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Hi everybody!

I would like to tell you that I am not dead, yet, and I am not neglecting updates or additional posts. My continuous research of Stone Age speech has unveiled significant mysteries which I am researching thoroughly before submitting my findings to you ASP.
As you probably know the origins of most important vocabulary of sex and the family in English are declared "unknown" but thanks to Applied Biliteral Etymology most of the relevant words will be revealed. Additionally, I will reveal to you one of the greatest secrets of antiquity - the builders of the tens of thousands of megaliths in most parts of the world, and the reasons for their constructions.
The findings have to be methodically researched and tested before I present them to you and this will take time.
My apologies for the delay and gratitude for your interest.
Be happy.
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Sometimes between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago or more, a group of people crossed the southern end of the Red Sea into southern Arabia for reasons that may have included a drastic change in the climate that diminished water and food resources, tribal conflicts, fear or a combination of these and probably other unknown reasons.

Etymologically, there exists to this day in south west Arabia an area that bears the name of the group Eden but it is pronounced ‛Dn, either after the group's name, the founder's name or both. This is plausible for a number of reasons including the fact that Ad, the greatest father of humanity, is both the name of the founder and his tribe.

Eden is part of *YMn, the ancient name of Yemen. It is a suffixed extension of the ancient root *YM (*YM+n= Yemen). This root appears to be a secondary root, meaning it was derived from a previously invented root *MY. The 'y' in the name is a vowel, and like many other vowels it may change at the beginning of a certain word, or subject to its position either in the middle of the word or at the end.

On inspection and comparison *MY appears to be a variation of *Mʼ "water". *MY and *YM are the two joint linguistic foundations of a linguistic cluster that comprises a number of extensions derived from each root with a root average of about 10 extensions. Each root is a category on its own grouping triliteral extensions that express things, aspects or concepts of a certain field or domain known to our ancient ancestors and sufficiently important to warrant a special unique root, such as "water" which probably belongs to the first generation of invented roots (Note the root *AM /*YM in Akkadian tiāmtu: [Humanities → Geography] sea, lake).
Once the etymologist identifies the category, he or she can begin analysing a stock of words that may appear to be extensions of both the primary and the secondary roots. The primary root is the root invented by the speakers of the language first. Think of it as a page. On this page a number of meanings are assigned by the people to the primary root. With the passage of time, the list of words becomes long and may cause confusion. New eras and activities produce their own things and concepts that need to be expressed. The people turned over the page of the primary root and began filling the back page with names of additional things and concepts they needed to express and use in communication.
We are not exactly certain, but it looks the invention of secondary roots may have been dictated by emerging awareness. Things and concepts were seen and contemplated by a human being who realised that he or she exists in a describable state and identified position here, in this place, at this time. This awareness was expressed in the root I. However "I" had to be defined in both current time and current place.

There was no need to invent two new roots to express "here" and "now". If "I" exists he/she exists because he/she is "here" and he/she is "now". The root *ʼN (*AN) was given the three meanings:  _I, here, now_.  In modern Arabic *ʼN is conceived as a conditional article like "if". The implication is that if the three concepts of person, place and time are not jointly realised the absence of one will cancel the other two. In simple terms if "now" doesn't exist neither "here" nor "I" exist.

The reason why un in French means "one"  and in in English means "here" and "ta" in ancient Arabic means "two" expressed in English and French as "two" and "deux" can be explored by those who wish to do so but may want to add to them "three" and "trois" along with their origins. The reason is that in ancient Arabian 'tar' meant "a great deal" and "earth" because it is plentiful. The same is found in modern Arabic with an 'th' substitution 'thar' "rich". This letter is not an ancient Arabian letter and may have been introduced by Jews or Phoenicians.

*Mʼ "water" is the primary root because it expresses a source essential for life. The root *ʼM, means "mum", because she provides the water for her home and children and the other vital liquid for babies "Milk". While each root is a category, both roots are a much bigger category. *Mʼ and *YM mean "water". Yemen is the name of the country and the name of the sea. The sea contains the land of Yemen so Yemen is part of the sea. This may look simplistic but it took us almost two years to realise that the failure to identify the association between primary and secondary roots was caused by thinking of the ancient past in terms of the recent past or the present. To understand the language of prehistoric man one must try to think like prehistoric man and view the world in the simplest way possible. Not in all cases, but common is the saying, "If it's not simple probably it is not ancient." 

A surprising number of words beginning with a hamza (ʼ) were found with "ayin" (‛/ʿ) including *ʼL and *‛L both of which mean "God", or *IL, EL, Eli and Allah, and *ʼD (Ad or Adad)/ *‛D (or ʿĀd and the people ‛Dites or A'adites, i.e. Yemenis).The two tribes were different but not alien. It is possible the tribe of ‛D adopted the name of ʼD but changed the first letter.

A guess is that the tribe of Ad was living in the eastern part of the southern Arabia and became acquainted with the tribe of A'ad in later times. Fear of ferocious unidentified monsters may have driven the clan of Ad to seek shelter in the western part close to the clan of A'ad.

The two clans were united in one nation. Their language, "Ancient Arabian" or "Ariba" but known in the commonstream as "proto-Semitic", survives in its united form in Akkadian, Arabic and other Ancient Arabian linguistic daughters. The tongue is made of the two different linguistic origins each with its specific characteristics that can be identified by two initially different constructions of roots and certain letters of their alphabet including the hard 'g' and 'p'.

If archaeologists are right in dating the foundation of the city of Eridu ca. 5400 BC, it may be assumed that 7,400 years ago a conflict between the leaders of the nation that changed the history of the world more than any other erupted. Ad appears to have killed A'ad who commanded a formidable faction of the one nation, known also as Yemenis. The followers of the murdered leader were shocked and prepared to avenge him.

Some of the people of Ad may have thought their leader was at fault. Their leader, however, had no other choice but to flee along with a number of his closest relatives and supporters. They headed east to their original homeland which was maintained throughout by those who were left behind following the unification of the two tribes by Tai, one of Ad's five sons that dominated parts of ancient history.

The successor of the murdered A'ad marched east at the head of a large army. Ad and his son Tai prepared as much as they could but their followers were almost annihilated in a battle that seems to have taken place in the eastern part of today's Sultanate of Oman. Assisted by seafaring people of a different race (probably ancient Sumerians), Ad managed to escape with some of his remaining followers taking refuge nor far from the location of today's Basra city in southern Iraq. His son Tai appears to have managed to flee as well.

The A'adites were not seafarers so Ad and his followers and allies were safe in southern Mesopotamia but not for long. A'adite armies marched to southern Iraq and forced Ad to flee north where he seems to have founded the city of Akad (Akkad) which became in later times a small empire. This was the A'adites next target. They took the city and established their own kingdom which grew into a bigger empire under Sargon, a name that belongs to a famous linguistic structure, nucleitic compound, made of two different roots *ŠR and *KN. the second is a Yemeni root, a secondary of the primary *NK "fuck".  The Adites have their own category root *ʼR which has a large number of meanings including "fuck".
Linguists of Semitic languages who wondered why Proto-Semitic has some double identical roots or words may have found the answer. Proto-Semitic was a unified language combining the tongues of the two tribes. The initial roots of Adites are bilaterals. Those of the A'adites are mostly mono syllabic root morphemes or "paired" letters, many of which are human vocalisations of sounds made by cats, hyenas, serpents and birds.

Adites and A'adites belonged to two different tribes but they are one race. This should be obvious since all modern humans, you and I and everybody else, have a common biological or genetic source. Studies and literature on the "out of Africa" are countless. Observed by a writer is that "DNA comparisons of samples all over the world, specific enough information has been analyzed to narrow down information on genetic origins to an original community of 10,000 or fewer individuals.  These details and procedures are detailed in works by the specialists in that area.  This sequence of migration from Africa to other parts of the world is indicated by genetics and corroborated by archaeology, linguistics and other disciplines of study" (Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins,

Nothing like "pure blood" exists anywhere and probably never did a few generations down the first one. As people move from one location to another, mix and intermarry, their physical characteristics change gradually over several generations. For hundreds or maybe thousands of years Adites and A'adites mixed and became one nation until they were separated by the cataclysmic murder. However, the A'adites have different physical characteristics observable in their contemporary Yemeni offspring who are predominantly Arab but also Afro-Arab, South Asians and some Europeans. Both the Afar tribes of Ethiopia and probably the San people of Africa may have had connections with A'adites in ancient times.

Of both Adites and A'adites, some of the latter appear closer physically to the ancient nation of San in Africa. A curious reference to San is made in Lisan Al Arab with an 'm' substitution "Sam". The description in this most comprehensive of all dictionaries of Arabic is for a hunter who put on special socks that enabled him to run after a deer for hours until the animal drops of sheer exhaustion. Curiously this type of ancient hunting was the subjec of a nature episode made by David Attenborough Persistent Run.

Some San people have features of partial resemblance to Chinese and other far Asian nations. Groups of out of Africa immigrants could have left before the arrival of A'adites to southern Arabia and continued their journey eastwards. If they had crossed after the A'adites probably they would have been denied permanent settlement if only on the basis of their intolerance and ferociousness as described in old historical records.

A'adites are generally darker with slimmer bodies and smaller stature than Adites who include some of the "giants" of old times, the "amalek".

Ancient A'adites/Yemenis were the conquerors of ancient times. Their armies reached the borders of nowadays China probably in prehistoric times. Successive generations of A'adites found it pressing to pursue the remnants of the Adites wherever they settle. The need for fresh agricultural and herding land may have played a bigger part, but the Adites were almost always on the move. In three or four years Arabians can reach Spain or China.

It is interesting to note that the linguistic cluster of Sindh, Hind and Indus is the same linguistic cluster that records the historical crossing of A'adites into southern Arabia from the western shores of the Red Sea.

For thousands of years the Yemenis controlled Palestine until some Adites and their Canaanite allies were forced out of Arabia some 4,500 years ago and settled in Palestine, parts of Syria and other northern areas. Like Egyptians, Palestinian vernacular is largely Yemeni. Unlike Palestinians, Damascenes have a softer dialect enriched by Amorite, Akkadian and Phoenician.

The Adites were peaceful people. The original homeland in Oman has sufficient water resources and food. They appear to have enjoyed security until their oasis was discovered by unidentified monsters.

By comparison, Yemenis appear to have had a tough life. Their homeland in east Africa, and probably in south western Arabia was infested by a large number of dangerous animals. Surprisingly, though, their most feared animals were not huge cats but serpents. They were not just reptiles to fear but fear itself as indicated by their word for fear ḫūpu (1): [Moral life → Feelings]  fear; and its extension ḫuppu (2): [Country]  1) a socket, a hole, a pit, a cavity; 2) (in fields): a snake-hole (?); 3) Sumerian origin : : : a drum of leather, later of silver, bronze.

Following the loss of their leader the A'adites became a state ruled by a firm leader with the help of a tribal council. The Adites remained a tribe for thousands of years. Ferocious, efficient and highly organised, A'adites became the first warring nation in history. Adites on the other hand remained a tribe until Sumerians provided the Amorite branch of Adites with weapons and chariots that helped them sweep to power in Babylonia. This was a milestone in history.

The A'adites total dominance of Arabia and beyond was assured for thousands of years until their country was invaded by African and Byzantine Christians in 525 to avenge the mass killing of Christians following the conversion of some Yemeni rulers to Judaism.

Their demise allowed the Adites to emerge in northern Arabia and prosper until their offspring "filled Earth", as one historian noted.
 One last note: the conflict between the leaders of the Adites and A'adites is in Yemeni tradition. The Quran made a reference to a time in remote history when people were "one nation" before they split. Other religious books contain the story of the first murder. In GEN: 4:16: "So Cain went out from the Lord’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden."

The word "Nʼd" appears to be a prefixed specifier extension of *ʼD or Ad or Adad. It may be also a suffixed specifier extension of *Nʼ "to be distant, to be far". However, the first is more plausible. Ad is not a secret as the leader's name is one of the largest linguistic clusters in both Arabic and Akkadian. The treatment of Ad related issues in extant Arabic volumes is contradictory. He's treated sympathetically by some and damned by others. His name in Lisan Al Arab means "calamity" or "grave incident". The word is "Nʼd".

Image: Yemenis top; Afar people middle and San bottom.
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Menu of Primary Applied Etymology Posts on Google Pages Plus by Adel S. Bishtawi author of the Origins of "Semitic Languages" and the soon to be published the first part of Origin of Allah and Religions








The G-String of prehistoric times

The G-String of prehistoric times
























 Old folks, piss, snoring and long boats have one thing in common

















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Primary Applied Etymology has identified four grandfathers for modern human beings. The children of a fifth possible grandfather were also identified but anthropologists are not certain of their numbers. At one time they could have been 400,000 or more but they became extinct, some probably at the hand of our ancestral grandfathers. The best scientific guess, and that's what science is all about, is that no more than 350 children may have been born at some time in the past. These would have been the children of mixed association with modern man, willingly or otherwise.


A sixth grandfather is possible for Mongolians. The origin of their name is a problem for the etymology team. It is attested in Akkadian and ancient Arabic but it doesn't sound good, and some people may be offended. The team will continue to look into it but no etymological data will be presented in this post. Part of the problem is caused by conflicting evidence or dogmatic considerations. At one time the Chinese promoted the myth that they are the children of Homo erectus. The word doesn't mean their grandfather was characterised by his ability to main erection indefinitely, they wish, but only that he walked on two legs, like modern man. However, some blood tests appear to prove they are the children of modern man, or just everybody else.

The team can identify the skin colour of each of the four ancestral grandfathers as well as some distinctive features. But the colour of skin can change and so are some features for many reasons including the climate, the type of food they ate and how mixed were their communities with the children of other grandfathers. At the expense of increasing the post size, we will offer a brief history of your respective ancestral grandfather.

The team will also provide available photos of the main four grandfathers but again colour can change and so are some features after no more than seven generations.

It is not a scientific study but etymology at his probable best. Extant in languages descended from prehistoric ancient Arabians the names of the four main grandfathers and that of the Mongols. Identified as well are some of the arts and skills they were famous for.

Africa is definitely the ancestral home of all human beings but one of the two possible etymological origins of the word for "Africa" appears to be restricted to a group of people who have retained the name to this day. The other root refers to a place that either means "parted" or "distended" or "the place that people ran away from".

In prehistoric times only Arabs appear to have been described as "a race" because the word ' ʻRq ' was identified as a suffixed extension of the root *ʻR. 'Jins' is both "type of people" and "sex", like the English equivalent which may have an origin in *KS (kus) "cunt" and the same may apple to "kiss" . Jins is a prefixed extension of *NS, a great word that clearly identifies the origin of all human beings of all colours women. From the root is *NSl "offspring". Unfortunately, we don’t have the names of our four ancestral grandmothers but we have the name of two of the grandfathers but all the names are bilateral roots, the prehistoric language of our ancestors.

There is a word in Arabic for "species" but it is used by anthropologists or biologists to mean the single human species Homo sapiens. These in turn are defined as a group of people with inherited physical features to distinguish them from other groups but the difference can be minimal.

The three main ethnographic divisions are:

1- Caucasian who are said to include Aryans, Hamites and Semites,
2- Mongolians: Chinese, Mongolians of the north, Japanese, Koreans, Indo-Chinese and others,
3- Negroid: African, Sinhalese and others.

The significance of such divisions is not clear nor the scientific reason behind it though the name "Aryan" can be etymologically important. More importantly, the classification is not supported by etymology that defines people in very ancient times before the huge mix that followed the advent of the Agrarian revolution. 

1= ʼD
This bilateral, vocalised for the purpose of this post "Ad", is the name of a nation and the name of its founder. The name of the founder was used by his successors. This explains why the name of the founder was used by his successors thousands of years later. The use of the same name of the founder or famous kings was a tradition in ancient times and it is used in certain cases today. Several Pharaohs used the name Ramses, the founder of the dynasty. The people are called the Adites, after the name of the founder. If we think of the Adites in terms of the modern Caucasians division, they would include both the "Aryans" and the Semites but not the Hamites.

Nobody in history is more famous than Ad, so much so that his name even today is still his prehistoric name, a bilateral root although a later variation, Adad, is sometimes used. Ad has the largest linguistic cluster in ancient Arabian, and probably a name more attested in Akkadian than any other. The name by itself is a proper noun. It may have meant something thousands of years ago but we have not identified any. However, Ad was associated with a large number of actions and concepts, some of the meanings of which are entries in Arabic dictionaries entries of his name.

Because a root is the original communicative container, later derivatives from his name are many and exceptionally significant due to their intellectual, cultural, social, humanistic, religious and behavioural expressions and concepts. IL, the name for God in Judaism, Christianity and Islam was invented by the nation of Ad. More important, in non-religious fields, are a number of linguistic clusters that include ʼR/Rʼ and ʼŠ/Šʼ, both adequately covered in earlier posts links for which will be provided at the end of this post.

Skin colour
By adding the letter 'm" to his name, Adm (Adam, with a short 'a'), the colour of his skin is revealed - it is the colour of the crust of the earth in southern Arabia - that of sand or earth with close colour variations. The colour of earth is not exactly the same everywhere so there was no consensus on its exact nature.

Lexicographers and linguists provided the following descriptions: "1) darkish colour, brown, a colour with black or white tan, white; 2) A man was told, "If you seek white women you'll find them amongst the tribe of Mudlege; 3) Adam when used to describe camels is a white colour with dark eyes".
However, colour is one of several meanings for Adam. The word denotes human beings as different from other animals. A woman or a man who is Adami/Adamiah is polite, considerate, gentle and generally of good character.

The word is also the name attested in Sumerian, according to some researchers, and in the Bible and the Quran. Some writers compared the narrative of Adam in religious books to the Sumerian narrative of Adapa, or Adamu. Etymology supports the notion that Ad is the oldest known man. Some of his descendents were aware of being the oldest humans on Earth but it is not possible to specify an era. Etymological identification is straightforward in later eras when the language was expanded. However, the roots are the oldest viable communicative component of language. Some are maybe 10,000 years old and some four or five times that, or maybe even older. We can identify several of his sons, and probably his home in south east Arabia. This you can find in the caption of the image on this page:

The two sides of us
Some of the eternal expressions of human emotions were expressed by the Adites. Words like love, inseparable love, feeling, poetry, socialisation, sex, erotic, history, perfume and several others contained in the linguistic clusters ʼR/Rʼ and ʼŠ/Šʼ:

Probably the Adites can be credited with the development of human consciousness. It wasn't like "I think therefore I am" but "I am here and I'm different from other animals". 'He' in this process wasn't the other. The other was a ferocious monster. The process was built on the realisation that "I am one, and you are two": 'an' "I"; 'ta' "you". The words "one, you, two, here, in this very spot" are represented by a single root *AN (IPA *ʼN). The importance of this concept can be sensed in the reversed form of the root *NA (IPA *Nʼ). It means the place opposite of here or "distant". This may appear elementary now but the people of Ad were at last able to think of themselves in two different states: present and absent and in both cases they are one and the same.
Presented in another post were the meanings of another Ad extension "Adb (adab): "belles-lettres; literary studies and writings; books, plays, etc. that people think have value; give a banquet; civility, politeness; act of politeness, courteous behaviour; advanced development of the human body, mind, etc; the intellectual development; the quality of being polite and respectable; correct behaviour that shows respect; training of the mind and character, to exercise self-control, habits of obedience; improvement of mind or character, burnishing or refinement quality of being polite; chasten; chastise; discipline; punish," etc.

These are the Adites, the civilised and the civilisers of the ancient world. Most of the words they invented many thousands of years ago are essential in today's Arabic, Akkadian and other similar languages.

Nobody in ancient history is more important than Ad, and probably no other sons are more important than his. One of them is Mur. He is the founder of the Babylonian empire and leader of the powerful Amorite tribe. Like his Dad in Mespotamia and Syria, he became the most important god in Mesopotamia. Hammurabi's name is "Amur (Mur) is my father", and Ad is most probably the Adonai of the Bible.

Who are the descendents of Ad?

The majority of:
Arabians and Arabs,
People of the Indian subcontinent,

Some of those listed would include the children of a rival ancient Arabian leader "A'd, and the Sumerians but those are for another post.

A statue of Ad is here:

Image: Arabs, Jews, Persians, Pakistanis, Indians, Greek, Italians, French, Spanish and others.
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Anu, the Sumerian god of gods, accepted his son's (Enki) proposal to create man to bear the labour of the gods and this was done with the help of his half-sister Ninki. The created can claim to have been manufactured by the gods, so the gods are their fathers.

In Christianity, "God the Father is a title given to God in various religions. In trinitarian Christianity, God the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity, followed by the second person God the Son (Jesus Christ) and the third person God the Holy Spirit. Since the second century, Christian creeds included affirmation of belief in "God the Father (Almighty)", primarily as his capacity as "Father and creator of the universe".


In Judaism, God is described as "Father" as he is known to be the absolute one, indivisible and incomparable, transcendent, immanent, and non-corporeal God of creation and history. The God in Judaism is the giver of the shabbath and the torahs—written, oral, and mystical—to his chosen people.

The Sumerian narrative is simpler and Anu (An) appears to have been viewed as a universal god for the humanity created as a joint venture by the family.

So, regardless of the original stories, the ancients, and not the so ancients, appear to think human beings were created by gods or by the God.

But what says primary etymology that relies on the skeletal bilateral roots not on confused secondary etymology of root extensions or trilaterals? 

The suspicion of etymology is that the Sumerian concept of gods fornicating with earth girls is much older with the caveat that the fornication of gods are different from the fornication of human beings as it may not involve the usual wetness and sweat.

Those who have been following our posts on the origin of religion would know that Elohim, Eli and Allah have a common Stone Age root *IL (IPA *ʼL).

From this root is 'wld' (walad): "Children, descendant, progeny, offspring, posterity, beget, birth, breed, bring about, bring into being or existence, originate, produce, breed, give birth to a baby, kid, scion, son, born, bear, breed, father, give birth to," etc.

How can this be explained?

Girls in today's Arabic are called walaya "Il's appointees".

How can this be explained?

These are not words from religious texts, Sumerian or otherwise; this is primary etymology. It was not created by priests but by people thousands of years before the institutionalisation of religions.

Let's look at another word - *QL which has several other forms such as qal, qawl, aqwal, ql li "said, a saying, sayings, he spoke to me, he told me".

The 'q' in some Arabic dialects is pronounced with a hamza so the examples would be: "aal, awal, al li". *QL has the "natural meaning" of "little, reduced". Primary etymology appears to think the root of these forms is *IL.

How can this be explained?

One may say that many people, including priests and oracles, claim God talks to them. Now oracles and priests have an interest in giving people the impression they talk to God but would ordinary people use a word that seems to have been derived from *Il?

In an answer to the above it is possible that women unable to have children prayed to *IL in pre-historic times to help them have a baby. Some may had the baby they desperately wanted and it is possible they attributed the birth of the child to *IL. It would have involved the semen of her man but elsewhere there are stories of "immaculate" conception. In either case, Eli, and before him *IL, would have been involved, somehow.

The etymology team was very surprised to identify the root *RG for the following words:

regal, royal, regalis, *reg, regalia, real, reality, realistic, royal, royalty, royalties, regimen, regere, reign, reigne, règne, Raj, rajah, Rajput, régime, regent, regimen. The main entries should also include all their known extensions of dozens more words.

The implications of this rooting are huge in that some of the founders of ancient royal dynasties were oracles and prophesiers.

If children of gods or children of gods and earthly girls are amongst us would they know their origin?

Another question: Do the rajahs of India and the royalties of Europe, the Middle East and others know their ancestors may have been oracles in Mesopotamian or other temples and primitive "Stonehenge" constructions in ancient Arabia?

We are the offspring of past heroes and villains, builders of empires and destroyers of civilisation, prophets and human devils.

The largest, or three of the largest tribes in the Arab world today, are Tai, Tamim, Shammar. Primary etymology believes the three tribes are all descendents of the founder Ad also known as Adad, Hadad, Adonai, Adam, Adap (Adapa) and the Quranic Idda. The millions of Shammars today are the Amorites of the past.

If there are children of gods or children of any god/man proportion around, do they look different?

Statues and figurines of Mesopotamian gods have unusually large eyes.

An example is here:

The etymology team is objective because etymology is objective. People lie but words don't lie. If our ancestors knew something important they would have created a word to express that something. Etymology tries to identify the word and its root. That's why it is called Primary, because it goes all the way back to the roots where the ultimate objectivity lies.

However, this particular writer is very biased when it comes to women.

Here is a piece he wrote:

*Once in probably a couple of thousand times a face wonders gracefully in front of your eyes and language fails once again to produce the accurate description. In a way, it is like looking at a unique painting. The last thing you want to do is to spoil its canvas with words.
No words today.
They are not necessary. Just look and muse at God's two most perfect creations joined in one - a beautiful woman, and even more beautiful eyes.
I have a little advice for young people. If you don't want to fall in love steer away from eyes. If you don't and the eyes introduce themselves to each other and feel safe in the company of each other you're done - both of you.

So, look for the eyes but keep this in mind:

1- ●If you think our Stone Age ancestral mums didn't develop the killing tools to overwhelm our poor ancestral dads you probably don't know that the world population today exceeds seven billion;

2- ●Scanning the eyes of 379 adults with normal eyes without vision problems revealed that on average, men had pupils 3.5 millimeters wide while women had pupils 3.8 millimeters wide;

3- ●The Arabic "Oryx eyes" is not a reference to the deer but to women with large eyes, actual or mascaraed with what may be the oldest cosmetic in history - kohl or antimony;

4- ●In the Quran "Thus. And We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes" (Dukhan - Smoke- 52). Etymology looked into the word translated "large [beautiful] eyes" and can offer two possible but different roots:

5- 1) *ḤW (IPA *Ḥʼ). The prime meaning of this root on invention appears to be water but more specifically containers of water like water holes. The word 'eye' itself is derived from the water hole used by both animals and human beings to drink because they thought both look similar. Another meaning is "water fountain".

6- 7- 2) The Quranic word for "a woman with large beautiful eyes" is "Ḫur". The middle word of the Sumerian Ninhursag (Ninḫursag) or Ninkharsag, who was a mother goddess of the mountains, and one of the seven great deities of Sumer, is "hur/ḫur". She is principally a fertility goddess. Temple hymn sources identify her as the 'true and great lady of heaven' (possibly in relation to her standing on the mountain) and kings of Sumer were 'nourished by Ninhursag's milk'. Her hair is sometimes depicted in an omega shape, and she at times wears a horned head-dress and tiered skirt, often with bow cases at her shoulders, and not infrequently carries a mace or baton surmounted by an omega motif or a derivation, sometimes accompanied by a lion cub on a leash. She is the tutelary deity to several Sumerian leaders.
Akkadian uses a single symbol for German 'ch', 'h' and 'ḥ'. There are a number of ways to identify the letter including comparative root/extension data. Arabic can be useful in some cases but extra care is needed.

However, the word in the Quran appears from ancient Arabian *ḤW. If one were to imagine a roundish shape of a water hole with its whitish or blackish circular perimeter, one may imagine what shape girls in prehistoric times we doing to their eyes to emulate something that's the ultimate source of life - water. When kohl is added, the eyes look larger and draws the attention of males quicker that kohl-less eyes.

The secret of women, and probably men, is to engage the opposite sex in an eye to eye appraisal which may be followed by a smile, a wink or 'thank you but no".

We wish you luck with your search but maybe you want to consider this:
Life can be difficult for most of us for various reasons. Centuries of internalisation may have led some of us to believe the suffering on earth is the lot of human beings who, if patient, will be rewarded with joy in heaven.
With respect, this is bunkum.

It is not the lot of humanity to suffer. Our concept of earth and heaven are religious. Earth is in heaven, like all other planets and starts. We are mortals but we shouldn't forget we, along with our earthly abode, are made of the same cosmic gas and dust of all other planets and stars in all galaxies.
Go ahead and say, "We humans have an origin in heaven so we are heavenly."
As far as etymology is concerned, this is correct.
So maybe a search for children of gods and semi gods amongst us is not necessary. Looking at each other may be a sufficient proof.

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Sumerians began to establish themselves in southern Iraq some 7,400 years ago. With some initial help and guidance provided by the leader of one of the two nations of ancient Arabians, they created some of the oldest walled cities in the world, developed an elaborate scripting system, kept records of kings and people and wrote some of the oldest legends of creation that involved hundreds of gods, a number that grew in later times to 2,000 as each city had its own guardian god.

The main Sumerian creation tale was recorded on a tablet found in Nippur, an ancient Mesopotamian city founded 7,000 years ago. The tale goes like this:

When in the height heaven was not named,
And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,
And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,
And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both
Their waters were mingled together,
And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;
When of the gods none had been called into being,
And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained;
Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven,
Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being...

More here: 

Much had to be done to make Earth habitable. Human beings were not created yet so the gods toiled the soil and extracted the minerals for other gods. Some of the gods could continue to break their backs no more so they rebelled. Anu, the god of gods, agreed that their labour was too great. His son Enki, or Ea, proposed to create man to bear the labour, and so, with the help of his half-sister Ninki, he did. A god was slaughtered, and his body and blood was mixed with clay, a plentiful material in southern Iraq. From that substance the first human being was created, in likeness to the gods as described by the text:

In the clay, god and man
Shall be bound, 
To a unity brought together; 
So that to the end of days
The Flesh and the Soul
Which in a god have ripened –
That soul in a blood-kinship be bound.

Both Sumerian and then later Genesis stories claim that "angels" came to Earth and took human women as wives or simply fucked the beautiful ones they liked. Their children, half-human, half-angelic hybrids, were the giants named in Hebrew b’nai Ha Elohim “sons of God”. "Something in their genetics," opined one writer, "made them super-sized people."

More here for the patient:

This may sound, well - mythical, but the Sumerians of southern Iraq knew something others didn't know hence the story of the "Nephilim", the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Deluge according to Genesis 6:4.

This would have been fine except it is further said, "The name is also used in reference to giants who inhabited Canaan at the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan according to Numbers 13:33" (Same reference as the above).

Why the addition is not "fine"?
Because we know who the "giants" were, and are because their descendants are in millions, and the knowledge led to the conclusion that the Sumerians, at least partly, were referring to people they knew to be the oldest of all human beings.

Whether Sumerians regarded their tales as "scared" we don't know but other tales were described in such a term.
One of the most celebrated stories of gods and men of all time is that of Gilgamesh, king of Uruk. A creature, Enkidu, was created by the gods to stop Gilgamesh raping the young brides of Uruk. After an initial fight, Gilgamesh and Enkidu became close friends. Together, they journey to the Cedar Mountain (assumed to be Lebanon) and defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven, which the goddess Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances for a riotous wet night together away from the eyes of other gods and goddesses.

Gilgamesh is described as two-thirds god and one-third man but it doesn't say which parts are godly and which are or is human. Apparently, Gilgamesh enforced his first right to a bride's cunt, or "lord's right", on their wedding night. To keep the bridegrooms busy and absolutely exhausted, he orders them to expend their strength in games, tests of strength, or perhaps forced labour on building projects. Come wedding night, the hapless bridegroom can't raise a finger let alone the tool needed to consummate the marriage.

Enkidu, a primitive man who is covered in hair and lives in the wild with the animals, was entrusted by the gods to confront Gilgamesh. Enkidu is spotted by a trapper, whose livelihood is being ruined because Enkidu is uprooting his traps. The trapper tells Gilgamesh about the man, and it is arranged for Enkidu to be seduced by Shamhat, a temple lady of pleasure, his first step towards being tamed.
After six days and seven nights of maddening sex she takes Enkidu to a shepherd's camp to learn how to be civilized.

More here if you want:

There you have it - the true and oldest man-woman story in history: man tries to screw his wife or girlfriend to submission and woman tries to screw man into civility, kindness and gentleness in the form of tender foreplay before the serious ramming begins.

So this is how Sumerian priests portrayed their world. There was heaven and earth, gods and angels, giants, creatures created by the gods in the form of men and women or primitives covered with hair and initially preferred the company of the creatures of the wild before befriending Gilgamesh, another oddity 66.666% god and 33.33% man with outstanding deflowering powers at the rate of one bride a night or more.

This is support for the practice of "lord's right" in dozens of historical and other works extant in Arabic, including the history of Ibn Khaldoun. The vast region of Najd in central Arabia was home to two of the greatest tribes in history. One is from the nation of the Sum, or Sumerians, called Ṭassam, from the same *SM (SUM). The other is a faction of 'Ad, or the Yemenis known as Jadees. These two tribes appear to have started the Agrarian Era in Najd. A group of linguists from the two tribes are said by dozens of historians to have invented the Abjad alphabet. It is also known as the Phoenician alphabet but it was the standard alphabet for ancient Arabic until replaced by non-Arab linguists who, probably inadvertently created from the almost natural ancient Arabic a linguistic deformity.

Some 4,500 years ago the two sister tribes confronted each other. The king of Ṭassam exercised an old right to deflower the bride on her wedding night. The sister of the king of Jadees was engaged to be married. On her wedding night she appears to have been taken away to the king of Ṭassam who raped her. She came out after the ordeal screaming. She rushed to the court of her brother and began to tear her clothes in agony and distress.

Her brother portended to not have been angered by his sister's rape. He invited the king of Ṭassam and all his court to a banquet. Either while eating or afterwards, warriors of the Jadees tribe slaughtered the Ṭassamite king and all his men except one who managed to escape and called on the Yemeni king to intervene. The Yemeni king marched on Najd and slaughtered all the men of Jadees and enslaved all women and children.

The Ṭassamites where held responsible for the slaughter and they left Najd first for Iraq to seek the help of their Sumerian brothers, and later to Lebanon where they established themselves in Tyre and Sidon. They were later known as the Phoenician, a Greek word.    
So, not all history is myth as it may seem.

For more than 160 years sufficient material has been collected and analysed to provide a reasonable description of life in southern Iraq. The world of the Sumerians is different from ours but some of their myths and stories were modified later and considered "sacred". In impressionable totality, the version of Sumerian world may appear colourful compared to the grim world presented by angry priests of later millennia. Clay was the stuff of humanity in later texts but the substance did not bind man and god. There was no unity. Total and unconditional submissiveness was the order. Stripped from the Sumerian tales of creation the goddesses who were equal to the gods or sometimes more powerful. The age of the angry priests was the age of the man.

The Hebrew b’nai Ha Elohim “sons of God” is the Arabic bani Adam "children of Adam". The word "bani/banu" is a suffixed extension of the prehistoric root *BN. From it is both I*BN "son" and *BNa "build".
What's the connection?

They both go up - sons with age and buildings with rows of stones.

The word is in Akkadian:
1. banû (4): [Industry]  1) to create, to build; 2) (deity): to create (a person, grain , creation ...); 3) (person): to engender (a child), to sire, to make (a figurine), to build (house, boat); 4) (mathematics): 1) to construct; 2) a shape, a form of feature (geometrical ...); 5) D: to erect (a city);
2. banû B *, damāqu: to be(come) beautiful;
3. banû: to build;
4. banû: G. to be(come) good, beautiful D. to make good, beautiful; to look after s.o. respectfully;
5. bānû: [Professions]  maker, builder, creator;
6. banûtu: [Art] beauty.

One can read more than meanings in these words. For both gods and priests to be understood by people they had to use the language of the people. Both gods and priests are users of languages not inventors. Now suppose a priest is trying to write a story about the creation of the universe. A word he may use could be banû. The act is one - that of building something. It applies to industry, construction, creation of gods and people. The story may contain acts or miracles like creating human beings, statues or figurines of gods and humans, but the word is also used to describe the building of huge monuments and temples and even cities.

The builder outside the temple of the priest is building a toilet. The word he uses is the same word used to build human beings or create the universe. The story about the creation of the universe contains the verb invented by human beings some 5,000 or 6,000 years ago. There is no other choice. Bilateral roots were invented first. People had relatively few things and concepts to describe. The root was sufficient to express all the communicative needs.

The advent of the Agrarian Era forced people to invent more words so farmers can describe exactly what is it that they are doing. For example, *SQ was used as a name of the foot, the act of walking, the act of herding, driving men and cattle or whatever. Irrigation required "driving" the water to the field for a specific reason. A letter was added to the root, *SQa, that means just that - irrigation, or providing drink to both plants and people.

Etymology can determine in what era a specific word was invented. If the story about the creation of the universe was original it would contain nothing but bilateral roots. Luckily for etymologists every single priest had no idea were the words he used came from or what the root of an extension originally meant. Unfortunate consequences follow. For example, the word angel is a Sumerian compound (An/Anu-Gal). The word used in the Middle East for the New Testament is "Injeel", from the same Sumerian compound.

It is not clear how the Sumerian compound found its way to Middle Eastern Christianity, but that's where it began. The role played by the Roman emperor Philip the Arab was not fully explained but it is thought he was one of few third-century Roman emperors sympathetic to Christians. A famous Arab tribe, Ghassanides, was mostly Christians and fought alongside Roman Byzantine armies against Arab Muslims.

Maybe it should be remembered that it was the Latin linguistic knowledge of Lorenzo Valla that proved the Donation of Constantine was a forgery. For the purpose of this post, though, note the last Akkadian word in the list: banûtu: [Art] beauty. It looks feminine/plural of son or 'bint' "daughter, girl".  It is simply remarkable that what looks to be the word for girl/daughter is synonym for beauty.

"Nephilim" presented to mean the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Deluge was also said to have been used in reference to giants who inhabited Canaan.
The giants of Canaan are neither mythical nor unknown. Exists in Arabic a word that describes them ʻM/LQ (voc. amaleq). The word is a nucleitic compound that has nothing to do with giants. It simply describes people found everywhere because they were too numerous. These are members of the famous Arabian tribe _Tai. There are dozens of references to their superior size in several Arabic historical works compared to the average size of people that shrank during the Agrarian Era because cereals are considered less nutritious that meat and other foods taken before.

The 'p' in Nephilim appears to be a substitution. The root is *NB paired with *BN. Its original meaning is "elevation" or "upright protrusion". From it is 'nabi' "prophet", because he is elevated above other people but from it also is 'nabbaira' "a bump on the head" because the bump causes bruising and swellings.

The Akkadian equivalent is nabû: G. to name (+2 acc.); to invoke (a god); to nominate; to decree, ordain D. to lament, wail Š. to cause to proclaim N. to be named; to be appointed, called upon.

And here is another:
nābgu+: [Human → Family] a grandchild.

A question was asked above: Why the addition is not "fine"?

Identifying some members of the tribe of Tai as giants poses another question. The father of this tribe is the son of Ad, also Adad, Hadad, etc. A poet from this tribe said that his people are older than the rival tribe of 'Ad, or the Yemenis. So the tribe knew they were the first in Arabia. Ad is Adam which is simply a suffixed extension of the root (*AD+m). Adapa also appears to be the same person.

Part 2 is here:
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Either every girl in the world is a born saint or they simply have no other choice but to like men

Indian actress Afshan Azad, 22, who appeared in a Harry Potter movie as Padma Patil, was attacked in 2011 and branded a ‘slag’ when Muslim relatives found out about her Hindu boyfriend, the British Daily Mail reported at the time.

British police were called and her father, Abul Azad, 54, and brother, Ashraf, 28, were arrested and charged with making threats to kill her. The actress’s brother was also charged with assault.

The title of the story was "Harry Potter actress was beaten and branded a prostitute by her brother after dating man 'who was not a Muslim", a typical title by the typical newspaper, viewed by some as the usual news garbage against Islam not worthy of comments since a story of a Hindu girl falling in love with a Muslim boy and threatened by her parents would not have attracted the same prime exposure or maybe not at all. A much better story by the newspaper is of a man whose penis was cut off 'in revenge for sleeping with gipsy's girlfriend. 

It was opined by a British Arabist in a recent private conversation that a campaign of incitement in part of the British press continues against Islam for a number of reasons the most obvious of which appears to be the urgency for more buyers of the newspapers, most of which are losing both money and readership faster than they can cope with. 

The British police are efficient and the legal system is very capable of dealing with such threats, which, in this case, appears to be confined and not a major threat to British society. In similar incidents involving Christians, most Muslims would not drag Christianity into the front pages of their newspapers.

Another incident involved Indian actress and TV presenter Gauhar Khan said to have been slapped for wearing 'skimpy dress' by a member of the audience during the filming of the grand finale of singing competition Raw Star in a Mumbai studio.

The attacker, Mohammad Akil Malik, took offence to her cutaway dress and ran up to the stage to hit her across the face and threaten her. The assailant was pinned down by security staff and handed over to local police.

If I were still an editor, the story would definitely be a front page story only because Ms Khan is a known celebrity, but is it a story about Islam?
Ms Khan is a pretty girl and the motive of the attacker could be his feelings for her. If that's the case it is jealousy. If it is not, it is a story about an actress attacked by a member of the audience surged to the front pages of some newspapers because she's an actress.

But consider this:
• Over 22 million women in the United States have been raped in their lifetime. (National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 2010);
• Of the 18.3% of women who have survived rape or attempted rape, 12.3% were younger than age 12 when they were first raped, and 29.9% were between the ages of 11 and 17. (National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey 2010);
• Every 90 seconds, somewhere in America, someone is sexually assaulted. (Calculation based on 2012 National Crime Victimization Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice);
• Nearly 1 in 5 Women in 2010 U.S. Survey claim they have been sexually assaulted.

Statistics compiled by the UN Women indicate attacks on women worldwide are even grimmer:

• Between 15 and 76 percent of women are targeted for physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime, according to the available country data. Most of this violence takes place within intimate relationships, with many women (ranging from 9 to 70 percent) reporting their husbands or partners as the perpetrator. Across the 28 States of the European Union, a little over one in five women has experienced physical and/or sexual violence from a partner (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2014). 
• In Guatemala, two women are murdered, on average, each day.
• In India, 8,093 cases of dowry-related death were reported in 2007; an unknown number of murders of women and young girls were falsely labelled ‘suicides’ or ‘accidents’.
• In Australia, Canada, Israel, South Africa and the United States, between 40 and 70 percent of female murder victims were killed by their intimate partners.
• In the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, 66 percent of murders of women were committed by husbands, boyfriends or other family members.
• Worldwide, up to 50 percent of sexual assaults are committed against girls under 16.
• An estimated 150 million girls under the age of 18 suffered some form of sexual violence in 2002 alone.
• The first sexual experience of some 30 percent of women was forced. The percentage is even higher among those who were under 15 at the time of their sexual initiation, with up to 45 percent reporting that the experience was forced.

It does look the attention by newspapers and TV on the two attacks cited above may have helped conceal the far greater threats targeting tens of millions of women everywhere.

Most people believe in one type of religion or another. The statistics produced here are global involving people of most races and religions. To identify an assailant by his religion looks pathetic and negative. A positive reporting would put such single attacks in perspective and branch out to deal with universal attacks on women, the mothers of current and future generations.

It would be reasonable to assume attacks on women are as ancient as the relatively short history of the human race, but how widespread was it?

If an estimated 150 million girls under the age of 18 suffered some form of sexual violence in 2002 alone what is the total number of girls sexually assaulted or raped?

Could it be that all, or most, of us are children of raped mums from the Stone Age?

If the story told by Plutarch about the rape of the Sabine women is true, most children of the Roman Empire were the illegitimate children of raped women and most of the fathers of he nation were rapists.

Primary Applied Etymology may help in identifying specific words that express sexual attacks and try to identify their roots in an attempt to suggest how old are such attacks. The more roots that can be identified the older and more widespread the attacks.
In Akkadian:

►ḫamāṣu: [Moral life → Fault] G: to take off, to strip by force, to rob; Š: to despoil, to rape, to ravish, to assault sexually.
The root of this word appears to be MṢ. The original meaning is "to suck" or "take away". From this root is MṢʻ "to hit, to strike, to throw away". There is some type of conformity between the meanings of the root and the meanings of its extensions. This may mean attacks on women were known in the Stone Age, the age of the linguistic roots.
►ḫasā ' u: to mistreat, to molest, to insult, to assault, to bully, to browbeat.
The root of this extension is *ḪS with a number of meanings including "to contract, to belittle, to insult", so it is a general root that may include attacks on women as well as attacks on men by other men.
►mazā ' u: [Moral life → Fault] G: to squeeze, to press, to compress, to press out, to wring, to wrest (?); D: to rape, to ravish, to assault sexually.
The root of this extension is *MZ with the general meaning of "tear off, unravel, release". The closest extension to it is the one extant in Arabic *MZq (mazaq): "tearing; to make an opening, incision; separate; remove from something larger; divide or separate into two; to slit open; split".
So it looks this is a general act involving tearing something, like paper, but also tearing off clothes before rape. The verb does not specify tearing all clothes as known in later millennia, but any clothes worn by girls or women including the primeval G-String. 
►šaḫāṭu (2) : 1) to jump (on), to attack, to assault; 2) to escape, to run away, headdress: to fall off ; 3) sexually: to mount, to cover, to have sex / fuck ; 4) part of the body: heart ... : to pulse, to throb, to twitch, to jerk ; 5) heavenly bodies: to rise, to be on the rise; 6) copying, writing: to skip, to omit; 7): to jump about, to jump in succession, to hop, to bounce, to continually attack, fire, lightning; to spring up continually; Š: to jump over a river; N : to be attacked / under assault;
►šiḫṭu (1): [Army] 1) an incursion, an attack, an assault, a surprise attack, a foray, an inroad, a raid, a razzia, a sudden onslaught; 2) a scurry, scampering (?) / rushing (?) / hurrying (?).
These two words are from the same root *ŠḪ. The word is in Palestinian and Damascene (Damascus) dialects but not in classical Arabic. The meaning is "to move across something, to scream at somebody". However, the original meaning of the root is the trace left by a slithering snake on sand, and by linguistic extension and expansion "marching, attacking, springing" because this is how an aggressive snake may behave. The two Akkadian words are general and the word extant in vernacular does not express rape.
►nēku: [Legal] raped, ravished, violated;
►niāku: [Science → Natural sciences] to rape, to have sexual intercourse, to fornicate; G: [muruṣ nâki]: venereal disease; (Gtn) to sleep around; Š: to permit intercourse;
►nīku (2): [Moral life] fornication, sexual intercourse, coition / coitus, making love / fucking, adultery, rape;
►nīku: [Legal] a rape.
The four words are from same root *NK "screw" but noted in the last word a single meaning is provided "rape". This means that modern Akkadian linguists identified texts with the word specifically meaning "rape".
In extant Arabic there is a single word that means "rape", Ġṣb, but it combines other meanings including "force, coerce, without consent".


Akkadian is the oldest attested language in the world and the roots are many thousands of years earlier. While no root has been identified with the specific meaning of "rape" extensions are clear in stating the rape was not just known but widely known because the act is expressed in several words.

In a phobia list, the ultimate fear of women is claimed to be of spiders affecting women four times than men (48%/12%). Surprisingly, it is listed way ahead of the fear of death. Probably more surprising is that women's fear of men is listed nowhere.

Either all girls are born saints, forgiving beyond reason, suffer from the shortest memory of all other mammals, or they have no other choice but to like men despite millennia of rape and assaults. Come what may, some girls are telling themselves, they will continue to love men and provide them with all year sex. Others may prefer the come not what may cases to be as few as possible as a condition.

In all cases men owe to women to say sorry for past sins. Criminal  as it is, the fact that could be considered is that women have something men can't offer. They are valuable and not least for their bodies. Conquerors and savages alike knew this and hundreds of millions of women throughout the ages may have been spared the culling of men.
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Spells are in their thousands catering for a variety of purposes including innocent love (sexless love?), hell-hot love, gay love, straight love, hearts join love, increased love, think of me love, think of me only love, to name a handful. Those who seek spells for other reasons have thousands more spells to choose from including death spells, paralysis spells, an assortment of nasty diseases, baldness or just a soft slip.

Do they work?

Some people think they do. Others are not sure but the majority seems to think it is a waste of time. If you really love somebody make him or her know of your feeling. Ask for a date or go all the way, if possible. This writer knows of such a case. After weeks of steeling himself, he went to the girl after class and said, "I'd like to ask for something." When she asked, "What is it?" He said, "Your heart".

They already have a son and a girl is expected in July.
Spells are very ancient. The attested spells include some in Akkadian: 

►aban rāmi: [Religion] love charm.
'Aban' is an extension of the root that means "son" and "building". What’s the connection between the two? They both go up, the son with age and the building with rows of stones.
Rāmi is an extension of *Rʼ. Like most roots this is a category with several critical meanings including "seeing".

What's the connection between seeing and love?

Apparently, love in ancient times began with seeing the loved one. With or without the essential G-String, girls and boys swam together in the sea, small lakes or water holes.

The time of seeking a wife in absentia had not arrived and wouldn't for thousands of years more. Both boys and girls had to see each other first, and then decide. The time of wrapped bodies came thousands of years later.

And there's a good reason.

From the root *Rʼ is the extension *Rʼm (vocalisation > Raam): "compassion, pity, mercy". From the same root *Rʼf (vocalisation > Raaf): "be merciful toward; compassionate; has compassion or pity for; have mercy upon".

This is what love is about but not just between boys and girls. With the Pill thousands of years away, compassion is extended in a relatively very time to their offspring. In extant Arabic 'Raam' has a number of meanings including "to be compassionate [like a mum when feeding her baby and looking after him/her]; raam: a boy, a child; to remain close to, to love, to become familiar with; to mend or fix; to treat a wound, to help somebody heal", etc.

Reem, a very popular name, is a variation of 'raam' from the same root, and so are Rima, Rama, Mary, Maryam/Miryam/Miriam and other similar names but not Rami (m.) which is from a different root.

Another extension is *Rʼq: "pure, salvia" but not spit - the word for spit is 'bazaq' and 'bazaqa' is "a snail". The word *Rʼq is used to describe the state of a mouth watering and usually applies to the salvia of girls not boys, so it seems girls were thought of as made of sugar and spice and everything nice before the nursrsery rhyme was known.

*Rʼ is a glorious root the meanings of which comprise: "to see, to love, compassion, pity, nursing, mending (relations), healing a wound, closeness and the pure liquid in a girl's mouth".
The prerequisite for all of this is for boys and girls to meet first and like each other second.

In later times this was not possible for a number of reasons. The girl may not like the boy or vice versa. Something else had to be done and that included spells and magic hence aban rāmi which seem to have the literal meaning "to bring the love to the open or to be visible".

The following small list is in Akkadian under "charm" with this writer's comments between brackets:

1. inbu: [Country → Fruits] 1) a fruit, an embryo, a flower (The root is *NB which means "to grow" and it applies to plants and children. So this seems to mean the fruit of a relationship).
2. kuzbānu: attractive, having sex-appeal, charming (The root is *ZB "a penis" which made sense for our ancestors since what is attractive to the penis is attractive to the holder of this joystick).
3. kuzbu: [Human → Body] charm, charisma, allure, attractiveness, (sex) appeal, charms of a woman, a goddess; female genitalia; sexual potency of a man, sexuality (Same here, it seems, since our ancestors thought an attractive girl would have an attractive cunt).
4. lalû: [Measures] 1) plenty, exuberance, wealth, affluence, plethora, luxury, luxuriance / lush vegetation; 2) charms / sexual attractiveness especially for a woman or goddess, rarely for a man (The root is *Lʼ originally the twinkling of stars and by implication things that shimmer or twinkle such as stars, pearls gems, things of white colour and by extension girls with twinkling eyes and "luxuriant" body parts, hearts, souls, etc.).
5. mušlaḫḫatu: [Professions] female snake-charmer.
6. nakālu: [Religion → Magic]  to beguile, to charm, to enchant , to bewitch, to fascinate, to captivate, to mesmerize / to hold spellbound, to delude? (The root is *NK "to screw" but this extension (nakālu) could mean "make an example of; punish severely; torture" which could describe some types of oppressive or overwhelming love).
7. ṣaiāḫu: [Human → Senses]  delicious, tasty, palatable, savory, tasteful, toothsome, scrumptious, sapid, appetizing, luscious, delightful, dainty, enjoyable, fancy, lovely / charming / ravishing, agreeable, pleasant / pleasing / pleasurable, entertaining (?), desirable, elegant, interesting (We need to look deeper into this curious extension but it looks it is rooted in *ṢḤ which has several meanings including "correct, bright, clear [as in clear sky or mood]; sun breaking after a rain, etc.).
8. šiptu: [Religion → Magic] 1) an incantation, a spell / a charm; rēš šiptu: beginning of the spell; šiptu balātim: spell for life; 2) against disease ...: nadû šiptu: to cast a spell; manû šiptu: to recite a spell (The root of this extension is *ŠP. It is migrated into Arabic with an 'f' *ŠF "To be 'šiptu' is 1) "to be afflicted by love or sadness; to lose weight due to love or sadness, or to lose his mind." The word also means to look through a transparent curtain, or attempt by extension to see what the future holds).
9. zalāqu: [Nature] 1) shiny stone; 2) a trinket, a charm? (The Akkadian translators are not sure of the meaning but the word is from the root *ZL "to fall, to slip". If descriptive of a spill then it would be a very light spell that entails causing the loved one, or somebody else, to slip and fall without much harm, maybe to rush to help).
10. saḫāru: [Professions]  1) to go round especially in search of something / someone, to beg / to go round begging; 2) magic: to seek out / to bewitch someone (This is the word used to describe magic in general and it would apply to spells and potions. The word is also used to describe the act of natural bewitching of a girl or a boy due to extreme beauty or attractiveness. It should be noted this extension consists of two different roots, the second, 'ḫār', is concerned with magic. One of its meanings is 'hot' probably because some types of magic entailed using fire of some sort).
11. zikurudû: [Religion]  magical rite (This word means nothing more than "reciting" but it could be important as it implies repeating or reciting certain words in certain orders for spells but nothing else. Other types of spells include tying one or more knots in a rope to inflict the hoped for illness or deformaity. A story in the Quran is about a woman who tried to betwitch Prophet Mohammad with a piece of robe called "massad". The word ia ttested in Akkadian: mašādu: [Human → Hygiene]  to strike with palsy (N) to be striken.
One of the strangest words we came across in Akkadian is this:
šuḫarruru: [Human → Speech]  1) to be deathly still; 2) to be quite silent, to be dumb / mute; 3): adjective: silent.

The word is known in Syria as 'shahrur' "a blackbird", also a common European songbird. 'Shahhar' means "soot" or "to blacken with soot", a common practice by women losing a child, a husband or a very close relative.

The presence of this bird, especially those with red beaks, in the vicinity of a house was considered by some people a bad omen of an eminent death of somebody or a fast approaching calamity.

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An etymological introduction is vital to understand the importance of the multi-purpose dye since prehistoric times. 
Henna is an ancient extension of the primary root *ḤN that belongs to the linguistic cluster ✤*ḤN⇆*NḤ. The main meanings of the root are best explained by consulting some of its trilateral extensions including:
1- ḤNa: twist, curl, bend, curve into the shape of a crook, move a muscle, bend a joint, bow, incline, etc.
These are essentially descriptive of body movements influenced by deep sad emotional pressure on one side, and body movements while dancing joyfully on the other.
No contradiction here.
As a noun/adjective, the word has the following meanings: affectionate; showing fondness for somebody; loving; tender; devoted; caring; feeling sympathy for people who are suffering; of a friendly, generous, benevolent, or gentle nature, or showing friendliness, affection, etc.; expressing sympathy to somebody; having a warm heart; kind; friendly; commiseration; compassion; kindness; mercy; tenderness; warm-heartedness, etc.

2- ḤNṭ: embalm; mummify;
3- ḤNṭa: a primitive kind of wheat, a cereal plant bearing dense four-sided seed-spikes;
4- ḤNṭi: light yellowish brown colour similar to the hard wheat of Arabia, or to the colour of sand. This may be useful to distinguish the original Henna used. 

Two semi-critical suffixed extensions (letter+root) are these:
1- ṭ+ḤN (ṭaḥan): crush or pound something into powder, such as flower or henna.
2- L+ḤN (laḥn): a soft, repetitive type of singing, music, melody, composing music or music to accompany songs; to talk under emotional duress missing words or letters or intelligibly at times.

The importance of these two words rests on the possible fact that people powdered Henna before using the same method to crush wheat when it became available. The slow, deep and sad singing appears to have originated from cases that also involved the use of Henna.

For the most part of their history, our ancestors lived in an environment in which animals didn't bury their dead so they followed suit.
In the overwhelming number of cases they could identify the state of death. A man or a child may have been savaged by a lion. They could see the marks of death on the mauled body parts and the blood. Some may have fallen on rocks and died. The tribe can be certain of death by inspecting the broken skull or bones and the motionless cold body.
They also knew many cases of fainting or lapsing for a certain time. These were either treated to regain consciousness, or made comfortable and people waited on them until they regained consciousness.
The cases they couldn't understand were those of deep unconsciousness or comatoseness for no visible marks or causes 
The comatose would have some signs of life but not all. They can breathe but they can't talk or eat. The reasons are many. They could have victims of snake bites or scorpion stings. Other reasons include poisonous plants the comatose could have touch or eaten. A number of such plants are named in various sources.
The worry of the close relatives is immense particularly in the case of children. Mums were devastated because they don't know what's the problem so they helpless. Sometimes mums may lose all hope and weep. In other times they may notice body movements or some signs of improvement and they would be joyful.
In some cases the mum would be joined by relatives and friends. Signs of recovery may send all of them clapping and laughing. An hour later the comatose may suffer seizures and muscle tremors. Panic would immediately set in and they may cry in unison.
The stings of certain scorpions can make children unconscious for about a month. Some would recover after that, others wouldn't.
Comatose cases can last months or years. To help, two things were done:
5- Group crying interrupted by imploring the comatose to come back to them. They may tell them how much they are missed or needed or loved. Some may become very emotional and their bodies may start to sway in sadness or sympathy;
6- Group singing and dancing in the hope it would help the comatose to regain consciousness and resume his life.

In the case of comatose men, the wives would put on the best dresses they have, wear the best perfume they can find, and decorate their bodies with henna and other dyes. 
Henna is derived from the root*ḤN and it can be presumed to have been used specifically in such cases. We even have the type of smell the original Henna had. An adjective from the same root describes the smell as similar to that of rotten walnuts or nuts in general.
However other types were used for body decoration including the yellow type of the daisy-like camomile. The name extant in Arabic for camomile is "Uqḥuwan". The root appears to be the third and last letter producing an ancient trilaterals like qḤN. However it could be a Nucleitic Compound made of two roots: AQ/ḤN. If that's the case the word would 2,000+ years older than qḤN.
The greatest party would be when the comatose regains full consciousness. Nights of endless sex may be waiting for him, and the party goes on for a long time with girls and women looking like actresses in Indian wedding movies.
In other cases the comatose dies. The time of *ḤN is over and the time of reverse root *NḤ from the same linguistic cluster begin:
*NḤ (NaḤ): cry; lament; wail; mourn; blubbering, etc.
The wife or mum would tear her dress and smear her face with soot. Grief lasts for 40 days. We don't exactly why but it may have to do with making certain the wife isn't pregnant. The same number of days applies to "quarantine", from an Italian word that means "forty".
But let's be clear: if people could count to forty it couldn't be in the Stone Age. Only number one is a prehistoric bilateral root. The higher numbers are all extensions.

One of the extensions above is this: "ḤNṭ: embalm; mummify".
Embalming is a major topic that will be covered in a coming post.

Let's end up with a happy note:
The origin of the use of Henna is as described here. On bereavement, some women tear their dresses and smear their faces with sot to these days.
The wider use of henna is for weddings. The fact that Henna is heavily used in the Indian subcontinent may point to an ancient cultural stretch from Mauritania to the borders of China that includes many customs, costumes, linguistic integration, history and an amazing similarity of body language.
Some girls may go to extremes preparing themselves for wedding. Coloured Henna is brushed over a large sieve and printed on the buttocks of the bride.
In cases where somebody is bothered by a nagging of a friend over something, a statement may be made like so: "If I get into trouble or die go ahead and dye your bottom with Henna."

Thank you.
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The G-String of prehistoric times

Revealed in the first part of this brief etymological history of costumes that the first human part to be covered with the cunt. This is not difficult to prove since the word 'kisa' which means in Arabic "costumes" is from the famous root *KS "cunt". From the same root 'kasam' "appearance, shape, form, fashion" and 'kasal' "idleness; inactivity; indolence; languor; lassitude; laziness; sluggishness". A bodily and mentally state to be expected following an extended session involving the root.
It does also look that *KS (vocalised "kus") is a good candidate for parenting both "sex" and "kiss". The origin of "sex" is "uncertain" and the origin of kiss is confused unless one is convinced the word is the sound of kissing, or the Old English "coss" is unlike "kus". 

Part 1 is here:

Akkadian has this entry from the same root *KS (kus):

kusītu: [Clothing] robe, gown, dress, mantle, flowing garment.

This is very similar to the extant Arabic in which 'kasait' is "to buy clothes to dress somebody". More importantly, perhaps, is the use by Assyrians and Babylonians of the same linguistic root to describe very advanced types of garments in their times.

The word 'hab' in Arabic is "alarmed by; be afraid of; dread; fear; frightened by; scared of; terrified by; be awed by; respect;  respect; venerate," etc.. Some of these words maybe worthy of tribal chieftains or kings who appear to have distinguished themselves by wearing the skin of a number of animals including tigers, cows, sheep and goats.

Small pieces of any of the skins available would be sufficient to make the prehistoric knickers. The main piece covers and holds the cunt. The leather piece was attached from both front and back to two bands of leather or some sort of flax, and both ends were attached to a band around the waist.

How do we know it was a band used in this way or a similar way?
it could have been made in other ways using available material. The thong or G-String of Egyptian girls in the painting is obvious but we also have this word in Akkadian:

erru (2): [Country → Agriculture]  1): a ring, a band; 2) a ring / a washer for peg; 3) a headband - metal or cloth.

This word in interesting because it doesn't describe bands or rings as such but solutions invented by "naked people": erru "naked". The root is not with the vowel 'e' but with ayn (IPA ʻ), the first letter of "Arabs".

This may suggest bras or similar coverings for breats were not used. Of course as all girls know the bra doesn't just cover the breasts but hold them as well. They become larger and gravity pulls them down like everything else. The long exposure of the nipple may affect its shape.

There are two words in Akkadian that mean "nipple":
1. ṣertu : [Animals]  breast (woman), tit, teat nipple, udderك
2. tulû : [Human → Body]  1) a breast (male and female) , a nipple.

The first word was covered in a previous post and it means "pouch" because our ancestors thought it looked like a pouch with a protrusion similar to the severed end of the pouch after gathering its ends in a way similar to the belly button or "ṣerrah" in Arabic from the same Akkadian root *ṢR.

The second word is in Arabic 'thu'lul' "wart". The word isn't used to refer to a nipple because it is a grave insult. We've checked the word again and it looks from a very ancient root *Tʼ "two". This word is critical because it is a record of the very early stage of human awareness. It took human beings a very long time to realise they have an entity all of its own. The realisation produced *ʼN "here, in this place, I". A person approaching to join "I" is 'Tʼ' "two, another entiry, you singular". We think it is attested in the second part of this Akkadian word 'šittān' "two thirds", i.e. *TA > *Tʼ. It looks the origin of Proto-Germanic *twa and the PIE *duwo or dwo, the three to mean "two". The High German Zwo also means 'two' but the root is different '*ZW "double, two, a pair, husband and wife, goose" in reference to its two legs. The concept of the earliest scales is from this bird 'miZAn' "scale, weighing tool".

We have found no words that mean bra or something similar. However, in later times the advent of sleeveless tunics for both boys and girls would have covered the breasts. Before that it seems women either did not cover their breasts or some women partly covered them with thick or multiple bands around the neck that loosely extended over the breasts.

Some ancient Egyptian paintings depict women with "G- Strings" and over-handing loose "bras". Other paintings show women fully dressed and some appear overdressed. Clothes were expensive and costumes appear to have been a sign of wealth and power. The poor had to find their own garbs.

In our time girls are getting taller, prettier, and sexier and they are already driving men mad, so for what reason most of them are abandoning at least 5,000 years of part or full clothing to the G-String of prehistoric times?

Not that it is sudden. Women's clothes have been getting shorter for at least a hundred years. Some female bodies are not much smaller than men but their shorts are much shorter than men's and at their lowest  Simultaneously while at the same time the shorts are at their lowest possible point below the stomach.
Older girls maybe said to be driven by the need to look more attractive to attract more attention, but then very young girls have very short shorts though not much shorter by boy's shorts by much. It also looks that some mums are imitating their daughters by wearing shorter dresses. Mums usually buy their daughters' dresses including shorts with "cute cuts" so the midriff-baring is accelerating faster.
A report by the American Psychological Association confirms evidence for sexualisation of girls and women and warns of consequences that include negative effects in a variety of domains, including cognitive functioning, physical and mental health, sexuality, and attitudes and beliefs.
The girls' sexualisation trend is said to have a negative impact on other groups (i.e., boys, men, and adult women) and on society more broadly. Exposure to narrow ideals of female sexual attractiveness may make it difficult for some men to find an “acceptable” partner or to fully enjoy intimacy with a female partner.
Maybe so but we sometimes forget what life is all about. The briefest possible summing up is "man, woman and child". We brag about 'free will' but we are mostly pre-programmed to propagate because it is the only way to perpetuate life.
Marriage is still important for girls and boys, but both seem to be delaying marriage for a number of reasons the most pressing of which is economic. It is taking longer to prepare young people for complex jobs and longer to find a job.
Religious and societal pressures to conform are weakening and the weakness is likely to continue maybe indefinitely. Free market and competition are not just economic prerequisites. Supply and demand works for goods and services and much as for relationships. At difficult times like these the sure way to attract buyers is to offer the best product with the best appeal at the most economical price possible.
Probably this is what females are doing consciously or subconsciously. The best price for marriages nowadays is zero. You can't get it cheaper than that. The other factor is to present the most attractive package possible with many girls offering free samples for longer and longer periods.
It is true that girls are getting prettier and sexier but this very observation maybe the reason why they feel they have to compete harder. 
Maybe it should be left for the girls. Our prehistoric mums were successful and our future mums will be successful as well. We should trust girls. Other members of societies fearing negative effects may want to offer girls more protection and less advice.

A copy of the report is here:

Here is a list of the oldest extant Akkadian words related to costume, hairdo, brooches, etc.:

aparakku: headdress (kind of), coif;
edēqu: to dress, to clothe, to get dressed;
gallābu: [Professions] barber, hairdresser;
kazāru: [Human → Hygiene] to coiffure, to curl / dress one's hair, to have a hairdo / (special) hairstyle;
kezēru: [Human → Body] to give someone (king, woman, animal) a (special kind of ) hair-do, to dress the hair of [nēbeḫ / parṣī kezērim]: a payment relating to the function of "kezretu";
kusītu: [Clothing] robe, gown, dress, mantle, flowing garment;
kuzippu: [Clothing] garment, clothes, suit, costume, garb, cloak;
labāšu (N): [Clothing] to clothe oneself, to get dressed
lamaḫuššu: [Clothing] ( a kind of robe / garment / dress / garb);
mugabbîtu: [Professions] a seamstress, a needlewoman, a dressmaker;
mugabbû: [Professions] a seamster, a stitcher, a dressmaker, a tailor, a clothes-mender;
pūṣāya: [Professions]: a launderer, a laundress;
sagdullu: [Clothing] a headdress;
tudittu: [Clothing] a dress pin, a brooch
baštu: [Moral life → Quality] : 1) (divinity, person) dignity, source of pride (?), high rank (?), high position / status (?), title (?) 2) (in personal name): protective force 3) (building, orchard): pride (of the city, land ...), self-esteem 4): [ṣubāt bāštu]: formal dress -

See what the bāštu looks like here:
Animated Photo
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