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Only two weeks to go. Who wants to help fund the National Museum of Psychology?
Help us share Freud's home movies, Maslow's diaries, and so much more. Build the National Museum of Psychology.
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So, does your dog hate getting hugs or not? An interesting piece on how science is covered by the media.
That doesn't mean you should put your Chow Chow in a chokehold.
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What are predatory publishers and what can be done to protect the integrity of academic publishing from them?
Predatory publishers are increasingly targeting psychologists and other social scientists.
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The Enneagram of Personality, or simply the Enneagram (from the Greek words ἐννέα [ennea, meaning "nine"] and γράμμα [gramma, meaning something "written" or "drawn"[1]]), is a model of human personality which is principally understood and taught as a typology of nine interconnected personality types. Although the origins and history of many of the ideas and theories associated with the Enneagram of Personality are a matter of dispute, contemporary Enneagram understandings are principally derived from the teachings of Oscar Ichazo and Claudio Naranjo. Naranjo's theories were partly influenced by some earlier teachings of G. I. Gurdjieff. As a typology the Enneagram defines nine personality types (sometimes referred to as "enneatypes"), which are represented by the points of a geometric figure called an enneagram,[2] which, it is believed, also indicate some of the connections between the types. There are different schools of thought among Enneagram teachers, therefore their ideas on some theoretical aspects are not always in agreement.[2]
The Enneagram of Personality has been widely promoted in both business management and spiritual contexts through seminars, conferences, books, magazines, and DVDs.[3][4]In business contexts it is generally used as a typology to gain insights into workplace dynamics; in spirituality it is more commonly presented as a path to higher states of being,essence, and enlightenment. It has been described as a method for self-understanding and self-development.[3]
The Enneagram has been criticized as being pseudoscience and subject to interpretation, making it difficult to test or validate scientifically[5] and as "an assessment method of no demonstrated reliability or validity".[6] The skeptic Robert Todd Carroll has characterized the Enneagram as an example of a pseudoscientific theory that "can't be tested because they are so vague and malleable that anything relevant can be shoehorned to fit the theory".[7]
Contents
  [hide] 
1History
2Enneagram figure
3Nine types
3.1Wings
3.2Connecting lines
3.3Instinctual subtypes
4Criticism
5See also
6References
7Further reading
8External links
History[edit]
The origins and historical development of the Enneagram of Personality are matters of dispute. Wiltse and Palmer[8] have suggested that similar ideas to the Enneagram of Personality are found in the work of Evagrius Ponticus, a Christian mystic who lived in 4th century Alexandria. Evagrius identified eight logismoi ("deadly thoughts") plus an overarching thought he called "love of self". Evagrius wrote, "The first thought of all is that of love of self (philautia); after this, [come] the eight."[9] In addition to identifying eight deadly thoughts, Evagrius also identified eight "remedies" to these thoughts.[8]
G. I. Gurdjieff is credited with making the enneagram figure commonly known[10] (see Fourth Way enneagram). He did not, however, develop the nine personality types associated with the Enneagram. Oscar Ichazo is generally recognized as the principal source[10] of the contemporary Enneagram of Personality. Ichazo's "Enneagon of Ego Fixations", together with a number of other dimensions of personality mapped on the enneagram figure, forms the basis of the Enneagram of Personality. The Bolivian-born Ichazo began teaching programs of self-development in the 1950s. His teaching, which he calls "Protoanalysis", uses the enneagram figure among many other symbols and ideas. Ichazo founded the Arica Institute which was originally based in Chile before moving to the United States[2] and coined the term "Enneagram of Personality".[3]
Claudio Naranjo is a Chilean-born psychiatrist who first learned about the Enneagram of Personality from Ichazo at a course in Arica, Chile. He then began developing and teaching his own understanding of the Enneagram in the United States in the early 1970s, influencing others, including some Jesuit priests who adapted the Enneagram for use in Christian spirituality. Numerous other authors, including Helen Palmer, Don Richard Riso, Richard Rohr and Elizabeth Wagele, also began publishing widely read books on the Enneagram of Personality in the 1980s and 1990s. Ichazo disowned Naranjo and the other teachers on what he felt were misinterpretations and uses of the Enneagram. Among Naranjo's early students there are also differing understandings of Enneagram theory.[2]
Enneagram figure[edit]
Enneagram figure
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The enneagram figure is usually composed of three parts; a circle, an inner triangle (connecting 3-6-9) and an irregular hexagonal "periodic figure" (connecting 1-4-2-8-5-7). According to esoteric spiritual traditions,[11] the circle symbolizes unity, the inner triangle symbolizes the "law of three" and the hexagon represents the "law of seven" (because 1-4-2-8-5-7-1 is the repeating decimal created by dividing one by seven in base 10 arithmetic).[12] These three elements constitute the usual enneagram figure.[13]
Nine types[edit]
The table below gives the principal characteristics of the nine types along with their basic relationships. This table is based onUnderstanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types (revised edition) by Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson.[14]Other theorists may disagree on some aspects. The types are normally referred to by their numbers, but sometimes their "characteristic roles" (which refers to distinctive archetypal characteristics) are used instead.[15] The "stress" and "security" points (sometimes referred to as the "disintegration" and "integration" points) are the types, connected by the lines of the enneagram figure, that are believed to influence a person in more adverse or relaxed circumstances. According to this theory, someone classed as a One type, for example, may begin to think, feel and act more like a Four type when stressed, or more like a Seven type when relaxed.
TypeCharacteristic roleEgo fixationHoly ideaBasic fearBasic desireTemptationVice/PassionVirtueStressSecurity
1
Reformer
Resentment
Perfection
Corruptness, imbalance, being bad
Goodness, integrity, balance
Hypocrisy,hypercriticism
Anger
Serenity
4
7
2
Helper
Flattery(Ingratiation)
Freedom, Will
Being unloved
To feel love
Deny own needs,manipulation
Pride
Humility
8
4
3
Achiever
Vanity
Hope, Law
Worthlessness
To feel valuable
Pushing self to always be "the best"
Deceit
Truthfulness,Authenticity
9
6
4
Individualist
Melancholy(Fantasizing)
Origin
Having no identity or significance
To be uniquely themselves
To overuse imagination in search of self
Envy
Equanimity(Emotional Balance)
2
1
5
Investigator
Stinginess (Retention)
Omniscience, transparency
Helplessness, incapability, incompetence
Mastery, understanding
Replacing direct experience with concepts
Avarice
Non-Attachment
7
8
6
Loyalist
Cowardice(Worrying)
Faith
Being without support or guidance
To have support and guidance
Indecision, doubt, seeking reassurance
Fear
Courage
3
9
7
Enthusiast
Planning(Anticipation)
Wisdom, Plan
Being trapped in pain and deprivation
To be satisfied and content
Thinking fulfillment is somewhere else
Gluttony
Sobriety
1
5
8
Challenger
Vengeance(Objectification)
Truth
Being harmed, controlled, violated
Self-protection
Thinking they are completely self-sufficient
Lust(Forcefulness)
Innocence
5
2
9
Peacemaker
Indolence(Daydreaming)
Love
Loss, fragmentation, separation
Wholeness, peace of mind
Avoiding conflicts, avoiding self-assertion
Sloth(Disengagement)
Action
6
3
Wings[edit]
Most, but not all, Enneagram of Personality theorists teach that a person's basic type is modified, at least to some extent, by the personality dynamics of the two adjacent types as indicated on the enneagram figure. These two types are often called "wings". A person of the Three personality type, for example, is understood to have points Two and Four as their wing types. The circle of the enneagram figure may indicate that the types or points exist on a spectrum rather than as distinct types or points unrelated to those adjacent to them. A person may be understood, therefore, to have a core type and one or two wing types that influence but do not change the core type.[16][17]
Connecting lines[edit]
For some Enneagram theorists the lines connecting the points add further meaning to the information provided by the descriptions of the types. Sometimes called the "security" and "stress" points, or points of "integration" and "disintegration", some theorists believe that these connected points also contribute to a person's overall personality. From this viewpoint, therefore, there are at least four other points that can affect a person's overall personality; the two points connected by the lines to the core type and the two wing points.[18][19] These ideas, however, have now largely been rejected or modified by most Enneagram teachers, including Claudio Naranjo who first developed them.[citation needed]
Instinctual subtypes[edit]
Each of the personality types is usually understood as having three "instinctual subtypes". These subtypes are believed to be formed according to which one of three instinctual energies of a person is dominantly developed and expressed. The instinctual energies are usually called "self-preservation", "sexual" (also called "intimacy" or "one-to-one") and "social". On the instinctual level, people may internally stress and externally express the need to protect themselves (self-preservation), to connect with important others or partners (sexual), or to get along or succeed in groups (social).[20] From this perspective, there are 27 distinct personality patterns, because people of each of the nine types also express themselves as one of the three subtypes.[21] An alternative approach to the subtypes looks at them as three domains or clusters of instincts that result in increased probability of survival (the "preserving" domain), increased skill in navigating the social environment (the "navigating" domain) and increased likelihood of reproductive success (the "transmitting" domain).[22] From this understanding the subtypes reflect individual differences in the presence of these three separate clusters of instincts.
It is generally believed that people function in all three forms of instinctual energies but that one usually dominates. According to some theorists another instinct may also be well-developed and the third often markedly less developed.[23]
Criticism[edit]
In 2000, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Doctrine produced a draft report on the origins of the Enneagram to aid bishops in their evaluation of its use in their dioceses. The report identified aspects of the intersection between the Enneagram and Roman Catholicism which, in their opinion, warranted particular scrutiny and were seen as potential areas of concern, stating that "While the enneagram system shares little with traditional Christian doctrine or spirituality, it also shares little with the methods and criteria of modern science... The burden of proof is on proponents of the enneagram to furnish scientific evidence for their claims."[24] Partly in response to some Jesuits and members of other religious orders teaching a Christian understanding of the Enneagram of Personality, a 2003 Vatican document called Jesus Christ, the Bearer of the Water of Life. A Christian Reflection on the 'New Age' says that the Enneagram "when used as a means of spiritual growth introduces an ambiguity in the doctrine and the life of the Christian faith."[25][26]
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Can doing something nice for someone else actually make you feel better than treating yourself?
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Just beautiful! Loved that article! Also - Very much true!
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Do girls really have more anxiety than boys and, if so, what can we do about it?
The toxic effects of social media especially harm girls. Parents can make a difference.
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Competition is often healthy and encouraged at work, but what do you do if one of your co-workers goes overboard?
Hypercompetitors spark strong reactions in colleagues, from fighting back to shutting down; warriors vs. worriers
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Have them in circles
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What does your level of dependence on your smartphone say about the quality of your relationship?
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What is a developmental psychologist, how does one become one and more important, how does developmental psychology fit into the big picture? Check out “A Day in the Life of a Psychologist” series, live or online, May 12, hosted by @CUNYSPS.
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now Belgrade school i m don t know nothing to do just go in school no one give chance dn all is jew bosnian oz not y 

In psychophysics, the Weber–Fechner law combines two different laws of human perception, which both describe ways the resolution of perception diminishes for stimuli of greater magnitude. Ernst Heinrich Weber (1795–1878) was one of the first people to approach the study of the human response to a physical stimulus in a quantitative fashion.[1]Weber's law states that the just-noticeable difference between two stimuli is proportional to the magnitude of the stimuli, (and the subject's sensitivity), i.e. if you sense a change in weight of 0.5 lbs on a 5 pound dumbbell, you ought to feel the extra pound added to a ten pound dumbbell.[2] Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801–1887), a scholar of Weber, later used Weber's findings to construct a psychophysical scale in which he described the relationship between the physical magnitude of a stimulus and its (subjectively) perceived intensity. Fechner's law (better referred to as Fechner's scale) states that subjective sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity. Fechner scaling has been mathematically formalized. In fact, human perceptions of sight and sound work as follows: Perceived loudness/brightness is proportional to logarithm of the actual intensity measured with an accurate nonhuman instrument.
Some authors use the term "Weber–Fechner law" to mean Weber's law, and others use it for Fechner's law. The use of the term "Weber–Fechner law" was criticised as a misnomer by Ewald Hering.[citation needed]
Contents
  [hide] 
1Weight perception
2Sound
2.1"Near miss" of Weber's law in the auditory system
3Vision
3.1"Near miss" of Weber's law in visual regularity perception
4Numerical cognition
5Pharmacology
6See also
7References
8External links
Weight perception[edit]
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Weber found that the just noticeable difference (jnd) between two weights was approximately proportional to the weights. Thus, if the weight of 105 g can (only just) be distinguished from that of 100 g, the jnd (or differential threshold) is 5 g, or in the SI system, a force or weight of 0.005 kg N. If the mass is doubled, the differential threshold also doubles to 10 g, so that 210 g can be distinguished from 200 g. In this example, a weight (any weight) seems to have to increase by 5% for someone to be able to reliably detect the increase, and this minimum required fractional increase (of 5/100 of the original weight) is referred to as the "Weber fraction" for detecting changes in weight. Other discrimination tasks, such as detecting changes in brightness, or in tone height (pure tone frequency), or in the length of a line shown on a screen, may have different Weber fractions, but they all obey Weber's law in that observed values need to change by at least some small but constant proportion of the current value to ensure human observers will reliably be able to detect that change.
This kind of relationship can be described by the differential equation
where dp is the differential change in perception, dS is the differential increase in the stimulus, and S is the instantaneous stimulus. The parameter k is to be estimated using experimental data.
Integrating the above equation gives
where  is the constant of integration and ln is the natural logarithm.
To solve for , put , i.e., no perception; then subtract  from both sides and rearrange:
where  is that threshold of stimulus below which it is not perceived at all.
Substituting this value in for  above and rearranging, our equation becomes:
The relationship between stimulus and perception is logarithmic. This logarithmic relationship means that if a stimulus varies as a geometric progression (i.e., multiplied by a fixed factor), the corresponding perception is altered in an arithmetic progression (i.e., in additive constant amounts). For example, if a stimulus is tripled in strength (i.e., 3 x 1), the corresponding perception may be two times as strong as its original value (i.e., 1 + 1). If the stimulus is again tripled in strength (i.e., 3 x 3 x 1), the corresponding perception will be three times as strong as its original value (i.e., 1 + 1 + 1). Hence, for multiplications in stimulus strength, the strength of perception only adds. The mathematical derivations of the torques on a simple beam balance produce a description that is strictly compatible with Weber's law.[3][4]
Fechner did not conduct any experiments on how perceived heaviness increased with the mass of the stimulus. Instead, he assumed that all jnds are subjectively equal, and argued mathematically that this would produce a logarithmic relation between the stimulus intensity and the sensation. These assumptions have both been questioned.[5][6] Most researchers nowadays accept that a power law is a more realistic relationship, or that a logarithmic function is just one of a family of possible functions.[7]
Other sense modalities provide only mixed support for either Weber's law or Fechner's law.
Sound[edit]
Weber's law does not quite hold for loudness. It is a fair approximation for higher intensities, but not for lower amplitudes.[8]
"Near miss" of Weber's law in the auditory system[edit]
Weber's law does not hold at perception of higher intensities. Intensity discrimination improves at higher intensities. The first demonstration of the phenomena were presented by Riesz in 1928, in Physical Review. This deviation of the Weber's law is known as the "near miss" of the Weber's law. This term was coined by McGill and Goldberg in their paper of 1968 in Perception & Psychophysics. Their study consisted of intensity discrimination in pure tones. Further studies have shown that the near miss is observed in noise stimuli as well. Jesteadt et al. (1977)[9] demonstrated that the near miss holds across all the frequencies, and that the intensity discrimination is not a function of frequency, and that the change in discrimination with level can be represented by a single function across all frequencies.
Vision[edit]
The eye senses brightness approximately logarithmically over a moderate range (but more like a power law over a wider range), and stellar magnitude is measured on a logarithmic scale.[10] This magnitude scale was invented by the ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus in about 150 B.C. He ranked the stars he could see in terms of their brightness, with 1 representing the brightest down to 6 representing the faintest, though now the scale has been extended beyond these limits; an increase in 5 magnitudes corresponds to a decrease in brightness by a factor of 100.[10] Modern researchers have attempted to incorporate such perceptual effects into mathematical models of vision.[11][12]
"Near miss" of Weber's law in visual regularity perception[edit]
Perception of Glass patterns and mirror symmetries in the presence of noise follows Weber's law in the middle range of regularity-to-noise ratios (S), but in both outer ranges, sensitivity to variations is disproportionally lower. As Maloney, Mitchison, & Barlow (1987)[13] showed for Glass patterns, and as van der Helm (2010)[14] showed for mirror symmetries, perception of these visual regularities in the whole range of regularity-to-noise ratios follows the law p = g/(2+1/S) with parameter g to be estimated using experimental data.
Numerical cognition[edit]
Psychological studies show that it becomes increasingly difficult to discriminate among two numbers as the difference between them decreases. This is called the distance effect.[15][16] This is important in areas of magnitude estimation, such as dealing with large scales and estimating distances. It may also play a role in explaining why consumers neglect to shop around to save a small percentage on a large purchase, but will shop around to save a large percentage on a small purchase which represents a much smaller absolute dollar amount.[17]
Pharmacology[edit]
It has been hypothesized that dose–response relationships can follow Weber's Law[18] which suggests this law – which is often applied at the sensory level – originates from underlying chemoreceptor responses to cellular signaling dose relationships within the body. Dose response can be related to the Hill equation, which is closer to a power law.
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How are girls perceived when it comes to math and science, and how does that affect their future career goals?
Even the posters on a STEM classroom wall can affect who feels welcome.
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How can you tell if you're a workaholic?
Malissa A. Clark, PhD, discusses the antecedents and consequences of workaholism from a scientific perspective.
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There's a big difference between wanting to be at work and having to choose between free time or rent.
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The link between poverty and diminished emotional and physical well-being seems clear. But does that mean psychologists should be more active in efforts to reform policies aimed at fighting poverty and increasing the minimum wage?
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Eating disorders: Nature, nurture or both?
Scientists are uncovering the faulty neurobiology behind anorexia and bulimia, debunking the myth that such eating disorders are solely driven by culture and environment.
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Introduction
Based in Washington, D.C., the American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With more than 122,500 members, APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide.
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