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annarita ruberto
Worked at Ministry of National Education
Attended University of Salento
Lives in Ravenna (Italy)
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The Massive Galaxy Cluster MACS J0717

Have you ever heard about it?

Well, galaxy cluster MACS J0717 is one of the most complex and distorted galaxy clusters known: the site of a collision between four clusters. It is located about 5.4 billion light years away from Earth.

Astronomers are studying a half dozen galaxy clusters, including MACS J0717, through the "Frontier Fields" project. To learn more about clusters, including how they grow via collisions, astronomers have used some of the world’s most powerful telescopes, looking at different types of light.

The image of MACS J0717 contains Chandra X-ray data (blue), Hubble Space Telescope data (red, green, and blue), and JVLA radio data (pink). MACS J0717 appears to have been merging for quite some time. The evidence of merging includes the separated knots of X-rays (blue) formed by the collision of high concentrations of gas, and the giant arcs of radio emission (pink) stretched and distorted by the merger.

MACS J0717 is also the largest known cosmic lens, and thus a prime candidate for observing distant objects magnified by gravitational lensing. The galaxy clusters in MACS J0717 are still merging and are not yet confined to a smaller area — leaving a large total mass over a relatively large area of the sky. This large gravitational lens can magnify and uncover galaxies of the early universe, a key goal of the Frontier Fields project.

In a paper published in The Astrophysical Journal, astronomers discovered seven gravitationally lensed radio sources in MACS J0717. Many of these galaxies would not be observable without the benefit of magnification due to gravitational lensing. The gravitational lensing of massive clusters in radio waves provides a new view of these radio sources, which are thought to be common — but not well-studied — star-forming galaxies in the early universe.

About the image: The galaxy cluster MACS J0717 seen in X-rays (blue), visible light (red, green, and blue), and radio light (pink), taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Hubble Space Telescope, and Jansky Very Large Array, respectively.
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/G. Ogrean et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Radio: NRAO/AUI/NSF.

Image source>>

Further reading and references

#universe, #GalaxyClusterMACSJ0717 , #FrontierFieldsproject , #research , #gravitational_lensing
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Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde

Jupiter's role has always been very controversial. Is it a "good" planet, which (thanks to its mass and gravity) prevents the inner planets from being hit by an unsustainable rain of material or is it a "bad" planet that enjoys diverting orbits and directing them towards us? But is it right defining Jupiter as "good" or "bad", in these two dynamic hypotheses?

The ideas are not yet clear and it's not easy to answer, given the complexity of a n-body problem in celestial mechanics. A recent study in astrobiology (so basically aimed at responding on "whether and how" the Earth has to thank the gas giants) seems to shuffle.

I share the abstract of this study:

"It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the “Jupiter as shield” concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the “Jupiter as shield” concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life.

The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied “non-life threatening” orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that “kicked” outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to “fix” the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to shield or intercept Earth-bound comets originating in the outer Solar System is poor, and that the importance of jovian planets on the formation of life is not that they act as shields, but rather that they deliver life-enabling volatiles to the terrestrial planets."

The study published in the journal Astrobiology>>

Image explanation: Artist’s depiction of the train of fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 during its impact with Jupiter. Image source>>

Further reading

►n-body problem>>

► Jupiter: Our Cosmic Protector?>>

► Jupiter Both an Impact Source and Shield for Earth>>

#Asteroid, #Comets, #Interstellar_meteorites, #Simulation, #Jupiter, #solarsystem, #research, #astrobiology
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It is interesting information about Jupiter,the planet.Thank you. 
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Sandy Gas Jets Hypothesized on Mars

What's causing seasonal dark spots on Mars?

Every spring, strange dark spots appear near the Martian poles, and then vanish a few months later. These spots typically span 50 meters across and appear fan shaped. Observations made with THEMIS instrument onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey, orbiting Mars, found the spots to be as cold as the carbon dioxide (CO2) ice beneath them.

Based on this evidence, a new hypothesis has been suggested where the spots are caused by explosive jets of sand-laden CO2.
As a pole warms up in the spring, frozen CO2 on the surface thins, perforates, and begins to vent gaseous CO2 held underneath. Within this hypothesis, interspersed dark sand would explain the color of the spots, while the underlying frozen CO2 would explain the coolness of the spots.

Pictured below, an artist depicts what it might be like to stand on Mars and witness the venting of these tremendous gas and dust jets.

► Source>>

► Illustration Credit & Copyright: Ron Miller (Arizona State University)>>

Sand-laden jets shoot into the polar sky in this view by noted space artist Ron Miller. It shows the Martian south polar ice cap as southern spring begins. The explosive model depicted in this artwork is a possible explanation for the seasonal, dark spider-like deposits observed at the Martian south pole.

Further reading

► Gas jets spawn dark 'spiders' and spots on Mars icecap>>


► Mars Odyssey>>

► Dry ice>>

#Solar_System, #Mars , #THEMIS , #MarsOdyssey , #darkspotsonMars , #Marsicecap
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Awesome. As ever
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Juno Is on Course to Swing into Orbit Around Jupiter on July 4

NASA's Jupiter-bound Juno spacecraft has entered the planet's magnetosphere, where the movement of particles in space is controlled by what's going on inside Jupiter.

When Juno arrives to Jupiter on July 4, it will bring with it a slew of instruments such as infrared imager/spectrometer and vector magnetometer among the half a dozen other scientific tools in its payload.

Juno will avoid Jupiter’s highest radiation regions by approaching over the north, dropping to an altitude below the planet’s radiation belts – which are analogous to Earth’s Van Allen belts, but far more deadly – and then exiting over the south.
To protect sensitive spacecraft electronics, Juno will carry the first radiation shielded electronics vault, a critical feature for enabling sustained exploration in such a heavy radiation environment.

Data from Juno's Waves investigation, presented as audio stream and color animation, indicate the spacecraft's crossing of the bow shock just outside the magnetosphere on June 24 and the transit into the lower density of the Jovian magnetosphere on July 25.

The bow shock is analogous to a sonic boom. The solar wind blows past all the planets at a speed of about a million miles per hour, and where it hits an obstacle, there's all this turbulence.

The Juno spacecraft launched on Aug. 5, 2011, from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

Further reading and references

Gif source>>

#Junomission, #Jupiter, #nasa, #space, #orbit, #solarsystem
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Like, wasn't Jupiter meant to be a star - that's what my teacher told me.
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Il (non) Carnevale della Fisica #15

Benvenuti a tutti!
Eccoci qui- dopo un discreto lasso di tempo, per quanto mi riguarda- con una nuova puntata del (non) Carnevale della Fisica, l'unico (non) Carnevale scientifico al mondo...che di scientifico ha però tutto e di più!
La puntata odierna è la n. 15 per la precisione ma, prima di dare inizio alla segnalazione degli articoli che ho selezionato, non posso non ricordare brevemente che il 2015 è stato un anno particolarmente fruttuoso per l'Astrofisica, grazie all'epocale scoperta delle onde gravitazionali!
Sì lo so che Gianluigi (+Gianluigi Filippelli)  ha dedicato alle onde epocali l'edizione n. 13 del (non) carnevale, ma nel frattempo è intervenuta una ghiotta novità.

Udite, Udite!

La collaborazione LIGO/VIRGO, dopo l'evento LIGO del 14 settembre 2015, ha addirittura fatto il bis il 26 dicembre successivo con la rilevazione di un secondo segnale prodotto dalle onde gravitazionali, generate dalla coalescenza di due buchi neri di massa stellare. L'evento registrato dai due interferometri è stato chiamato GW151226, in base alla data del rilevamento ovviamente.
Il team ha calcolato che i due buchi neri, con masse di circa 14 e 8 volte quella solare, si trovavano a 1,4 miliardi anni luce di distanza. Tali masse sono vicine ai valori tipici desunti dalle osservazioni convenzionali di buchi neri orbitanti attorno a stelle normali, mentre i responsabili del primo evento LIGO erano molto più grandi, con 29 e 36 masse solari. I risultati relativi al secondo evento sono stati pubblicati sulla rivista Physical Review Letters il 15 giugno scorso.

Diversamente dal primo rilevamento, il nuovo evento “did not leap out of the data,” afferma Sarah Caudill, un membro del LIGO team. L'evento è risultato evidente soltanto dopo aver filtrato ed analizzato i dati con estrema accuratezza. Il team di LIGO ha lavorato su tale analisi in partnership con l'*European Virgo Collaboration*, associata con Virgo, l'interferometro che si trova vicino Pisa.
Forse l'aspetto più importante di questi nuovi risultati è che l'onda gravitazionale misurata è del tutto coerente con le previsioni della relatività generale per forti campi gravitazionali. Le previsioni della teoria non erano state testate direttamente prima dei due eventi LIGO. La teoria supera, quindi, questo severo test per la seconda volta. Insomma, Einstein starà probabilmente gongolando da qualche parte, o almeno così mi piace pensare che sia.
Continua a leggere>>

#fisica , #astrofisica , #physics#astrophysics , #noncarnevaledellafisica   
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+Johnny Samol ...of course! It's in Italian.
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The Crab Nebula As Never Seen Before

This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals the beating heart of one of the most visually appealing, and most studied, supernova remnants known — the Crab Nebula. At the centre of this nebula the spinning core of a deceased star breathes life into the gas that surrounds it.

The Crab Nebula, which lies 6500 light-years away in the constellation of Taurus (The Bull), is the result of a supernova — a colossal explosion that was the dying act of a massive star. During this explosion most of the material that made up the star was blown into space at immense speeds, forming an expanding cloud of gas known as a supernova remnant.

This extraordinary view of the nebula is one that has never been seen before. Unlike many popular images of this well-known object, which highlight the spectacular filaments in the outer regions, this image shows just the inner part of the nebula and combines three separate high-resolution images — each represented in a different colour — taken around ten years apart.

At the very centre of the Crab Nebula lies what remains of the innermost core of the original star, now a strange and exotic object known as a neutron star. Made entirely of subatomic particles called neutrons, a neutron star has about the same mass as the Sun, but compressed into a sphere only a few tens of kilometres across. A typical neutron star spins incredibly fast and the one at the centre of the Crab Nebula is no exception, rotating approximately 30 times per second.

Read the full story>>

Further reading

►NASA's Hubble Captures the Beating Heart of the Crab Nebula>>

► Neutron star>>

► Supernova remnant>>

► Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A)>>

#Universe, #Crab_nebula, #supernova_remnant, #GoddardSpaceFlightCenter, #HubbleSpaceTelescope, #Space
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Sweet looks amazing :-)
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July 7, 2016 Nettie Stevens’ 155th Birthday

Nettie Maria Stevens (July 7, 1861 – May 4, 1912) was an early American geneticist. She and Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856-1939) both independently developed the idea of sex determination by chromosomes.

Their work established the importance of chromosomes in heredity and helped Thomas Hunt Morgan interpret the early genetic results from Drosophila.

Nettie Maria Stevens grew up in America just after the Civil War. Beyond teaching, nursing, or secretarial work, little opportunity was available to women looking for a profession; most simply hoped to marry well. Stevens, however, would not go that route. She was a teacher, but it was only a means to an end. Stevens wanted to be a scientist and worked her way through school, eventually reaching her goal and earning her place in the history of genetics.

At age 39, Stevens began working as a research scientist, and the next 11 years would be the most productive of her life. She was interested in the process of sex determination. While studying the mealworm, she found that the males made reproductive cells with both X and Y chromosomes whereas the females made only those with X. She concluded that sex is inherited as a chromosomal factor and that males determine the gender of the offspring.

At the time, the chromosomal theory of inheritance was not yet accepted, and it was commonly believed that gender was determined by the mother and/or environmental factors. Most scientists did not embrace Stevens's theory immediately.

Her scientific career started late, and ended much too soon when she died of breast cancer on May 4, 1912. However, in the intervening decade prior to her death, she had managed to contribute more to her field than many scientists have with much longer careers.

Stevens is a somewhat controversial character. Following her death, Thomas Hunt Morgan wrote an extensive yet dismissive obituary for the journal Science, implying that she was more of a technician than a scientist. This later assessment belies his earlier statement in a letter of recommendation: "Of the graduate students that I have had during the last twelve years I have had no one that was as capable and independent in research as Miss Stevens."

► Watch "Nettie Stevens Google Doodle. Nettie Stevens is the Discoverer of Sex Chromosomes">>

Further reading and references

► Image source>>

#historyofscience, #biology, #sexdetermination, #chromosomes, #NettieMariaStevens, #womeninscience
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+Stefano Muccinelli I'm doing so...☺
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Higgs Boson Pizza Day | 4 July 2016 | Restaurant 1

Happy birthday, Higgs boson!

Four years after the historic announcement of the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN, a collaboration between INFN and CERN has declared 4 July 2016 “Higgs Boson Pizza Day”.

The Novae Restaurant 1 at CERN will offer two special “Higgs Boson Pizzas” (one vegetarian and one ham and cheese), from 11.30 a.m. to 2.15 p.m., for the usual pizza price.

The idea was born in Naples (where else?), the hometown of Pierluigi Paolucci, who - while chatting with INFN president Fernando Ferroni - realised the striking resemblance between Higgs boson event displays and the delicious pizzas in front of them.

A specially designed pizza was then created by the chef of the historic “Ettore” pizzeria in St. Lucia, in time for the opening of an Art&Science exhibition on 15 September 2015 in Naples. The owner of the restaurant, Ms Iolanda Canale, has been invited by INFN to come to CERN and help Novae in the preparation of 400 pizzas on this historic day.

For all pizza lovers who want to learn more about the Higgs boson, here is the recipe and the explanation of the culinary physics behind the pizzas.
Bon appetit!

Read more>>

Further reading

#CERN, #Higgsboson, #HiggsBosonPizzaDay, #historyofscience, #curiosity
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+Ashik Asharaf YOUR TO late on the fourth of July bubba!!!!⚡
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A Host of Common Chemicals Endanger Child Brain Development

In a new report, dozens of scientists, health practitioners and children’s health advocates are calling for renewed attention to the growing evidence that many common and widely available chemicals endanger neurodevelopment in fetuses and children of all ages.

The chemicals that are of most concern include lead and mercury; organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture and home gardens; phthalates, which are used in pharmaceuticals, plastics and personal care products; flame retardants known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers; and air pollutants produced by the combustion of wood and fossil fuels, said University of Illinois comparative biosciences professor Susan Schantz, one of dozens of individual signatories to the consensus statement.

Polychlorinated biphenyls, once used as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment, also are of concern. PCBs were banned in the U.S. in 1977, but can persist in the environment for decades, she said.

The new report, “Project TENDR: Targeting Environmental NeuroDevelopment Risks,” appears in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. The group also has a website with information about each of the chemicals of concern.

Read the full story>>

Read the report>>

Graphic: In addition to mercury and lead, flame retardants, air pollutants and chemicals found in many plastics, cosmetics and food containers can disrupt child brain development, researchers say.

Graphic by Julie McMahon

#brain, #neuroscience, #NeuroDevelopmentRisks, #Chemicals, #ChildBrainDevelopment, #research, #report
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these chemicals are toxic so what do we use in their place...
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Four Different Planetary Nebulae

These four planetary nebulas come from the first systematic survey of such objects in the solar neighborhood made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory.
The planetary nebulas shown here are, clockwise starting from the top left: NGC 6543 (also known as Cat's Eye), NGC 7662, NGC 6826, and NGC 7009.

The image below shows optical Hubble Space Telescope data in red, green and blue.

X-ray emission from Chandra is colored purple and you can see it too, here>>

The diffuse X-ray emission seen with Chandra is caused by shock waves as a wind from the hot remnant of the star collides with the ejected atmosphere.

The four planetary nebulas are all located less than 5000 light years from Earth.

Survey's results were published in the August 2012 issue of The Astronomical Journal. The first two authors are Joel Kastner and Rodolfo Montez Jr. of the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York, accompanied by 23 co-authors.

Read here for knowing the details >>

X-ray: NASA/CXC/RIT/J.Kastner et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI

Further reading

► Planetary Nebula>>

► NGC 6543: The Cat's Eye Nebula Redux>>

#universe, #planetarynebulae, #HubbleSpaceTelescope, #firstChandrasurvey, #ChandraXrayObservatory, #research
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c'est magnifique de"s différente forme de nébuleuse selon la dispersion des gaz et de poussière interstellaire  c'est vraiment la phase la plus importante des activité des étoiles  et galaxie ...
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Study Finds Brain Markers of Numeric, Verbal and Spatial Reasoning Abilities

A new study begins to clarify how brain structure and chemistry give rise to specific aspects of “fluid intelligence", the ability to adapt to new situations and solve problems one has never encountered before.

The study, reported in the journal NeuroImage, links higher concentrations of a marker of energy production in the brain with an improved ability to solve verbal and spatial problems. It also finds an association between brain size and number-related problem-solving.

The analysis involved 211 research subjects, making it the largest study to date linking brain chemistry and intelligence in living humans...

The researchers conducted magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyze brain concentrations of a compound called NAA (N-acetyl aspartate), a byproduct of glucose metabolism and a marker of energy production. They measured brain volume in all subjects using magnetic resonance imaging.

“We found that the quantitative reasoning component of intelligence correlated with brain volume, but not with the concentration of NAA in the brain", Paul said. “And the verbal and spatial components of intelligence correlated with NAA, but not with brain volume.”

Read the full story>>

► The research "Dissociable brain biomarkers of fluid intelligence" was published in the journal NeuroImage>>
Image explanation: The study tested participants’ performance on a number of intelligence tests, with questions, similar to this one, testing subjects’ spatial reasoning.
Graphic by Ryan Larsen and Julie McMahon

#Neuroscience, #brain, #research, #Nacetylaspartate, #intelligence, #magnetic_resonance_imaging
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I teach mathematics and science and work at educational research.
Science communication and e-learning. Scientific blogging
  • Ministry of National Education
    Tenured teacher at secondary school
  • "Scuola & Didattica" - Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian
    Freelance journalist of scientific and educational articles
  • Collaboration with various educational websites
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Ravenna (Italy)
Lecce - Firenze
We can achieve what strongly we want!
I teach mathematics and science and I write for "Scuola e Didattica"- Educational fortnightly magazine in Italian (Editrice La Scuola).

I'm also interested in web 2.0, social network and much more. I love reading, writing, painting, photography, good music, and more.

My posts are prevalently about Science and Mathematics for a general audience, but also about Art, beautiful images/photo and interesting  gifs. I share often scientific news that can be useful to many people.

I would like to look at the profiles of everyone who circles me, but there are too many. ;)
Anyway, I will definitely look at your profile if you engage with my posts.

Furthermore, I am interested in following people who post quality original content, regardless of the number of their followers. 

Instead I am not interested in following people if they never engage with my own content.

If you consider interesting my posts, you can circle me:). I'd like to read your posts and to interact with you here on Googleplus
Bragging rights
I experimented at school a research scholarship in Science, producing approximately over 200 pages of Materials for Science, published by IRRE- ER (Institute of Educational Research Emilia-Romagna, Italy). I was also part, along with 50 teachers selected nationwide, of The SENIS Project, a pilot project from Ministry of National Education for improving the scientific formation of teachers at secondary school. This Project has collected a lot of educational resources, published in a book by Ministry of National Education.
  • University of Salento
    Master's Degree in Physics
  • Classical Lyceum
  • University of Florence
    Advanced course in methods of communication and networked learning
  • University of Tuscia
    1. Advanced course on assessment/evaluation and managing portfolio. 2. Master in elearning and Learning Object
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