40 people took part in a simulated drug-smuggling experiment where some knew they were carrying drugs while others didn't know, then they scanned their brains to determine whether they committed the crime "knowingly" (they knew the suitcase contained drugs) or "recklessly" (didn't know, but knew there was some probability).

"Using noninvasive functional brain imaging and machine-learning techniques, in which a computer learns to find patterns in data, the scientists accurately determined whether the research subjects knew drugs were in the case, which would make them guilty of knowingly importing drugs, or whether they were uncertain about it, which would make them innocent."

The researchers claim they were able to distinguish these mental states, but don't say how accurately. They say it is a "proof of principle" experiment, which implies they expect it to be refined by later experiments.
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