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Understanding Animal Research
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Dogs probably dream about their owners while they sleep. Humans dream about the same things they’re interested in by day, though more visually and less logically andt here’s no reason to think animals are any different. Since dogs are generally extremely attached to their human owners, it’s likely dogs dreams of their faces, smell and of pleasing or annoying them. However, there is no way to know for sure what dogs see when they dream, or even if they dream at all, but most mammals have a similar sleep cycle to humans, including periods of activity called Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, in which dreams occur for humans.

Dogs probably dream about their owners while they sleep, an expert has said. Dr Deirdre Barrett, a Clinical and Evolutionary Psychologist at Harvard Medical School, has spent years studying sleep behaviour in humans.
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What a lovely thought!
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A hero that can survive boiling, freezing and radiation. That can survive without food for years, or our in space. It's the water bear (AKA tardigrade), which can survive all these extreme situation by rolling into a ball. Scientists have now discovered a protein which protects the animals' DNA. Now studies are being done to see if certain genes from the water bears can be used to make human DNA more resilient.

"The team then inserted the Dsup gene into human cells' DNA, and exposed those modified cells to X-rays; Dsup-treated cells suffered far less DNA damage.
"This is the first time an individual protein from a tardigrade has been shown to be active in radiation protection.""

A gene from an almost indestructible microscopic creature could provide "radiation shield" for human cells, scientists find.
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The first signs of Parkinson's may be detectable from an eye test, according to studies conducted in rats. Scientists at UCL found that there were changes in the back of the eyes of rats before any outward symptoms showed. If this research can be applied to humans it would hugely benefit the early diagnosis of tens of thousands of future Parkinson's patients.

Dr Arthur Roach, director of research at the charity Parkinson's UK, said:
"Although the research is in its infancy and is yet to be tested on people with Parkinson's, a simple non-invasive test - such as an eye test - could be a significant step forward in the search for treatments that can tackle the underlying causes of the condition rather than masking its symptoms. Having a biomarker for Parkinson's would help diagnose Parkinson's earlier, when people are most likely to benefit from the new treatments aimed at slowing progression,"

Original Paper:

Researchers say they have discovered a new experimental method of observing changes in the eye, which could detect Parkinson's disease before symptoms develop.
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There are many diseases which can move from humans to animals - called zoonoses. Unsurprisingly, there are also diseases which move the other way. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria - which causes boils and skin infections - has mutated from humans to infect green monkeys in The Gambia. Such transmissions are dangerous as the new host species often has little or no natural immunity to the disease. It is believed the transmission happened through humans feeding the monkeys peanuts.

"The new study, published in the Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal, found evidence that the S. aureus bacteria had moved from humans to green monkey after increased contact between the two species."
Bird flu, Ebola, HIV, leprosy – the list of human maladies blamed on animals is long. We are even filled with murderous rage when wildlife allegedly infect our livestock. Just ask Britain’s badgers. However researchers have now established that, perhaps unsurprisingly, the effect works both ways with the discovery that humans gave the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria to green monkeys in The Gambia.
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A new gene therapy for sickle celled anaemia could begin human trials next year. The therapy targets the gene BCL11A, which suppresses the production of haemoglobin. Early studies in genetically altered mice, born without the gene, pointed researchers towards this site as a potential treatment.

"About 300,000 babies are born globally with sickle cell disease. The condition causes red blood cells to deform, triggering anaemia, pain, organ failure, tissue damage, strokes and heart attacks. In the west, patients now live to their 40s thanks to the availability of blood transfusions and other treatments. But in Africa most still die in childhood."
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That's a good news nice 
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The Lasker Awards are probably second only to the Nobels in their importance in celebrating major medical and scientific discoveries (over 70 scientists have won both). In this post we take a closer look at the animal research which contributed to the winning discoveries - discoveringhow cells respond to changes in oxygen levels, and improved understanding and treatment of hepatitis C.

"HIF-1α is conserved across a wide variety of species, and many animal models played a crucial role in the discovery of HIF-1α and its function. The first study by Ratcliffe that indicated a wide-spread response to low oxygen used multiple cell culture systems from monkey, pig, Chinese hamster, rat, and mouse cells. In later studies by Kaelin, Ratcliffe, and Semenza, reticulocytes—precursors to red blood cells—from rabbits were used to generate HIF-1α protein to study in vitro."
The 2016 Lasker Awards have highlighted some great discoveries and the scientists behind them. This guest post by Samuel Henager, a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University, investigates how an…
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no game
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THC, the main active ingredient in marijuana, makes lab rats lazy. Researchers at the University of British Colombia trained rats to do either a hard challenge (2 sugar pellet reward) and an easy challenge (1 sugar pellet reward). The rats tended towards the harder task, however after being dosed with THC the animals instead chose the easier task.

Mason Silveira, A PhD candidate, said:
“When rats were given THC – the active ingredient in cannabis or marijuana – we found that they were less likely to exert the mental energy needed to do more difficult tasks. What’s particularly interesting is though they were less likely to do these more difficult tasks they were still able to. There’s this distinction between THC’s ability to affect your cognition versus your willingness to actually use your cognitive abilities.”

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Mike Oswald's profile photoMichael ONeal's profile photoGary Roberts's profile photogiancarlo iannizzotto's profile photo
+Gary Roberts Capitalism is not about helping others. It's just about making money. Unfortunately, the more richness you get for yourself, the less is left for the others. 
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Fish can influence which male fish will become the fathers of their choldren. A US study in Nature showed that the ovarian fluid released by the fish, which coats her eggs, influences which mate will successfully fertilise the eggs.

Kelly Stiver, from Southern Connecticut Stats University, said:
“While it is likely associated with the fact that her ovarian fluid enhances sperm characteristics, it is nothing so simple as to say a selective enhancement of nesting males’ [sperm] - there is something more complicated going on than that,”


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Researchers at the University of Cambridge have identified that primates are able to make high risk decisions when presented with an award. A study with two Rhesus monkeys found that the animals preferred highly variable gambles with a larger pay-out, showing they understood what was at stake and that they may have stable beliefs. The primates show similar behaviours to humans when it comes to basic behavioural attitudes and in turn help us to understand our own risk-taking behaviour.

Professor Wolfram Schultz at the University of Cambridge said,
'I don't know whether the monkeys have an idea in the human sense, but their behaviour demonstrates an amazing and sophisticated sensitivity to specific forms of risk. This is exactly what we need to say that human behaviour in risky situations seems to be built-in by nature and is not just the product of some education. If such risk sensitivities exist in animals, they are also constraints on human behaviour, with which we have to deal. If we can figure out our own risk preferences - maybe even in formal ways, like some investment banks for their clients - we may be able to control our built-in risk attitudes and prevent negative effects while maintaining positive sides.'

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According to the team at the University of Cambridge, the study shows rhesus monkeys made specific and coherent choices between gambles of different rewards.
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Explaining the role of animal research /animal testing in medicine
Understanding Animal Research provide the facts about the role of animals in medical and veterinary research
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