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SEO is sometimes also called SEO copyrighting because most of the techniques that are used to promote sites in search engines deal with text.

SEO Stands for Search Engine Optimization.

SEO is all about optimizing a web site for Search Engines.

SEO is the process of designing and developing a web site to rank well in search engine results.

SEO is to improve the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines.

SEO is a subset of search engine marketing.

SEO is the art of ranking in the search engines.

SEO is marketing by understanding how search algorithms work and what human visitors might search.

If you plan to do some basic SEO, it is essential that you understand how search engines work and which items are most important in SEO.

How Search Engine Works ?
Search engines perform several activities in order to deliver search results

Crawling - is the process of fetching all the web pages linked to a web site. This task is performed by a software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, as is the case with Google).

Indexing - is the process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing is identifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page to particular keywords.

Processing - When a search request comes, the search engine processes it . i.e. it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database.

Calculating Relevancy - Since it is likely that more than one pages contains the search string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index to the search string.

Retrieving Results - The last step in search engines' activities is retrieving the best matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! often update their relevancy algorithm dozens of times per month. When you see changes in your rankings it is due to an algorithmic shift or something else outside of your control.

Although the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minor differences between their relevancy algorithm lead to major changes in results relevancy.

What is SEO Copywriting?
SEO Copywriting is the technique of writing the viewable text on a web page in such a way that it reads well for the surfer, and also targets specific search terms. Its purpose is to rank highly in the search engines for the targeted search terms.

As well as the viewable text, SEO Copywriting usually optimizes other on-page elements for the targeted search terms. These include the Title, Description and Keywords tags, headings and alt text.

The idea behind SEO Copywriting is that search engines want genuine content pages and not additional pages (often called "doorway pages") that are created for the sole purpose of achieving high rankings.

What is Search Engine Rank?
When you search any keyword using a search engine then it displays thousands of results found in its database. A page ranking is measured by the position of web pages displayed in the search engine results. If Search engine is putting your web page on first position then your web page rank will be number 1 and it will be assumed as with a high rank.

SEO is the process of designing and developing a web site to attend a high rank in search engine results.

What is on-page and off-page SEO
Conceptually, there are two ways of doing SEO

On-Page SEO- This includes providing good content, good keywords selection. putting keywords on correct places, giving appropriate title to every page etc.

Off-Page SEO - This includes link building, increasing link popularity by submitting in open directories, search engines, link exchange etc.
SEO techniques are classified into two broad categories:

Techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design referred to as White Hat SEO, and

Techniques that search engines do not approve and attempt to minimize the effect of referred to as Black Hat or spamdexing.

White Hat SEO:
An SEO tactic, technique or method is considered as White Hat if it follows the followings

If it conforms to the search engine's guidelines.

If it does not involves any deception.

It ensures that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see.

It ensures that a Web Page content should have been created for the users and not just for the search engines.

It ensures the good quality of the web pages

It ensures the useful content available on the web pages

Always follow a White Hat SEO tactic and don't try to fool your site visitors. Be honest and definitely you will get something more.

Next chapter onward we will put light on White Hap SEO techniques. The WHST are very simple and can be done without investing much cost.

Black Hat or Spamdexing:
An SEO tactic, technique or method is considered as Black Hat or Spamdexing if it follows the followings

Try to improve rankings that are disapproved of by the search engines and/or involve deception.

Redirecting users from a page that is built for search engines to one that is more human friendly.

Redirecting users to a page that was different from the page the search engine ranked.

Serving one version of a page to search engine spiders/bots and another version to human visitors. This is called Cloaking SEO tactic.

Using Hidden or invisible text or with the page background color, using a tiny font size or hiding them within the HTML code such as "no frame" sections.

Repeating keywords in the Meta tags, and using keywords that are unrelated to the site's content. This is called Meta tag stuffing.

Calculated placement of keywords within a page to raise the keyword count, variety, and density of the page. This is called Keyword stuffing .

Creating low-quality web pages that contain very little content but are instead stuffed with very similar key words and phrases. These pages are called Doorway or Gateway Pages

Mirror web sites by hosting multiple web sites all with conceptually similar content but using different URLs.

Creating a rogue copy of a popular web site which shows contents similar to the original to a web crawler, but redirects web surfers to unrelated or malicious web sites. This is called Page hijacking.

Always be away to adopt any of the above Black Hat tactic to improve the rank of your site. Search engines are smart enough to identify all the above proprieties of your site and ultimately you are not going to get anything.
When you start thinking of doing a business through internet, first thing which you think about is your web site domain name. Before you choose a domain name you should consider the followings:

Who would be your target audience?

What you intend to sell to them. Is it a tangible item or just text content?

What will make your business idea unique or different than everything else that is already on the market?

Many people think it is important to have keywords in a domain. Keywords in the domain name are usually important, but it usually can be done while keeping the domain name short, memorable, and free of hyphens.

Using keywords in your domain name give you a strong competitive advantage over your competitors. Having your keywords in your domain name can increase click through rates on search engine listings and paid ads as well as make it easier to Using your keywords in get keyword rich descriptive inbound links.

Avoid buying long, and confusing domain names. May people separate the words in their domain names using either dashes or hyphen. In the past the domain name itself was a significant ranking factor but now search engines have advanced it is not very significant factor anymore.

Keep two to three words in your domain name it will be more memorable. Some of the most memorable websites do a great job of branding by creating their own word. Few examples are eBay, Yahoo!, Expedia, Slashdot, Fark, Wikipedia, Google...

You should be able to say it over the telephone once and the other person should know how to spell it and they should be able to guess about what you sell.

Guru Mantra:
Finally, you should be able to answer yourself for the following questions:

Why do you want to build your website? Why should people buy off your site and not from other Site? What makes you different from others?

Who are your target audience and what you intend to sell to them?

List 5 - 10 websites which you thing, they are they amazing. Now think why are they amazing?

Create 5 different domain names. Make at least 1 of them funny. Tell them to a half dozen people and see which ones are the most memorable. You will get more honest feedback if the people do not know you well.

Buy your domain name which is more catchy, memorable and relevant to your business.
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Error Log Messages and Problems Starting Apache

Why do I get "setgid: Invalid argument" at startup?

Your Group directive (probably in conf/httpd.conf) needs to name a group that actually exists in the /etc/group file (or your system's equivalent). This problem is also frequently seen when a negative number is used in the Group directive (e.g., "Group #1"). Using a group name - not group number -- found in your system's group database should solve this problem in all cases.

Why am I getting "httpd: could not set socket option TCP_NODELAY" in my error log?

This message almost always indicates that the client disconnected before Apache reached the point of calling setsockopt() for the connection. It shouldn't occur for more than about 1% of the requests your server handles, and it's advisory only in any case.

Why am I getting "connection reset by peer" in my error log?

This is a normal message and nothing about which to be alarmed. It simply means that the client canceled the connection before it had been completely set up - such as by the end-user pressing the "Stop" button. People's patience being what it is, sites with response-time problems or slow network links may experience this more than high capacity ones or those with large pipes to the network.

The errorlog says Apache dumped core, but where's the dump file?

The error log message about dumped core includes the directory where the dump file should be located. However, many Unixes do not allow a process that has called setuid() to dump core for security reasons ('Is this still a problem?'); the typical Apache setup has the server started as root to bind to port 80, after which it uses setuid() to change UIDs to a non-privileged user to serve requests.

Dealing with this is extremely operating system-specific, and may require rebuilding your system kernel. Consult your operating system documentation or vendor for more information about whether your system does this and how to bypass it. If there is a documented way of bypassing it, it is recommended that you bypass it only for the httpd server process if possible.

The canonical location for Apache's core-dump files is the ServerRoot directory. The location can be set via the CoreDumpDirectory directive to a different directory. Make sure that this directory is writable by the user the server runs as (as opposed to the user the server is started as).
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Why do I get complaints about redefinition of "struct iovec" when compiling under Linux?

This is a conflict between your C library includes and your kernel includes. You need to make sure that the versions of both are matched properly. There are two workarounds, either one will solve the problem:

Remove the definition of struct iovec from your C library includes. It is located in /usr/include/sys/uio.h. Or, Add -DNO_WRITEV to the EXTRA_CFLAGS line in your Configuration and reconfigure/rebuild. This hurts performance and should only be used as a last resort.
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Why do I get an error about an undefined reference to "__inet_ntoa" or other _inet* symbols?

If you have installed BIND-8 then this is normally due to a conflict between your include files and your libraries. BIND-8 installs its include files and libraries /usr/local/include/ and /usr/local/lib/, while the resolver that comes with your system is probably installed in /usr/include/ and /usr/lib/. If your system uses the header files in /usr/local/include/ before those in /usr/include/ but you do not use the new resolver library, then the two versions will conflict.

To resolve this, you can either make sure you use the include files and libraries that came with your system or make sure to use the new include files and libraries. Adding -lbind to the EXTRA_LDFLAGS line in your Configuration file, then re-running Configure, should resolve the problem. (Apache versions 1.2.* and earlier use EXTRA_LFLAGS instead.)

Note:As of BIND 8.1.1, the bind libraries and files are installed under /usr/local/bind by default, so you should not run into this problem. Should you want to use the bind resolvers you'll have to add the following to the respective lines:

EXTRA_CFLAGS=-I/usr/local/bind/include EXTRA_LDFLAGS=-L/usr/local/bind/lib EXTRA_LIBS=-lbind
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Why am I getting spam mail from the Apache site?

The short answer is: "You aren't." Usually when someone thinks the Apache site is originating spam, it's because they've traced the spam to a Web site, and the Web site says it's using Apache. See the previous FAQ entry for more details on this phenomenon.

No marketing spam originates from the Apache site. The only mail that comes from the site goes only to addresses that have been requested to receive the mail.
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May I use the Apache logo on my product or Web site?

You may NOT use any original artwork from the Apache Software Foundation, nor make or use modified versions of such artwork, except under the conditions in the Apache Trademark Policy document.
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What are the future plans for Apache httpd?

to continue to be an "open source" no-charge-for-use HTTP server,
to keep up with advances in HTTP protocol and web developments in general,
to collect suggestions for fixes/improvements from its users,
to respond to needs of large volume providers as well as occasional users.
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How thoroughly tested is Apache httpd?

Apache is run on over 120 million Internet servers (as of April 2010) (Source, Netcraft). It has been tested thoroughly by both developers and users. The Apache HTTP Server Project Management Committee maintains rigorous standards before releasing new versions of their server, and our server runs without a hitch on over one half of all WWW servers available on the Internet. When bugs do show up, we release patches and new versions as soon as they are available.
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