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Zuleyka Zevallos
Worked at Australian Academy of Science
Attended Swinburne University of Technology
Lives in Australia
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Zuleyka Zevallos

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Dr Martin Luther Kin Jr: Public Sociologist Par Excellence
Dr Martin Luther King Jr was born on the 15th of January 1929. King had a degree in sociology and a PhD in theology. As an applied and public sociologist, we can see how Luther’s sociological training influenced his leadership, which David Frantz describes as: "building a vision, networking, communicating powerfully, identifying and dealing with differences, creating leverage to motivate people, and conceptualizing alternative strategic paths."

If you’re still studying sociology and you wonder what you can do with a sociology degree, think about King as a model for what applied sociologists can achieve outside academia.

#sociology #martinlutherking #poc
I wrote this for Sociology at Work: Dr Martin Luther King: "Public Sociologist Par Excellence." Reflecting on the passing of King's birthday, I discuss his "change management" style as a type of applied sociological endeavour. I also reflect on King's application of social justice principles in relation to the idea of "positive sociology." I see that students and practitioners might draw inspiration from King's leadership and his vision for positive social transformation, both of which are grounded in applied social science.
#sociology   #socialscience   #science   #martinlutherking  
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Professor Vera Rubin: Astrophysicist and "Ardent Feminist"
Astrophysicist Professor Vera Rubin, USA National Medal of Science awardee who confirmed the existence of dark matter, died on 25 December 2016.

One of the things I want to highlight especially for this post is the wonderful job Professor Rubin's institution, Carnegie Institution for Science, did in their press release. They focus on Rubin's scientific discovery using plain language, but they were bold in also highlighting her gender equity work in science, by calling her an "ardent feminist". This is so important because women's advocacy for gender equity is scientific work that is unpaid; it is undertaken on top of research, teaching, and grant work; and goes largely unacknowledged.

This post is dedicated to Professor Rubin's legacy and all the other ardent feminists in science and elsewhere.

Scientific Pioneer
Dark matter is "the invisible material that makes up more than 90% of the mass of the universe." Rubin's pioneering work progressed from 1965 to the late 1970s. Her webpage describes the beginning of this discovery:

"By the late 1970s, after Rubin and her colleagues had observed dozens of spirals, it was clear that something other than the visible mass was responsible for the stars’ motions. Analysis showed that each spiral galaxy is embedded in a spheroidal distribution of dark matter — a “halo.” The matter is not luminous, it extends beyond the optical galaxy, and it contains 5 to 10 times as much mass as the luminous galaxy. The stars' response to the gravitational attraction of the matter produces the high velocities. As a result of Rubin's groundbreaking work, it has become apparent that more than 90% of the universe is composed of dark matter."

Rubin's research remained prolific until the early 2000s, as she continued to study various models for the composition of the dark halos. Among her most recent publications was an examination of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies.

Until her retirement, Rubin worked at the Carnegie Institution for Science Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, D.C. She was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1993. She was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and in 1996, she received the Royal Astronomical Society’s Gold Medal, the first woman to do so 168 years after Caroline Hershel (1828).

The Ardent Feminist
Neta Bahcall of Princeton University describes Rubin's scientific significance: “A pioneering astronomer, the ‘mother' of flat rotation curves and dark-matter, a champion of women in science, a mentor and role model to generations of astronomers.”

Carnegie Science describes Rubin's scientific impact extends far beyond her pioneering research: "She was an ardent feminist, advocating for women observers at the Palomar Observatory, women at the Cosmos Club, Princeton, and she even advised the Pope to have more women on his committee."

Originally published for Science on Google+ with some edits for my personal collection:

Image: Quote Carnegie Science. Graphic: Zuleyka Zevallos.

Learn more
Read some background on Rubin from Carnegie Science:

See Rubin's biography and publications:

See Yonatan Zunger's tribute to Professor Rubin:

[Image is a photo of Rubin with quote: Vera Rubin was a national treasure as an accomplished astronomer... She was an ardent feminist, advocating for women observers at the Palomar Observatory, women at the Cosmos Club, Princeton, and she even advised the Pope to have more women on his committee.]

#stemwomen #astrophysics #astronomy #womeninscience
Αλέξης Patriot's profile photom1aws's profile photoZuleyka Zevallos's profile photo
+m1aws Russia has a very long history of feminism, dating back to the 18th Century, including influential women in the aristocracy and other social classes. The Decembrists also served as inspiration to later feminists in Russia. The Communist movement also had important contributions from feminists; there was a suffragist movement in Russia; an all-women's congress; and various other women's rights movements that have thrived up to the present day. For some history, see: - Equality and Revolution For academic views see:

Have fun learning about Russian feminism!
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International Day of Solidarity for Indigenous Australian Woman Ms Dhu
[TW violence] The tragic and preventable injustices suffered by Indigenous Australian woman Ms Dhu deserves urgent international attention.

Earlier this week, the West Australian Coroner found that the death in custody of 22-year old Indigenous woman Ms Dhu was preventable. She was imprisoned for petty fines that White Australians are not jailed for, let alone ultimately die over. The police abuse includes denying Ms Dhu medical attention as she lay dying.

Ms Dhu died of respiratory complications due to infection.

Racism in policing
The footage below, which her family wishes to be shared widely, shows how police dragged her body as she lay dying. She was denied medical attention by police officers until long after she lost consciousness. The police insisted that they acted lawfully and dared to emphasise the “distress” of the 16 police officers and one assistant police commissioner in front of Ms Dhu’s grieving family (

Unwarranted concern for the police officer’s feelings was shamefully echoed by Western Australian Premier Colin Barnet, who said: “there was a difficult situation that the police were facing then, a lot of aggression,” despite the evidence showing Ms Dhu showed no aggression (

The footage and other evidence from the Coronial Inquest shows Ms Dhu was the only person in distress at the hands of police brutality.

Social science shows that police accept racist stereotypes of Black and Brown people, which affects their excessively violent treatment of people of colour.

Indigenous Deaths in Custody
It has taken two years for the Coronial Inquest to be finalised. If this was a White woman, not only would she never have ended up in jail, this case, and the footage would have led to swift national reform of police practices. Australia’s national racism is evident in the relative lack of public action on this case.

Indigenous deaths in custody has been a shameful ongoing problem for Australia, even 25 years after a Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody made recommendations to end practices that lead to systemic racism in the justice system. Indigenous Australians continue to have poor health, educational outcomes, lack of access to basic services and basic justice due to our ongoing colonial practices.

Ms Dhu’s family are asking for national and international solidarity today, 22 December 2016 ( Please watch the video and spread Ms Dhu’s story. Demand justice for Ms Dhu and justice for Indigenous families who continue to see case after case exonerated, excused and ignored.

Credits and learn more
Footage of CCTV released by The Guardian, posted by Ms Dhu’s family.

Research on police racism:

Royal Commission:

Incarceration rates: and and

More research, links and background on the case on my blog:

#sociology #msdhu #australia #indigenous #indigenousaustralian #blacklivesmatter #socialjustice #socialscience #woc

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The more I learn about Australians, the more I realize how incredibly racist they are. I mean, not /all/ of them, but definitely an overwhelming amount.
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Celebrate Eddie Mabo
Legendary human rights activist Eddie Mabo is featured in today's Google Doddle! Among his many achievements is being part of the 1967 Referendum that removed two racist elements from the Australian Constitution and successfully leading the legal recognition of Indigenous land rights through Native Title in 1992.

Read more on his legacy as one of Australia's most important leaders: #eddiemabo   #indigenous   #australia   #googledoodle   #humanrights  
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Women Scientists in Italy
While women represent 48% of junior researchers in Italy, they make up only 24% of senior scientists and 17% of directors of research institutes or departments.

Image & source: #stemwomen  
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+Zuleyka Zevallos  I appreciate your habit of referring to data that is accessible to a layman. It can only boost the arguments and confidence of those who support your views.
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Stereotypes About Gender and Science
Psychologist Linda Carli and her team find that an increased number of women in a particular field improves the perceived similarity between women and scientists but even numbers of men and women don't necessarily lead to the same effect.

"Common cultural stereotypes about women, men, and scientists lead people to see women as incompatible with science. Men are especially prone to this bias, but everyone shares it. This may result in prejudice (a dislike of female scientists compared with men) and discrimination against them."

Read the study in Psychology of Women Weekly: #stemwomen   #womeninscience   #womeninstemm  
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The Gender Pay Gap and Race
Actress Natalie Portman is the latest White woman celebrity to talk about the gender pay gap in ways that demonstrate tunnel vision on the intersections between racism and gender inequity. From Patricia Arquette’s highly misguided attempt to discuss the wage disparity during her 2015 Oscars speech, to Jennifer Lawrence’s essay calling for equal pay, White actresses have a very skewed view of the inequities faced by “women” in the entertainment industry and in everyday life.

What does the gender pay gap look like when viewed through the intersections of gender, race and other social categories? What do we learn about mainstream feminism’s vision for equal pay, when we become more conscious of Whiteness and the problems with White feminism?

Pay gap in Hollywood
Speaking with Marie Claire magazine, Portman described her pay relative to Ashton Kutcher, her co-star in the 2011 film, No Strings Attached:

"His [pay fee] was three times higher than mine, so they said he should get three times more. I wasn’t as pissed as I should have been. I mean, we get paid a lot, so it’s hard to complain, but the disparity is crazy. Compared to men, in most professions, women make 80 cents to the dollar. In Hollywood, we are making 30 cents to the dollar." (

This pay discrepancy is not fair - both actors carry the film and they work equally as hard. The issue of pay, however, needs to be put into broader perspective. When White actresses talk about pay differences, they talk about "women" as a monolith group. For example, the figures Portman quotes are for White women.

In 2015, White women earned 82 cents to every dollar earned by a White man, but Latin women earned 58 cents and Black women earned 56 cents. (

The fact is that race increases the gender pay gap, not just in Hollywood but in everyday life.

White feminism
In 2015, Patricia Arquette similarly made broad-sweeping statements about "women" and pay in Hollywood:

"To every woman who gave birth, to every taxpayer and citizen of this nation, we have fought for everybody else's equal rights."

She later stated that "women" had fought for the rights of other groups:

"It's time for all the women in America and all the men who love women and all the gay people and all the people of colour that we've fought for to fight for us now."

Arquette fails to recognise that by separating "women" from people of colour and "gay people" she is overlooking women of colour and queer women, and the fact that they belong to multiple groups. This is especially problematic, not simply because women of colour and from other underrepresented groups are worse off than White women, but because White feminism has a long history of excluding women of colour. (

Moreover, women of colour have contributed to social justice for hundreds of years; this is no thanks to White women. (

White feminism is a term describing feminist practices that ignore, erase and silence race in scholarship and activism. White feminism also undervalues the history, contributions and experiences of women of colour in advancing all women’s rights, such as through civil and human rights movements.

White feminism shows how White women benefit from, and are complicit in, racism and class inequality, through their behaviours and attitudes, or through inaction. This includes ignoring the inequalities between White women and women of colour. (

White women who are feminists do not necessarily practice White feminism. Then again, White women cannot escape White feminism if they are not consciously thinking about the intersections of gender, race and other disadvantages.

At the end of 2015, Jennifer Lawrence wrote an essay where she argued that she'd overlooked pay inequalities because she didn't want to be seen as "difficult":

"This could be a young-person thing. It could be a woman personality thing. I’m sure it’s both. But this is an element of my personality that I’ve been working against for years, and based on the statistics, I don’t think I’m the only woman with this issue. Are we women socially conditioned to behave this way? We’ve only been able to vote for what, 90 years?”

This is another example of a White woman who presumes her experience is universal (it's my personality; it's a woman thing). She cites that "women" were given the vote 90 years ago, which is only true for White women. For Black women in the USA, the right to vote was not fully realised until around 50 years ago. Native Americans had to wait even longer than others to be officially allowed the vote, and to this day, access barriers persist for Black people, Native Americans, and undocumented migrants who wish to exercise (or be granted) their right to vote.

These are not minor details. Barriers to basic rights, like voting, reflect broader inequalities, and have an impact on life chances, including pay.

Whiteness is a concept describing how White culture dominates social institutions in “Western” societies to the point where it is so pervasive, so central, so familiar, that it becomes invisible to those who possess it. Whiteness is everywhere, taken for granted, and therefore not questioned by White people on a day-to-day basis. (

White women who identify with dominant social groups (heterosexual, able-bodied, middle-class) only confront their sense of difference (or "otherness") in terms of gender. Even then, it is in relation to White men, not to women or men of other racial and social backgrounds. This means that White women are not used to thinking about how their experience of inequality is not as profound as it is for others.

The highest paid White women in Hollywood are paid less than White men but more than people of colour. In 2015, Robert Downey Jr was the highest paid man, earning $80 Million. Jennifer Lawrence was the highest paid actress, earning $52M; while Jackie Chan and Vin Diesel earned $50M and $47M respectively. The only woman of colour to crack the top 18 list was Chinese actress Bingbing Fan with $21M. (

Gender inequity matters and should be addressed at every opportunity. The fact is that the intersections of gender and race make gender inequity worse.

Intersectionality is a concept used to critically examine how gender discrimination is affected by race and other social disadvantages that include ableism (discrimination against people with disabilities), homophobia, transphobia, age and class.

The next time a White woman talks about gender equality without at the very least acknowledging race, rethink what they're really saying. How can all women overcome the gender pay gap if White women don't "see" racism and other forms of oppression?

See further analysis and resources on my blog:

Notes on commenting
I have a strict commenting policy that you can read in full on my profile. You are commenting on a sociology thread informed by peer reviewed research and practice. Opinions don't trump sociological evidence. Be polite as I don't allow abuse. Stay on topic as I delete off-topic comments. Be aware of your biases: you're entitled to your opinions but not to your own facts.

Image credit: The Other Sociologist.
[Stylised photo of a street intersection with the phrase: My feminism will be intersectional or it will be bullshit! – Flavia Dzodan.]

#sociology #socialscience #feminism #racism #paygap #intersectionality
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Tatsuo Miyajima: Connect with Everything
A Japanese artist who started off doing street performance art, Tatsuo Miyajima sees his installations as performance objects, as he sees that art can only fulfill its function if it is viewed by the audience. His art has much overlap with sociology, especially social constructionism.

This exhibition showcases Miyajima's work with counting devices made of Light Emitting Diode (LED), as symbolism for time, life and social connectedness.

The first image you see includes two works. In the foreground is "Pile Up Life (No. 2)" which commemorates the lives lost across Asia due to natural disasters, and in the background is "Diamond in You. (No. 8), made with stainless mirror, iron, electric wire.

The blue room is "Mega Death." This work of art was created for the Venice Biennial in 1999. Miyajima was asked to represent the 20th Century. He saw that the defining feature was the death of so many people through world wars and nuclear bombs. The room begins dark and eventually all the numbers light up in this LED installation, signifying the lives destroyed by human conflict in the 20th Century - estimated at 167,000,000 people - the same population of Italy, France and England in 1997. The number zero is not in the room but rather is symbolised by the darkness that then resets the cycle and starts over.

The room with the train houses two intertwined works, "Time Train to the Holocaust 2008/2016" and "Counter Coal 2008/2016." A black mountain of coal with red number LEDs is encircled by a toy train with blue numbers references the history of Recklinghausen, the central production area of coal in Germany, which was also a train line used to transport Jewish people to concentration camps during World War II.

The red room is "Arrow of Time" uses red LEDs to signify astronomy and time. The artist says of this work: "In everyday life, we tend to forget this reality so I would like to communicate that we live in moments that cannot be recovered."

The artist:
The exhibition, now on at +Museum of Contemporary Art Australia:

Photos: Zuleyka Zevallos. 
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Preventable, Inhumane Death of Indigenous Australian Woman, Ms Dhu
The West Australian Coroner has found that the death in custody of young Indigenous woman Ms Dhu was preventable. The police abuse, which included denying Ms Dhu medical attention as she lay dying and dragging her body "like a dead kangaroo," was found to be cruel and unprofessional. Ms Dhu was taken into custody for petty fines and died of respiratory complications to infection. Ms Dhu was a victim of domestic violence, and like many Indigenous Australians, did not have adequate access to services and support for this trauma and her ongoing health issues.

Ms Dhu's family fought to have the footage of police brutality released. Her grandmother says:

"People need to see with their own eyes how my girl was treated. All Australians need to see this footage - we all need to stand together and say enough is enough, no more Aboriginal deaths in custody."

Please share this story - Indigenous deaths in custody and police brutality of Indigenous Australians are grave issues that have been documented thoroughly, including through a Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody 25 years ago. Indigenous Australians continue to have poor health, educational and basic justice outcomes due to our ongoing colonial practices.

Credits and learn more
Photo [Ms Dhu's family outside court] and more information: NITV:

History, health and educational outcomes of Indigenous Australians:

Impact of colonialism on Indigenous Australians in Western Australia: #sociology #socialscience #indigenous #indigenousaustralians #australia #justice #blacklivesmatter #woc 
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Structural Barriers for Women in Science
" But the sad fact is it is much easier to say 'we need more women in science' than it is to stand up, look the (mostly male) leaders in science and politicians in the eye and say: 'Your laboratories, hiring procedures, grant-allocating processes and publishing routines are all sexist, and this results in science and technologies that aren’t good for at least half the population. Why have you allowed this to continue for so long?'" #stemwomen  
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Using Data to Improve Gender Equity in STEMM
I'll be co-hosting this Hangout on how institutions can use data and analysis to improve gender equity policies and practices in STEMM organisations.

Join us this Thursday 5.30PM AEST!

#genderequity   #womeninstem   #womeinscience  
Science in Australia Gender Equity (SAGE) is running a Pilot of Athena SWAN in Australia. Athena SWAN is an evaluation and accreditation program that has had tremendous success enhancing gender equity and diversity in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, especially focusing on science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine (STEMM).

Thirty-two Australian institutions have signed up to the SAGE Pilot of Athena SWAN, including 25 universities, five medical research agencies and two government organisations. Athena SWAN seeks to improve the education and career outcomes of all women and to boost the recognition of underrepresented groups (such as transgender scientists, Indigenous Australian researchers and other minority groups). 

SAGE will interview Professor Hazel Hall, Athena SWAN Self-Assessment Team Leader for +Edinburgh Napier University. We'll discuss how the university selected its team to support their application for an Athena SWAN application for a Bronze Institutional Award. This Award recognises that an institution has started substantial work to eliminate gender bias and that it is working to create an inclusive culture for all. Professor Hall will speak about how her team overcame the challenges of collecting and analysing gender equity and diversity issues for their institution. Professor Hall will also discuss how they created actions to address areas of inequity and how consultations with staff and students helped this process.

Date: Thursday 5th May
Time: 5.30-6 PM AEST (8:30-9 AM UK), followed by online Q&A from 6-6.15 PM AEST.

Be sure to post your questions for Professor Hall below!

Award application:
You can download a copy of Edinburgh Napier Unviersity's Bronze Institutional Award application at the SAGE website:

Guest Bio:
Professor Hazel Hall is Director of the Centre for Social Informatics in the Institute for Informatics and Digital Innovation within the School of Computing at Edinburgh Napier University. Her main research expertise and teaching interests lie in information sharing in online environments within the context of knowledge management. She is Edinburgh Napier University’s Academic Champion for Athena SWAN, and led the University’s Athena SWAN bronze award bid in 2014, which resulted a successful outcome (at first attempt) announced in April 2015.

For those unable to watch live, the video will be available to watch after the event on our +YouTube channel: 

#stemwomen   #womenintech   #womeninstem  
This Hangout On Air is hosted by Science in Australia Gender Equity. The live video broadcast will begin soon.
Equity & Diversity in Science: Lessons from Athena SWAN
Thu, May 5, 2016, 3:30 AM
Hangouts On Air - Broadcast for free

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Career opportunity on a national gender equity program increasing the numbers of senior women from diverse backgrounds and underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and technology!

Job is with the Australian Academy of Science based in Canberra, Australia.

Job Opportunity: Gender Equity in Science
Join our team +Science in Australia Gender Equity and support Australian universities, medical research and government institutions who are working to increase the career outcomes of all women and gender minorities. Applications close TODAY before midnight, AEST. 

Learn more and link to apply: #careeropportunities   #jobs   #genderequity   #science  
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Zuleyka's Collections
Applied sociologist
My name is Dr Zuleyka Zevallos. I hold a PhD in Sociology. I lead social research and policy in the not for profit sector. I am also an Adjunct Research Fellow with Swinburne University.

I have previously worked as an academic; a researcher with the public service; a senior analyst for an environmental health and safety investigation, and as a consultant. You can read more about me and my academic papers on my website

My writing and volunteering
My main research blog is +The Other Sociologist, where I discuss social justice issues and applied social science. 

I blog about arts, popular culture, social issues and visual sociology on my Tumblr.

I run +SociologyAtWork, an international not-for-profit network promoting applied sociology and providing career planning support for students. I also write about social science at +Social Science Insights

I'm one of the moderators for the +Science on Google+. I curate the Social Science stream of our Community. I am also one of the managers of +STEM Women. We promote the careers of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. 

Research and Interests
My research covers various topics, such as: ethnicity, migrants and refugees, gender, sexuality, religion, racism, multiculturalism, Latin-American culture in Australia, counter-terrorism studies and political sociology, media and target audiences, interdisciplinary social modelling, intercultural communication and education, social marketing, and environment health.

In my spare time I am an avid fashionista, pop culture tragic, reader, dancer, art paramour, horror movie fiend, and social media enthusiast. As a labour of love, I curate Antipodeans, a blog showcasing Australian art. 

Commenting Policy
My writing draws on my professional experience as a researcher, and as such I present informed sociological commentary. I write about difficult topics like gender, race, sexuality, inequality, social justice and science literacy. I am here to share my knowledge, and I especially aim to create a supportive environment for women from underrepresented groups.

People who belong to majority groups will not be allowed to derail my threads based on their emotional reactions or personal opinions. 

I have a strict commenting policy to keep discussions focused on sociology. I moderate all my threads using four general rules:

1) Discuss Sociology: I'm always happy to answer questions but the discussions must remain focused on sociology perspectives. If you want to argue against data on inequality, you must present credible, peer-reviewed evidence.

2) Be Polite: Please contribute to a civil discussion, as I have zero tolerance for abuse. I don’t allow racism, sexism, homophobia or any other form of hate speech. These comments will be deleted and you will be blocked.

3 ) Stay on Topic: Comments that do not address the evidence I’ve presented, or that otherwise do not contribute to the conversation, will be deleted. This keeps conversations educational.

4) Be Aware of Your Bias: The fact that I write about racism, sexism, White privilege, male privilege, and other social inequalities is not racist, nor is it sexist, nor is it biased. I am not oppressing you by talking about inequality. If you take these issues personally, it’s best that you move elsewhere.
  • Swinburne University of Technology
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