Venice, Italy, on March 17, 1853.

References and further reading

Read the biography in the Mac Tutor website>>

► Image source>>

#Christian_Andreas_Doppler, #DopplerEffect , #history_of_mathematics , history_of_science
S Monical's profile photoG Arunkrishna's profile photopicoFlamingo Project's profile photoRonald Brown's profile photo
He had a major impact on the world.
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
What Happens When You Drop Caesium in Water

Caesium is a curious alkali metal known to be extremely reactive and super-explosive when it comes into contact with water - even at temperatures of -116 °C (−177 °F). As part of a short video series capturing some of the most beautiful chemical explosions, the team at SciencePhotoLibrary decided to film a sample of caesium reacting with water using a high-speed camera. 

The caesium sample they used was kept in liquid nitrogen before it was dropped into the water from about a metre above. The water was set to room temperature, and contained phenolphthalein, a chemical compound that turns colourless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions.

When they were filming caesium in water, they expected it to cause a big explosion. Instead they saw a series of small, pulsating explosions as it sank. They shot this three times and it was the same each time. 

Background info: the caesium was kept in liquid nitrogen before the drop and fell from about a metre. The water was at room temperature and contained phenolphthalein

So what's going on here? When caesium makes contact with water, it reacts very rapidly, and forms a colourless solution of caesium hydroxide (CsOH) and hydrogen gas (H2).
This reaction is so fast, that if you tried pouring water into a test tube containing caesium (don't do it), the glass container would shatter all over the place.

But in the SciencePhotoLibrary footage, that's not what happens. The explosion is smaller, and more contained, sinking down into the water, surrounded by large plumes of hydrogen bubbles.

Why don't we get the usual fireworks?


Watch the video>>

#chemistry #caesium_in_water #beautiful_experiments #science
Roger Henderson's profile photomaria rosaria Dilella's profile photoStefano Muccinelli's profile photoDorin Rus's profile photo
Thanks, bud.
Add a comment...

annarita ruberto

Shared publicly  - 
What Is Barnard's Star?

At just barely tenth magnitude (9.54), Barnard's Star -- named after Yerkes Observatory's E. E. Barnard (1857-1923), who discovered it in 1916 -- is not close to being visible to the naked eye, even though at a distance of just 6.0 light years it is the second closest star to the Earth (considering the Alpha Centauri system, including Proxima, as a unit).

That is just what you would expect from a dim, low mass, class M (M4) dwarf. In northeastern Ophiuchus near the asterism known as "Poniatowski's Bull," the star's fame derives from a variety of properties, chief among them its speed record.
Barnard's has the world's greatest "proper motion," the angular annual movement across the line of sight against the distant stellar background, a whopping 10.4 seconds of arc per year. 
While that may not seem like much, it amounts to an easily- seen  half a degree in a human lifetime, roughly the angular diameter of the full Moon.

This huge angular displacement derives from a truly high speed of 139 kilometers per second relative to the Sun, both toward us and to the north. Cool (3170 Kelvin, as befits an M star), this dim dwarf has a luminosity a mere 0.0035 times that of the Sun, most of it in the infrared, which shows it to have a diameter only 20 percent that of the Sun (found also from the angular diameter) and a mass a mere 17 percent solar.
Far from rare, the great majority of stars fall into the M dwarf category: they are just so faint, like Proxima Centauri, that none is visible to the naked eye. Nature seems to love the lesser. No one really knows why. Barnard's has a metal content only 10 percent that of the Sun. That coupled with its high velocity shows it to be a special, rather rare, kind of star called a "subdwarf" that more belongs to the metal-poor and ancient halo of our Galaxy (the Sun belonging to the disk). It is merely passing through our local neighborhood.

Read the whole information>>

Animation source>>

#stars, #universe , #barnardstar , #space #astronomy , #animation
S Monical's profile photo‫حبدر كاظم ااجشعمي‬‎'s profile photoCheryl NORTON's profile photoTimothy Scott's profile photo
Its a little unnerving if that picture was taken with land-based telescope cuz ya stars aren't supposed to move that fast from our prospective
Add a comment...
annarita's Collections
Have her in circles
34,628 people
Spencer S (Heronet)'s profile photo
Jaimes Gener's profile photo
Penny Walter's profile photo
Ayaan Khan's profile photo
Muhammad Qayyuum's profile photo
Teddy “teddy33” TED's profile photo
Funky Mechanic's profile photo
Chris Clark's profile photo
glm65's profile photo
I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
Basic Information