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Ted Pavlic
Works at Arizona State University
Attended Ohio State University
Lives in Tempe, AZ
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Ted Pavlic

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Great commentary from +Moshe Vardi about the sad state of affairs in computer science publishing and hiring practices.

[ #CS   #computerscience   #publishing   #academia   #publishorperish   #computing   #research   #CRA   #CACM   #ACM   #bestpractices  ]
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Ted Pavlic

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Anthropologists used an agent-based model (ABM) to explore why human groups have such low relatedness. They found that low-relatedness groups could be established by early humans with: (a) pair bonding and (b) sex equality.

Primary source:
"Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands"
by Dyble et al.
Science (15 May 2015), 348(6236):796--798
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa5139

Editor's summary
======
Friends and family?

Evolutionary theory stresses the importance of living with kin, not least because they share some of our genes. Nevertheless, a large-scale assessment of contemporary hunter-gatherer societies has established a consistent pattern of unrelated individuals living together. Dyble et al. used a modeling approach to suggest that a possible answer to this conundrum is that cohabitation choices are being governed equally by men and women
======

Abstract
======
The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization.
======

[ #evolution   #anthropology   #science   #humans   #human   #ABM   #agentbasedmodeling   #equality   #parity   #sexequality   #cooperation   #simulation  ]
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Ted Pavlic

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Check out the videos at the link. Andrew Suarez​'s lab at UIUC tested whether trap-jaw ants have a special ability to escape from ant-lion traps. It turns out they do! They compared the escape of trap-jaw ants with their jaws glued shut to the escape of trap-jaw ants with free jaws, and the ants with untreated jaws escaped twice as fast.

Background: Trap-jaw ants have a special hinged jaw that stores energy, locks in place, and can release that energy very quickly after being triggered by special hairs. These literally powerful jaws have the ability to fling the ants backward away from an otherwise dangerous ant-lion larvae.

Primary source:
"Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters"
by Larabee and Suarez
PLoS ONE (2015), 10(5): e0124871
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124871

Abstract
=====
Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense).
=====

(via +WIRED / +Bug Gwen)

[ #adaptation   #evolution   #myrmecology   #ants   #trapjaw   #trapjawants   #Odontomachus   #brunneus   #Odontomachusbrunneus   #biology   #ecology   #behavioralecology   #antlion   #UIUC   #PLoSONE   #PLoS  ]
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Ted Pavlic

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"Superlubricity" and "nanoscrolls" -- That's smooth...

Primary source:
"Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation"
by Berman et al.
Science (14 May 2015), online first
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1262024

Abstract
=====
Friction and wear remain as the primary modes of mechanical energy dissipation in moving mechanical assemblies, thus it is desirable to minimize friction in a number of applications. We demonstrate that superlubricity can be realized at engineering scale when graphene is utilized in combination with nanodiamond particles and diamond-like carbon (DLC). Macroscopic superlubricity originates because graphene patches at a sliding interface wrap around nanodiamonds to form nanoscrolls with reduced contact area that slide against the DLC surface, achieving an incommensurate contact and significantly reduced coefficient of friction (~0.004). Atomistic simulations elucidate the overall mechanism and mesoscopic link bridging the nanoscale mechanics and macroscopic experimental observations.
=====

[ #science #research #superlubricity #nanoscrolls #friction #engineering #nanoscroll #graphene #smooth #mechanics ]
Act like ball bearings to create a state called "superlubricity."
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Ted Pavlic

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Wow. Not only is the opah a giant fish, but it has evolved whole-body warm-bloodedness to give it an adaptive advantage in deep waters that are very cold, where there are lots of valuable foraging opportunities. That's a unique physiological trick for a fish! A handful of other fishes have evolved some form of localized warm-bloodedness, but this opah has independently evolved the ability to generate, retain, and distribute that heat around its whole body.

Here is the primary source:

"Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus"
by Wegner et al.
Science (15 May 2015), 348(6236):786--789 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/348/6236/786

Abstract
=====
Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant “flapping” of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.
=====

[ #evolution #adaption #thermaladaptaion #fish #opah #endothermy #warmblooded #science #research #nature #biology #marine #physiology #vertebrates #vertebrate ]
The opah's warm blood allows it to swim faster at depths nearing 400 meters
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7 comments
 
I agree with you that this is a significant finding. Also, the authors in the Science paper do not overreach- their peer reviewers and editor would have made sure of that! It's the echo chamber of the media that presents the results, especially the headlines, in a way that conveys to the public that (i) this is entirely new and has (ii) proved all our old ideas wrong. Someone I know wrote, "Why you can never declare, 'the debate is over' and call yourself a scientist". What he took away from the news was, "To have one species - and only one - of an entire class defy one of the most basic laws of said-class... as I said, huge." 
We may not reach a lot of folks, but at least some will have got it right after reading your post and that may help temper their response the next time around. 
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Ted Pavlic

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Better turn off auto-reload and change your +Starbucks Coffee password...

[ #tech   #technews   #Starbucks   #hacking   #coffee   #apps   #Android   #iOS   #mobile   #commerce   #news   #technology   #security  ]
Fraudsters have figured out how to break into Starbucks accounts and drain your bank account or credit card. Customers tell CNNMoney they're furious Starbucks isn't taking this more seriously.
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Ted Pavlic

General  - 
 
Scientists have done some fascinating evolutionary developmental biology work here, where they silence an evolutionary novel pathway in birds and restore an ancestral phenotype of dinosaurs. The result: chickens with dinosaur teeth. I give more background in my original post below, which also links to the primary source that was just published. Note that the image from the news article is an artistic interpretation; these chickens were never hatched out in this study.
 
In this fascinating result, scientists resurrect an ancestral phenotype (dinosaur teeth) that has been lost in the species we know today (chicken). The result is a chicken with teeth, confirming that the hypothesized molecular mechanism for the major evolutionary transition from teeth to beak.

Background: Dinosaurs didn't totally disappear from earth. They live on today as birds. The reptiles you see today are a relatively separate line of evolution. We can group all birds and reptiles into a monophyletic group (thus birds really are reptiles), and the birds would be today's remnant of dinosaurs.

But birds have beaks. That means that some developmental pathways changed that used to be used for teeth development. To test this idea, scientists inhibited certain pathways thought to be responsible for this transition to beakiness, and the result was a chicken with teeth. The ancestral dinosaur phenotype has been restored.

So this is a fascinating result speaking to the mechanisms behind major evolutionary transitions.

Important note: Picture shown in +BBC Earth​ article heading below is an artistic representation. The birds were never hatched out in this study.

Here is the primary source:

"A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history"
by Bhullar et al.
Evolution (2015), online first
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12684

Abstract
=====
The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial Wnt-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. In order to test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later Wnt responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak.
=====

[ #evolution #science #biology #paleontology #dinosaurs #development #evodevo #devoevo #nature #research #news #birds #chicken #teeth #beak #developmentalbiology #evolutionarybiology ]
A chicken embryo with a dinosaur-like snout instead of a beak has been developed by scientists
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5 comments
 
This is an example of an experiment that supports inferred phylogenies I disagree, I think that it does strengthen existing phylogentic results. Maybe from 99.5% to 99.6% but it does support that birds are modified dinosaurs. Yes, there is tons of other evidence that also supports this conclusion. 

I don't think that it was the authors intention to support the status of birds, but it still does so. 

This is a prediction. If birds are descended from archosaurs, then finding and changing the developmentary framework that distinguishes them from archosaurs should reveal the ancestral condition, which is what was done.
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Ted Pavlic

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"Tanks" for the appreciation, +CNET​.
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Quick, get me lots of helium filled weather balloons!
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Whoa. It's raining in #Tempe and snowing in #Flagstaff. What will we do? Don't worry -- I think we'll have blue skies again by Sunday. #endofdays #hidemefromtherain
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+Praveen Kulkarni​ -- September is a bit late for monsoon season, but May is definitely early. We usually start seeing good storms in July (that's when we go out to catch the mating flights of ant foundresses for the lab). I hope the ants don't get confused...
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The processor in my smartphone has more CPU cores than my desktop PC! It is true, but it doesn't sound right. How is it that this little handheld device is sporting eight-cores but my PC only has four? Does my smartphone perform better than my PC? Does my smartphone need 8 cores, or even 10? These are good questions and according to a Forbes article written by Patrick Moorhead, the well known technology commentator, 8 and 10 CPU cores in smartpho...
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!AH HA!
!WOW!
!YAY!

[ #palindrome   #week   #palindromeweek  ]
Lovers of words or phrases that read the same forward or backward, rejoice!
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Ted Pavlic

Discussion  - 
 
Scientists have done some fascinating evolutionary developmental biology work here, where they silence an evolutionary novel pathway in birds and restore an ancestral phenotype of dinosaurs. The result: chickens with dinosaur teeth. I give more background in my original post below, which also links to the primary source that was just published. Note that the image from the news article is an artistic interpretation; these chickens were never hatched out in this study.
 
In this fascinating result, scientists resurrect an ancestral phenotype (dinosaur teeth) that has been lost in the species we know today (chicken). The result is a chicken with teeth, confirming that the hypothesized molecular mechanism for the major evolutionary transition from teeth to beak.

Background: Dinosaurs didn't totally disappear from earth. They live on today as birds. The reptiles you see today are a relatively separate line of evolution. We can group all birds and reptiles into a monophyletic group (thus birds really are reptiles), and the birds would be today's remnant of dinosaurs.

But birds have beaks. That means that some developmental pathways changed that used to be used for teeth development. To test this idea, scientists inhibited certain pathways thought to be responsible for this transition to beakiness, and the result was a chicken with teeth. The ancestral dinosaur phenotype has been restored.

So this is a fascinating result speaking to the mechanisms behind major evolutionary transitions.

Important note: Picture shown in +BBC Earth​ article heading below is an artistic representation. The birds were never hatched out in this study.

Here is the primary source:

"A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history"
by Bhullar et al.
Evolution (2015), online first
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.12684

Abstract
=====
The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial Wnt-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. In order to test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later Wnt responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak.
=====

[ #evolution #science #biology #paleontology #dinosaurs #development #evodevo #devoevo #nature #research #news #birds #chicken #teeth #beak #developmentalbiology #evolutionarybiology ]
A chicken embryo with a dinosaur-like snout instead of a beak has been developed by scientists
81 comments on original post
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Have him in circles
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Education
  • Ohio State University
    Ph.D., Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2007 - 2010
  • Ohio State University
    M.S., Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2004 - 2007
  • Ohio State University
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, 1999 - 2004
Basic Information
Gender
Male
Other names
Theodore
Links
YouTube
Story
Tagline
ECE/CSE/social-insect researcher, husband, Android enthusiast, and bringer of the science.
Introduction
Researcher (ECE/CSE/social-insect, CyberPhysical Systems, Freak-ology), husband, Android enthusiast, and bringer of the science.

See http://www.tedpavlic.com/facjobsearch/ for more information about my faculty/postdoc job search (CV, research statement, publications, etc.).

Research interests ("freak-ology"):
  • Agent-based modeling
  • Hybrid-state and hybrid-time systems
  • Complex systems
  • CyberPhysical Systems
  • Distributed algorithms
  • Amorphous computing
  • Autonomous systems and vehicles
  • Control and communications theory
  • Behavioral ecology
  • Cooperation
  • Optimization
  • Game theory
  • Parallel computation
  • Robotics
  • Informational architectures of emergence (of life, cancer, multicellularity, eusociality)
  • Bio-mimicry and bio-inspiration
  • Engineering education
You could group a lot of that into the broad area of intelligent control. However, I've tried to combine science and engineering and contribute to both.
Bragging rights
abs( log( batting average ) ) = very high
Work
Occupation
Research Scientist (Bio-inspired Engineering, Bio-mimicry, Social Insects, Complex Adaptive Systems)
Skills
analytical and computational modelling, complex adaptive systems (CAS), mathematical modelling for theoretical biology (optimal and nutrient-constrained foraging, distributed decision making, cognitive psychology), autonomous multi-agent systems with myriad applications (robotics, distributed power generation, sustainable resource allocation for the built environment), software engineering, software verification and validation, analog electronics and micro-electronics, intelligent control systems
Employment
  • Arizona State University
    Associate Research Scientist, School of Life Sciences, 2014 - present
    Bio-inspired Engineering, Bio-mimicry, Social Insects, Complex Adaptive Systems, Origins of Life
  • Arizona State University
    Postdoctoral Scholar, School of Life Sciences, 2012 - 2014
    Bio-inspired Engineering, Bio-mimicry, Social Insects, Complex Adaptive Systems, Origins of Life
  • Ohio State University
    Postdoctoral Researcher, Computer Science and Engineering, 2010 - 2012
    Cyber-Physical Systems research related to autonomous urban vehicles in mixed-autonomy environments.
  • Ohio State University
    Graduate Fellow, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2004 - 2010
  • National Instruments
    Hardware R&D Intern for Multifunction DAQ, 2003 - 2003
  • National Instruments
    Hardware R&D Intern for Multifunction DAQ, 2002 - 2002
  • IBM
    Core Systems Software Developer for FlexNAS, 2001 - 2001
  • CallTech Communications
    Information Technology Systems Engineer, 1997 - 2001
  • MegaLinx Communications
    Web Developer and Support Representative, 1995 - 1997
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
Tempe, AZ
Previously
Dublin, OH - Columbus, OH - Research Triangle Park, NC - Austin, TX - Westerville, OH - Cincinnati, OH - Tempe, AZ
Contact Information
Home
Email
Address
Tempe, AZ
Work
Email
Address
Arizona State University School of Life Sciences PO Box 874501 Tempe, AZ 85287-4501
Apps with Google+ Sign-in
Ted Pavlic's +1's are the things they like, agree with, or want to recommend.
Incentivizing Quality and Impact in Computing Research | May 2015 | Comm...
cacm.acm.org

Developing consensus on how the computing-research publication culture should be changed has proven to be exceedingly hard. The Computing Re

Pompeya - Music on Google Play
market.android.com

Pompeya is a four piece indie pop and rock band based in Moscow, Russia. Their music is often described as bright and breezy, a mix of 70s D

Giant Whales Have Super-Stretchy Nerves
phenomena.nationalgeographic.com

“Hey, look at this,” said Bob Shadwick. He and his team were working on the dissected remains of a fin whale, the second largest animal on t

A molecule from plants and trees could make our roads and roofs 'greener'
phys.org

Construction crews may someday use a plant molecule called lignin in their asphalt and sealant mixtures to help roads and roofs hold up bett

Bioasphalt with lignin in Zeeland
phys.org

Bioasphalt for roads in Zeeland, a Dutch province, is being developed by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research, the Asfalt Kennis Centrum (

Announcing Insects Unlocked
www.myrmecos.net

A while back I wrote a feature for Ars Technica on the dysfunctional online copyright landscape. The piece was personal. My photographs aver

Whales on the Wrong Side of the World
phenomena.nationalgeographic.com

In May 2010, a whale showed up on the wrong side of the world. A team of marine biologists was conducting a survey off the coast of Israel w

PolyClock™ World Clock - Android Apps on Google Play
market.android.com

The world-class world clock. Day, night, and timezones at a glance on digital & analog clocks, map and globe. Timezone troubles solved with

Manual Camera
market.android.com

Limited time offer! 50% off - only till the end of January!Important: This app takes full advantage of Lollipop's Camera2 API, and therefore

AMOLED Burn-in Fixer
market.android.com

"Burn-in" is caused by an uneven wear on the screen and can only be reversed when the uneven portions are worn like the rest of the screen.B

Beyond the trinkets: Voxel8 shows 3D electronics printer
techxplore.com

Beyond plastic angel paperweights and keychain elves, how complex can complex be in today's output from 3D printers? Voxel8 says they have t

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/41820/title/Molecu...
www.the-scientist.com

Researchers identify a network that includes many genes previously linked to autism spectrum disorders.

All You Need to Know About the 'Learning Styles' Myth, in Two Minutes | ...
www.wired.com

The myth of preferred learning styles states that people learn better when they are taught in a way that matches their preferred style. Yet

My Maps
market.android.com

Create your own custom maps with Google My Maps to * Plan a vacation * Find an apartment * Make a map of bird sightings in your area Also wo

My Tracks
market.android.com

My Tracks records your path, speed, distance, and elevation while you walk, run, bike, or do anything else outdoors. While recording, you ca

Never Buy a Phone Again | WIRED
www.wired.com

Don’t buy another phone ever again. That’s a weird thing for us to say, right? We’re WIRED! But by the end of last year, it was fancy-ice cl

LocalCast for Chromecast/DLNA
market.android.com

LocalCast is the number one casting solution on Android with over 1,000,000 (mostly) happy users.Cast/Stream videos, music or pictures FROM

Competitive Synchronized Swimming in Mouse Sperm
hmcbee.blogspot.com

Competition in the natural world is not a novel concept. It is well-studied in biology, and well-televised by Discovery Channel. The first k

Hangouts Dialer
market.android.com

Ahora puedes llamar a cualquier número de teléfono del mundo desde la aplicación Hangouts. Descarga e instala Hangouts Dialer para activar l