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Zephyr López Cervilla
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Daylight Saving Time (DST) Revisited

• Nacho Catalán y Rodrigo Silva. "Así afecta el sol a nuestro horario: España desplaza entre una y dos horas el horario para acomodarse a la luz solar." El País (25 marzo 2017)

• Dr Eric Barchas. "Ask a Vet: Will Daylight Saving Time Make My Cat Bonkers?" Ask a Vet, Catster (March 13, 2017)

• Kelly Phillips Erb. "You Spring Forward For Daylight Saving Time Because Of Energy Policy, Not Farmers." Forbes (March 12, 2017)

• Rachel Wilkerson Miller. "9 Things You Probably Don't Know About Daylight Saving Time - Surprise: farmers have always been daylight saving time’s biggest opponent - Daylight saving time makes people feel A Way." BuzzFeed (March 12, 2017)

• Ashley Strickland. "Why daylight saving time can be bad for your health." CNN International Edition (March 11, 2016; Updated March 10, 2017)

• Doyle Rice (USA Today). "Love it or hate it, Daylight Saving Time is here." USA Today Network (March 9, 2017; Updated March 13, 2017)

• Sean Rossman (USA Today). "Here comes the sun: Daylight Saving Time starts Sunday." USA Today Network (March 9, 2017; Updated March 10, 2017)

• Scott Craven (The Arizona Republic). "Why Arizona doesn't observe daylight-saving time." USA Today Network (March 9, 2017; Updated March 10, 2017)

• John Siciliano. "Daylight saving time may be killing you." Washington Examiner (March 10, 2017)

• Locke Hughes. "How Does Daylight Saving Time Affect Your Health?" WebMD (March 8, 2017)

• Amanda MacMillan. "7 ways daylight saving time can affect your health: An hour of lost sleep and an out-of-whack circadian rhythm could affect your fertility, heart health, mood, and more." (March 7, 2017); (March 13, 2017)

• Montaño, Alexandra. "Executive Summary: Health Impact Review of SB 5329 Exempting the State of Washington from Daylight Saving Time and Implementing Year-Round Pacific Standard Time (2017-2018 Legislative Session)." Washington State Board of Health (February 16, 2017)

• Boston University Medical Center. "Daylight savings time impacts miscarriage rates among select IVF patients, study finds." Boston Medical Center; ScienceDaily; Medical Xpress (February 8, 2017)

• Liu et al. "Impact of daylight savings time on spontaneous pregnancy loss in in vitro fertilization patients." Chronobiol Int (2017 Feb 3) pp. 1-7 doi: 10.1080/07420528.2017.1279173

• Brinke Guthrie. "Daylight Saving time is tonight … is it really necessary?" Digital Trends (November 5, 2016)

• Brian Handwerk. "The Case for and Against Daylight Saving Time." National Geographic News (November 3, 2016)

• Editorial. "Time out: Artificial fixes to make the most of summer time may do more harm than good." Nature News (30 March 2016)

• James Alexander Webb. "Daylight Saving Time: A Government Annoyance." Mises Wire (March 11, 2016); The Daily Liberator (March 15, 2016)

• Daniel Victor. "Daylight Saving Time: Why Does It Exist? (It’s Not for Farming)." The New York Times (March 11, 2016)

• Ashley Welch. "Could daylight saving time increase your risk of stroke?" CBS News (February 29, 2016)

• Michele Debczak. "Here's How Daylight Saving Time Affects Your Part of the Country." (November 22, 2015)

• Shari Rudavsky (The Indianapolis Star). "10 things we STILL hate about Daylight Saving Time." USA Today Network (March 9, 2015)

• Cox Media Group National Content Desk. "Hearing Held on Eliminating Daylight Saving Time." WSB Radio, Cox Media Group (March 9, 2015)

• Josh Guckert. "Daylight Saving Time is Just More Big Government, Let’s End It." The Libertarian Republic (March 8, 2015)

• John Oliver. "Daylight Saving Time - How Is This Still A Thing?" Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, HBO (March 8, 2015) [3 min]

• Laurence M Vance. "Republicans and Daylight Saving Time." (March 8, 2015)

• Donna Boynton. "Deadly car crashes spike after changing clocks for Daylight Saving Time." (March 6, 2015; Updated March 7, 2015)

"Russian clocks go back for last time." BBC News (25 October 2014)

• Smith AC. "Spring Forward at Your Own Risk: Daylight Saving Time and Fatal Vehicle Crashes." University of Colorado Boulder (October 2014) Working Paper 14-05

• American College of Cardiology. "Daylight saving impacts timing of heart attacks." ScienceDaily (March 29, 2014)

• Julie Campbell. "The impact of one hour of sleep on health care costs." Live Insurance News (March 10, 2014)

• Chris Kline ( "Why Arizona doesn't follow Daylight Saving." East Valley Tribune (March 9, 2014)

• Denise Chow. "Daylight Saving Time: Why Do We Adjust Clocks in March?" LiveScience (March 7, 2014)

• Brian Handwerk. «Daylight Saving Time 2014: When Does It Begin? And Why? Why we "spring forward," and arguments for and against daylight saving time.» National Geographic News (March 6, 2014)

• EDW Lynch. "Proposal: U.S. Should Abolish Daylight Saving Time and Replace It with 19 Time Zones." Laughing Squid (November 6, 2013)

• EDW Lynch. "An Economist’s Proposal for Abolishing Daylight Saving Time and Reducing the Number of U.S. Time Zones." Laughing Squid (November 4, 2013)

• Laura Poppick. "5 Weird Effects of Daylight Saving Time." LiveScience (November 2, 2013)

• Allison Schrager. "Five more reasons to kill daylight saving time." Quartz (November 2, 2013)

• Allison Schrager. "The US needs to retire daylight savings and just have two time zones—one hour apart." Quartz (November 1, 2013)

• Allison Schrager. "Daylight Saving Time Is Terrible: Here's a Simple Plan to Fix It - Losing another hour of evening daylight isn't just annoying. It's an economically harmful policy with minimal energy savings." The Atlantic (November 1, 2013)

• Alexander Abad-Santos. "Daylight Saving Time Is America's Greatest Shame: Daylight Saving Time is the greatest continuing fraud ever perpetrated on the American people. And this weekend, the effect of this cruel monster will rear its ugly head again." The Atlantic (November 1, 2013)

"US lost almost half a billion dollars due to Daylight Saving Time." (12 March 2013)

• Karen Kaplan. "Change to daylight saving time takes biggest health toll today," Los Angeles Times (March 11, 2013)

• Daniel Lemire. "Current Daylight saving time policies are insane." Daniel Lemire's blog (March 11, 2013)

• Mark J Perry. "Daylight saving time costs about $2 billion each year." AEIdeas, American Enterprise Institute (March 9, 2013)

• Anthony Carboni. "Why We Have Daylight Saving Time." D News; Seeker (March 9, 2013) [3 min]

• Pete Donohue and Nancy Dillon. "Watch out! Experts says car crashes spike on the Monday after daylight savings time goes into effect." New York Daily News (March 8, 2013)

• Bora Zivkovic. "Let's Not Spring Forward." A Blog Around The Clock, Scientific American (March 7, 2013)

"Lost sleep and cyberloafing." PAMPLIN (College of Business Magazine, Virginia Tech) (Spring 2012)

• Wagner DT et al. "Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment." J Appl Psychol (2012 Sep) vol. 97 (5) pp. 1068-76 (Epub 2012 Feb 27)

• Laurence M Vance. "Daylight Saving Time and Republicans." (March 12, 2012)

• Joe Satran. "Daylight Savings Time Invented By George Vernon Hudson, 19th-Century Entomologist (PHOTOS)." The Huffington Post (March 9, 2012)

• Claire Penhorwood. "How to survive the daylight saving time switch: The health effects of daylight saving time and how to mitigate them." CBC News (March 8, 2012; Last Updated: March 9, 2012)

• University of Alabama at Birmingham. "Heart Attacks Rise Following Daylight Saving Time." ScienceDaily (March 7, 2012)

• Jennifer Lollar. "Heart attacks rise following daylight saving time." UAB News (March 6, 2012)

• Janszky I et al. "Daylight saving time shifts and incidence of acute myocardial infarction--Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA)." Sleep Med (2012 Mar) vol. 13 (3) pp. 237-42

• Brian Handwerk. "Daylight Saving Time 2011: Why and When Does It End? Why fall back? Should daylight savings be stopped? Get the facts." National Geographic News (November 5, 2011)

• CGP Grey ("Colin Gregory Palmer Grey"). "Daylight Saving Time Explained." CGPGrey Channel (October 24, 2011) [7 min]
CGP Grey's blog:

• Benyamin Cohen. "Do we still need daylight saving time?: Everyone from the candy lobby to TV networks is weighing in on the debate." (October 19, 2011)

• Rasmussen Reports Staff. "47% Don’t Think Daylight Saving Time Worth the Hassle." Rasmussen Reports (March 13, 2010)

• Lahti T et al. "Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents." _Journal of Environmental and Public Health (2010) vol. 2010 art. ID 657167 3 pages doi: 10.1155/2010/657167

• Schneider AM and Randler C. "Daytime sleepiness during transition into daylight saving time in adolescents: Are owls higher at risk?" Sleep Med (2009 Oct) vol. 10 (9) pp. 1047-50

• American Psychological Association. "Daylight-saving Time Leads To Less Sleep, More Injuries On The Job, Study Finds." ScienceDaily (September 1, 2009)

• Barnes CM and Wagner DT. "Changing to daylight saving time cuts into sleep and increases workplace injuries." Journal of Applied Psychology (2009) vol. 94 (5) pp. 1305-1317

• Tony Wright. "Daylight Savings Time costs the United States $480,000,000." RescueTime (March 11, 2009)

• Berk M et al. "Small shifts in diurnal rhythms are associated with an increase in suicide: The effect of daylight saving." Sleep and Biological Rhythms (2008) vol. 6 (1) pp. 22–25

• Janszky I and Ljung R. "Shifts to and from daylight saving time and incidence of myocardial infarction." N Engl J Med (2008 Oct 30) vol. 359 (18) pp. 1966-8

• Matthew J. Kotchen MJ and Grant LE. "Does Daylight Saving Time Save Energy? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Indiana." NBER (October 2008) Working Paper 14429

• Coate D and Markowitz S. "The effects of daylight and daylight saving time on US pedestrian fatalities and motor vehicle occupant fatalities." Accid Anal Prev (2004 May) vol. 36 (3) pp. 351-7

• Varughese J and Allen RP. "Fatal accidents following changes in daylight savings time: the American experience." Sleep Med (2001 Jan) vol. 2 (1) pp. 31-36

• Coren S. "Accidental Death and the Shift to Daylight Savings Time." Percept Mot Skills (1996 Dec) vol. 83 (3 Pt 1) pp. 921-2

• Coren S. "Daylight Savings Time and Traffic Accidents." N Engl J Med (1996 Apr 4) vol. 334 (14) pp. 924

• George Gibbs. "Hudson, George Vernon." Dictionary of New Zealand Biography (1996) vol. 3; Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand

• Hudson, George Vernon. "On Seasonal Time." Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand (1898) vol. 31 (art. 63) pp. 578-583

"George Hudson (entomologist)." Wikipedia

URL related G+ posts:ópezCervilla/posts/QVuZJRf67bNópezCervilla/posts/HW51qkzzY6xópezCervilla/posts/TY29LbgrGH2ópezCervilla/posts/QJgqC7BMZEbópezCervilla/posts/2wi5S3UF7gc

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• Bryan Caplan (guest) and Dave Rubin (host). "Debating Immigration, Open Borders, and Pacifism." (Bryan Caplan Pt. 3) The Rubin Report (March 23, 2017) [30 min]

Libertarianism is as alien to most Americans as it is to South Americans. On the other hand, there are also libertarians in South America, even a university in Guatemala, Universidad Francisco Marroquín.
Also, most people change their way of thinking over time, quite often influenced by their environment.
How many immigrants living in the US who came from the former socialist republics of Europe or East Asia are presently communists?
Ayn Rand immigrated to the US from the Soviet Union in 1926, when she was 21. Did she perhaps oppose libertarian ideas more than the average American of her time?

• Onkar Ghate. "The Myth about Ayn Rand and Social Security." Ayn Rand Institute (June 19, 2014)

• Ayn Rand. "The Question of Scholarships." The Objectivist (June 1966) no. 11

«Rand felt the same way about any number of government programs, including government scholarships, and such. In reality, Rand got a free education at the University of Petrograd in the Soviet Union, a newly-minted communist state; next to that, collecting Social Security is "a mere bag of shells," as Ralph Kramden would put it. But, you see, that's the whole issue, isn't it? Rand was born in the Soviet Union, and even that state wasn't "pure communism," as Marx envisioned it;…»

— Chris Matthew Sciabarra. "Ayn Rand, David Cross, and Hypocrisy." Dialectics & Liberty (Notablog), New York University (August 17, 2016)

The welfare state is much less developed in most South American countries than it is in the US, since those countries lack the resources to afford a fully developed welfare state like the American (so they haven't even yet been spoiled). Contrary to popular mythology, most immigrants don't move to the US planning to live of welfare programs, rather it's the liberals, most of them American-born, those who actively seek to enrol as many people as possible in such programs.

URL source YouTube comment:

«At least that's how things were for me when I was a teen-age atheist.
If you wander the streets of NYC and look like me, some ultra-Orthodox Jewish teens will eventually approach you and ask: "Are you Jewish?" If you say no, they wave good-bye.
Me: Because my father is Jewish.
(If you are completely baffled by this anecdote, remember that Jewish religious identity is matrilineal).»

— Bryan Caplan. "What Life Experience Taught Me About Religion." Library of Economics and Liberty (June 2008)

The reason Judaism doesn't fit into the definitions of race, ethnicity, or culture cleanly is because it's a lie. Judaism is just a religion trying to make itself out of more than it is, just like other religions do.
I am NOT suggesting to leave your congregation. But recognize that you are not Jews, you are atheist, descendants of Jews from a specific area, who share a culture from that area, which includes Hebrew school and other indoctrinations.
I AM stating that it is wrong to call yourself Jewish. This is just Judaism taking credit for things it doesn't deserve, and using guilt to perpetuate the myth.
Israel is not "our country" - that's just marketing. There is no need to support it blindly, just because their state religion is Judaism.
You are not hurting your family, disgracing your heritage, or helping the Nazis by telling the truth. You are NOT enabling another Holocaust. These are lies meant to manipulate you into lying.
Honesty, to oneself and others, is a mitzvah.»
[At 1:36:25]

«Judaism is Supposedly Also:
A Culture? Nope.
Definition "The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought, considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population."
All the above can be abandoned. You can leave a culture but Jewish law doesn't allow this
There are no cultural characteristics that Jews have in common (though subsets do, and they expand them to all "Jews")
Bagels and mazoh brei are not more Jewish than chow is Buddhist and falafel is Muslim
Is Islam a culture? Mormonism? Amish? Branch Davidians?»
[From 20:50 to 24:00]

— Dave Silverman. "I'm an Atheist (And So Are You); Why I've Changed My Mind on Jewish Atheism". FreeThought Arizona (Tucson, October 2013) [102 min]
"David Silverman, President of American Atheists, gave this talk to the Secular Humanist Jewish Circle and FreeThought Arizona in October 2013 in Tucson."

URL source YouTube comment:

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Bloomberg on health care

«The ranking evaluates health care costs as a share of GDP and per capita, as well as life expectancy and improvements from last year.»

"Where Do You Get the Most for Your Health Care Dollar?" Bloomberg (September 18, 2014)


«Here are three of the true but misleading statements about health care that politicians and pundits love to use to frighten the public:

STATEMENT 1 The United States has lower life expectancy and higher infant mortality than Canada, which has national health insurance.

The differences between the neighbors are indeed significant. Life expectancy at birth is 2.6 years greater for Canadian men than for American men, and 2.3 years greater for Canadian women than American women. Infant mortality in the United States is 6.8 per 1,000 live births, versus 5.3 in Canada.

These facts are often taken as evidence for the inadequacy of the American health system. But a recent study by June and Dave O’Neill, economists at Baruch College, from which these numbers come, shows that the difference in health outcomes has more to do with broader social forces.

For example, Americans are more likely than Canadians to die by accident or by homicide. For men in their 20s, mortality rates are more than 50 percent higher in the United States than in Canada, but the O’Neills show that accidents and homicides account for most of that gap. Maybe these differences have lessons for traffic laws and gun control, but they teach us nothing about our system of health care.

Americans are also more likely to be obese, leading to heart disease and other medical problems. Among Americans, 31 percent of men and 33 percent of women have a body mass index of at least 30, a definition of obesity, versus 17 percent of men and 19 percent of women in Canada. Japan, which has the longest life expectancy among major nations, has obesity rates of about 3 percent.

The causes of American obesity are not fully understood, but they involve lifestyle choices we make every day, as well as our system of food delivery. Research by the Harvard economists David Cutler, Ed Glaeser and Jesse Shapiro concludes that America’s growing obesity problem is largely attributable to our economy’s ability to supply high-calorie foods cheaply. Lower prices increase food consumption, sometimes beyond the point of optimal health.

Infant mortality rates also reflect broader social trends, including the prevalence of infants with low birth weight. The health system in the United States gives low birth-weight babies slightly better survival chances than does Canada’s, but the more pronounced difference is the frequency of these cases. In the United States, 7.5 percent of babies are born weighing less than 2,500 grams (about 5.5 pounds), compared with 5.7 percent in Canada. In both nations, these infants have more than 10 times the mortality rate of larger babies. Low birth weights are in turn correlated with teenage motherhood. (One theory is that a teenage mother is still growing and thus competing with the fetus for nutrients.) The rate of teenage motherhood, according to the O’Neill study, is almost three times higher in the United States than it is in Canada.»

— N Gregory Mankiw. "Beyond Those Health Care Numbers." The New York Times (November 4, 2007)

Further reading:

• Avik Roy. "The Myth of Americans' Poor Life Expectancy." Forbes (November 23, 2011)

• Avik Roy. "If Universal Health Care Is The Goal, Don't Copy Canada." Forbes (June 13, 2014)

• Preston SH and Ho JY. "Low Life Expectancy in the United States: Is the Health Care System at Fault?" Population Studies Center (PSC) (July 2009) PSC 09-03

• Gary Becker. "Health Care-Becker." The Becker-Posner Blog (University of Chicago Law School) (2009)

• O'Neill JE and O'Neill DM. "Health Status, Health Care and Inequality: Canada vs. the U.S." National Bureau of Economic Research (2007) NBER Working Paper No. 13429

• Ananth CV et al. "A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada." Int J Epidemiol (2009) vol. 38 (2) pp. 480-9

• Coleman MP et al. "Cancer survival in five continents: a worldwide population-based study (CONCORD)." Lancet Oncol (2008) vol. 9 (8) pp. 730-56

• Ohsfeldt RL and Schneider JE. "How Does the U.S. Health-Care System Compare to Systems in Other Countries?" American Enterprise Institute (2011)

«Singapore was ranked 6th in the World Health Organisation's ranking of the world's health systems in the year 2000.[1] Bloomberg ranked Singapore’s healthcare system the 1st most efficient in the world in 2014.[2]»

"Healthcare in Singapore." Wikipedia

"Health Facts Singapore: Healthcare Financing." Ministry of Health, Government of Singapore

"Health expenditure." OECD Factbook (2013)

• CIA World Factbook. "Life expectancy at birth: Singapore vs. the other countries and territories." Index Mundi (January 1, 2014)

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• Michele Hanson. "We need to stop being coy about periods and tampons." The Guardian (March 20, 2017)

Excerpt from comments:

During a period a woman is more open to infections. A lack of regularly changed, sterile sanitary products leads to using cloths etc which are washed, but eventually become hard with the washing and stops absorbing the blood. Old, unsterile blood leads to infections. Hence the need to change tampons regularly - TSS happens the same way.

TSS is caused by tampons, not by the lack of them.

TSS is caused by old blood. Tampons hold that blood a little too effectively, that's all.

«Toxic shock syndrome is a sudden, potentially fatal condition. It's caused by the release of poisonous substances from an overgrowth of bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus, or staph, which is found in many women's bodies. Toxic shock syndrome affects menstruating women, especially those who use super-absorbent tampons. The body responds with a sharp drop in blood pressure that deprives organs of oxygen and can lead to death.

_This disease made headlines in the late 1970s and early 1980s after the deaths of several young women who were using a brand of super-absorbent tampon that was later removed from the market.

_Toxic shock syndrome is still mostly a disease of menstruating women who use tampons. But it has also been linked to the use of menstrual sponges, diaphragms, and cervical caps. A woman who has recently given birth also has a higher chance of getting toxic shock. And it can happen to men and women who have been exposed to staph bacteria while recovering from surgery, a burn, an open wound, or the use of a prosthetic device.

_If you are menstruating and have a high fever with vomiting, especially if you have been using tampons, you must get medical help right away. If you are using a tampon, menstrual sponge, diaphragm, or cervical cap when you become ill, remove it immediately, even before calling your doctor.»

— "Understanding Toxic Shock Syndrome -- the Basics." WebMD

Notice TSS hasn't linked to the lack of tampons. Diaphragms, and cervical caps aren't alternatives to tampons, and menstrual sponges aren't but reusable "natural" tampons:

«These little sponges are a renewable resource that can serve as an all-natural alternative to tampons. Retailers claim that a menstrual sponge can last up to six months when properly cared for. And considering the estimation that a woman will trash between 250 and 300 pounds of pads, tampons and applicators in her lifetime, I was down to explore alternative options, even if the idea of wearing one terrified me.

_Much to my relief, an expert gave sea sponges a pass.
"Yes, they're absolutely safe," said Dr. Raquel Dardik, a gynecologist at the Joan H. Tisch Women’s Health Center at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York.»

— Laura Vitto. "We tried menstrual sponges, and you should too." _Mashable (July 19, 2015)

That's a lot of cutting and pasting to say exactly what i did.
It's not the tampons, it's the blood.
But i suspect you aren't going to grasp that.
I also suspect you're a man who's telling women what's best for them. That always goes well.

It isn't just the "blood" (FWIW, the menstrual flow contains endometrial tissue in addition to blood), it's the release of an exotoxin produced by a particular bacterial species what causes menstrual TSS. And the production and built-up of such toxin in the vagina and cervix is usually linked to the use of tampons. So it's primary the tampons, not the "blood":

«The incidence of staphylococcal TSS in the United States has decreased significantly since the 1980s, primarily because of increased public awareness of the role of tampons in menstruation-associated TSS (34). In 1997, the incidence of staphylococcal TSS in the United States was estimated to be 6,000 cases per year (150). This incidence was based on the estimated incidence of staphylococcal TSS in Minnesota for 1997. The incidence rates of both menstruation-associated TSS and non-menstruation-associated TSS decreased in Minnesota from 1996 to 1997 (150). This decrease is presumably due to ongoing prevention efforts targeting tampon usage and management of primary surgical wounds, which are common sites of S. aureus infection. The overall case fatality rate for staphylococcal TSS has remained at 5%.
Tampons and Menstruation-Associated TSS
The role of tampons in the development of TSS has been the subject of much debate. A large number of theories have been put forward to explain their association with TSS, but only two of these appear viable today. In 1983, we proposed that the association of tampons with TSS resulted from tampon-mediated introduction of oxygen into the normally anaerobic vagina (152). In this study it was shown thatS. aureus required certain conditions for production of TSST-1, including animal protein, low levels of glucose (high glucose served as a catabolite repressor to TSST-1 production), a temperature of 37 to 40°C, a pH of 6.5 to 8, and oxygen. All of these requirements except oxygen are present in the human vagina during menstruation in the absence of tampons. Wagner et al. later showed that tampons significantly oxygenated the vagina during menstruation (178). It is hypothesized that the higher-absorbency tampons are most closely associated with TSS because they introduce greater amounts of oxygen into the vagina during menstruation, presumably allowing greater production of TSST-1.

Although generally accepted as the reason for tampon association with TSS, this “oxygen” theory needs to be reconciled with two observations: (i) a small percentage of women who have not used tampons develop menstrual TSS, and (ii) numerous women develop recurrent menstruation-associated TSS despite not using tampons just prior to the onset of an episode of TSS. It has been demonstrated that strains ofS. aureus causing menstrual forms of TSS make high levels of proteases (172). Thus, proteolytic cleavage of menstrual blood may release sufficient oxygen to induce the production of TSST-1 in women who develop TSS or recurrent TSS in the absence of tampon use.

Finally, as a second possible reason for the association of certain high-absorbency tampons with TSS, Kass et al. (80) proposed that some tampons bind sufficient magnesium such that the intravaginal growth kinetics of toxigenic S. aureus are altered, leading to greater toxin production. However, when we tested this model of TSST-1 production in vitro, toxin production generally occurred at times well beyond the time women kept tampons in the vagina (81).

Most recently, there has been debate over whether “all-cotton” tampons are safer than the cotton-rayon blend tampons that are the major types available today. In one study it was proposed that all-cotton tampons prevent the production of TSST-1 whereas cotton-rayon tampons support high levels of toxin production (170). Furthermore, it was proposed that if small amounts of TSST-1 were made in the presence of all-cotton tampons, TSST-1 would be irretrievably bound by the cotton fibers and would therefore be unavailable for causation of TSS. This study has been contradicted by two subsequent studies, both of which showed no significant difference in toxin production among all-cotton, cotton-rayon, and rayon tampons (126, 148). Furthermore, there was no demonstrable binding of TSST-1 by cotton fibers. It was concluded from the latter studies that the important risk factor for TSS, as provided by tampons, depended on absorbency rather than on tampon composition. Therefore, as tampon absorbency increases, the risk for the development of TSS also increases. It remains prudent, therefore, to recommend tampons of lowest absorbency to control menstrual blood flow for women choosing to use tampons.»

— Dinges MM et al. "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus." Clin Microbiol Rev (2000) vol. 13 (1) pp. 16–34 [Open access, search for title]

«By 1980, young menstruating women using high absorbency tampons were identified as a high risk group, with cases also observed in men and non-menstruating women [3]–[4].
The estimated incidence of TSS in 1980 among young menstruating women was 13.7 per 100,000 persons [7]. Following multiple public health interventions including removal of highly absorbent tampons and messages regarding proper use of tampons, the number of cases declined sharply. By 1986 the rates of menstrual and non-menstrual TSS cases were 1 and 0.3 per 100,000, respectively [8]–[9]. In 1986, the overall case fatality rate was estimated to be 4%, with young women as the highest risk group (median age, 25 years) [9].
The case definition was developed in 1980 to identify TSS risk factors and has only been slightly modified since then with the most recent update occurring in 2011 [40].»

— DeVries AS et al. "Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 2000-2006: epidemiology, clinical features, and molecular characteristics." PLoS One (2011) vol. 6 (8) p. e22997 [Open access, search for title]

«Menstrual TSS, as its name implies, occurs during or within 2 days of women’s menstrual periods, and the illness is most often associated with tampon use; the tampon association primarily results from tampon-introduced oxygen being required for TSST-1 production. The human vagina in the absence of tampons is normally anaerobic. TSST-1 is the cause of nearly all menstrual cases of TSS, likely because of its greater capacity than other SAgs to penetrate mucosal surfaces.

The withdrawal of highly absorbent tampons and polyacrylate rayon-containing products from the market partially explains the decrease in menstrual cases; however, tampon use remains a risk factor for TSS.[30] Women who develop TSS are more likely to have used tampons with higher absorbencies, used tampons continuously for more days of their cycle, and kept a single tampon in place for longer. The case fatality rate has declined for menstrual TSS from 5.5% in 1979 to 1980 to 1.8% in 1987 to 1996.[29]»

— Low DE. "Toxic shock syndrome: major advances in pathogenesis, but not treatment." Crit Care Clin (2013) vol. 29 (3) pp. 651-75

Further comments:

Tampons are wasteful and harmful to the environment. Conduct a campaign (e.g. on International Women's Day) to collect funds to buy them menstrual cups if you really care for their long-term well being.

What better chance to get used to using menstrual cups than if they are given one, especially when can hardly afford other alternatives? The fact that menstrual cups haven't traditionally been very popular shouldn't lead us to embrace the present status quo.
Suppose it was a campaign to supply people in need with food. Would you give them junk food just because they weren't used to healthier alternatives?

Please, stop patronising young women. They aren't physically or intellectually disabled.

If they "don't want to insert something into their vaginas", they won't use tampons either. Freedom of choice is bound to the need to be able to afford such freedom.

How much of my money have you earned, madam?

Apparently I can't say that women who can afford to have children can also usually afford tampons, without offending a moderator. What kind of community standards are these?

Considering that having children is nowadays a luxury, what percentage of women with children can't afford tampons?

Lucky, there's no law that force employers to pay them more.
On the other hand, do unemployed and underemployed men also earn more than women? We are talking about people who can hardly afford food (or tampons).

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Know your enemies:

• Stephen Battaglio. "Fox News pulls Judge Napolitano over his Trump wiretap claims." Los Angeles Times (March 20, 2017)


• Noah Bierman , Michael A Memoli and Brian Bennett. "Trump doubles down on unproven wiretap claim by making a joke about Germany's Angela Merkel." Los Angeles Times (March 17, 2017)

• Judge Andrew P Napolitano. "Andrew Napolitano: Did Obama spy on Trump?" Fox News Opinion, (March 16, 2017)

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• Nick Fraser. "Did Humans Create the Sahara Desert?" Frontiers Blog (March 14, 2017)

Reference paper:

• Wright, David K. "Humans as Agents in the Termination of the African Humid Period." Front Earth Sci (26 January 2017) 5 DOI:
Author's research papers:

Press release:

• Frontiers in Earth Sciences. "Did humans create the Sahara desert?: New research challenges the idea that changes in the Earth's orbit triggered Sahara desertification." ScienceDaily (March 14, 2017)

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Male chivalry is evidence of female oppression:

"The gallant gestures have no practical meaning. Their meaning is symbolic. The door-opening and similar services which are needed by people who are for one reason or another incapacitated -- unwell, burdened with parcels, etc. So the message is that women are incapable. The detachment of the acts from the concrete realities of what women need and do not need is a vehicle for the message that women's actual needs and interests are unimportant or irrelevant. Finally, these gestures initiate the behavior of servants toward masters and thus mock women, who are in most respects the servants and caretakers of men. The message of the false helpfulness of male gallantry is female dependence, the invisibility or insignificance of women, and contempt for women."

— Marilyn Frye. "Oppression." "The Politics of Reality." The Crossing Press (1983)

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The grass is always greener on the other side…
…Because it's fertilized with bullshit

You do realise that those statues of Buddha are also religious bullshit, right?

federer keder
+Zephyr López Cervilla​​ Buddha advocated destroying other religious figures?

+federer keder, you do realise that that's a red herring argument, right? It's irrelevant what Buddha may have advocated or not (or rather, what his followers claimed he advocated). Buddhism is a religion, and as noxious as any other.

it's satire bro
+Zephyr López Cervilla well his teachings were not nearly as violent as Abrahamic religions and arguably were pretty good.

I bet you never had to suffer Buddhism "teachings" as a kid. Otherwise you wouldn't consider them to be "pretty good" (unless you've been brainwashed with its doctrine):
[URL picture: ]

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• Sarah Larimer. Why UC-Berkeley is restricting access to thousands of online lecture videos. The Washington Post (March 15, 2017)


«Through YouTube and other platforms, the public could experience a bit of Berkeley from the comfort of their own homes.

But the Department of Justice found last year that much of this online trove of higher education was not adequately accessible to people who are blind, deaf or hard of hearing, in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
The Justice Department’s review was prompted by complaints about UC-Berkeley’s online content from two members of the National Association of the Deaf: Stacy Nowak and Glenn Lockhart. The department’s letter to the university in August described Nowak as a professor and doctoral student at Gallaudet University, a school for the deaf and hard of hearing in Washington. Lockhart works at the Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, based at Gallaudet.
In its review, the department looked at videos on UC-Berkeley’s YouTube page, finding that automatically generated captions weren’t complete or accurate, a barrier for those with hearing disabilities. Some videos also had issues that made them challenging for those with vision disabilities, such as low color contrast.

The department found that the university was in violation of the federal disabilities law because “significant portions of its online content are not provided in an accessible manner when necessary to ensure effective communication with individuals with hearing, vision or manual disabilities.”»

Statists gonna State.

Further reading:

• Public Affairs, UC Berkeley. "A statement on online course content and accessibility." Berkeley News (September 13, 2016)

• Scott Jaschik. "University May Remove Online Content to Avoid Disability Law: U.S. Justice Department finds that Berkeley MOOCs and YouTube content don't meet federal requirements." Inside Higher Ed (September 20, 2016)

• Carl Straumsheim . "Berkeley Will Delete Online Content: Starting March 15, the university will begin removing more than 20,000 video and audio lectures from public view as a result of a Justice Department accessibility order." Inside Higher Ed (March 6, 2017)

• Brandon Morse. "Government over-regulation forces university to delete 20,000 free online educational videos." The Blaze (March 9, 2017)
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