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THE THREE GODS OF MONOTHEISM - ADEL S. BISHTAWI
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Our research includes a tool unavaliable to other researchers - Primary Applied Etymology of Ancient Arabian known in coomonstream writing as "Proto-Semitic". Windows have been opened on the ancient world and are you invited to see
Our research includes a tool unavaliable to other researchers - Primary Applied Etymology of Ancient Arabian known in coomonstream writing as "Proto-Semitic". Windows have been opened on the ancient world and are you invited to see

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Hi everybody!

I would like to tell you that I am not dead, yet, and I am not neglecting updates or additional posts. My continuous research of Stone Age speech has unveiled significant mysteries which I am researching thoroughly before submitting my findings to you ASP. I promise you some of them will be thrilling. Additionally, I have identified Stone Age Origins of Hindi and I can tell you original Hindi is probably several thousand years older than the oldest European languages. As a matter of fact I have been always surprised at why do millions of Arabs think they know Hindi when they don't but now I understand why. The lingual biliteral rhythm of Hindi and dialectal Arabic is very close and most of the 450 or so Stone Age biliteral roots are the same with the expected letter substitutions of "p" and "g". A large amount of authentic, new research is coming your way.
Meanwhile I wish all of you the best.
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Time of Reckoning
WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (7 and last - thankuflly)

Destiny
One of the Quran's suras (chapters) is Al Qadar. In it 'laylat al Qadar' "the night of destiny". The suggestion is that the chosen ones may be privileged during this night to see their destiny or wish for a better one. The night is restricted to people with deep devotion.

The word looks from Akkadian with the 'q' substituted for 'k':
kudurru (2): [Country] a boundary, a boundary stone / mark, territorial limits;
kudurru*: [Legal] boundary stone;
kudurru B: [Legal] forced labour.

Marduk's symbol, the (triangular) spade, on top of a temple, as seen on the side of a kudurru TT  at the British Museum. The relief probably dates to the late 12th century BCE.

(kudurru: "A large stone bearing an inscription concerning a land grant or sale. Kudurrus are known in Southern Mesopotamia from the Kassite period until around the seventh century BCE. Symbols of the deities who assured the transaction are carved onto the kudurru, occasionally with an identifying inscription. These named symbols are an invaluable source for identifying divine iconography."
http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/technicalterms/index.html


Time of Reckoning
How is one to interpret all this and loads more?

1- To suggest that Marduk is the origin of the concept of the supreme god not just for Babylonians but also for the adherents of the three monotheistic religions? To suggest that some of the pillars of the three religions are anchored in Sumeria and Babylon with Marduk the principle or one of the principal deified cloning?

2- The better way for the three religions is to claim origination by means of faith or belief. Attempts at historical origination should cease and accept what people are told maybe no more than modified versions of stories told hundreds or thousands of years before their books became available.

3- One may choose to reason in a way similar to this:

Etymologically, the Adites can claim the legacy created when in the Stone Age they identified a supreme god and named Him/Her*IL. It is their word with their hamza trade mark. IL is the origin of Elohim, Eli and Allah. Not until Primary Applied Etymology was refined confirmation was possible that*IL is the Stone Age root origin of three names.

IL is a gentle God. The Adites accepted that he was first; that he rules the skies and they rule earth. He's a merciful god, a civilized god, a loving god, an honest god. Some of these attributes of IL are in the extensions of the root.

If one can say this is the bright side of god, one can find in the books of the three religions attributes that support this conclusion. Marduk is this and the other side, the dark side, if that's possible to claim.

There is no "dark side" in the original Stone Age IL so where did it come from?

Maybe it is useful to remember that Mesopotamia allowed religions to thrive because it had the first walled cities and huge temples but IL's religion was already mature when it arrived in Mesopotamia.

The Sumerians of southern Iraq didn't come from Mars and their civilisation is not an isolate. The English word civilisation doesn't reveal the original meaning of the word. 'Ḥaḏara' "civilisation" in Arabic is corrupted with wrong dotting. The original trilateral is Ḥaṣar (ṣ is similar to the sound of 's' in "sub") from the root*ṢR. One of the meanings of this root is "a pouch" because old pouches were made by joining the end of the hand or leg of an animal tightly. The trilateral means "to surround, to encircle". This may make it clear civilisation began with the contained or walled cities.

Etymological support to the maturity of religions and early civilisation looks convincing. The language called in commonstream literature "Proto-Semitic" is a fully mature language containing the principal five linguistic structures. Akkad is a unique structure and can be older that trilaterals like Šur = Assure = Assyria. However, trilaterals were the last linguistic structure to be invented to serve the communicative needs of the Agrarian Era.

The Agrarian era did not eliminate famines but reduced them. It was a time of plenty because of cereal harvest but it was a time of plenty of killing. Somebody claimed that 10% of the remains of human corpses from the Agrarian Era appear to have been violently killed.

The savage A'ad campaign against the Adites traumatized this gentle, civilized nation. They had a good life in south east Arabia. The war exposed a side to human beings the Adites do not appear to have known before. Nature can be violent but human violence is astonishing. Animals kill each other but they don't skin each other alive. They don't burn them or bury them alive.

There are a number of versions of the history of Mesopotamia. The version that fits the etymological analysis is that some but not all Sumerians invited the Amorites to help them sustain their empire which was crumbling. There are stories of Sumerians providing Amorites with chariots and weapons.

Civilisation was not universal. The poor and greedy from east and north wanted a share. As in Rome, the barbarians had the upper hand and became the destroyers of civilisations.

Whether it is Ad, the great father of most of humanity, his sons Mur and Tay, Sin-Muballit, his son Hammurabi and the other numerous tribes of Ad, the world around them was dark and violent. Power was the god truly worshipped by the men of the walled cities.

There was no need to cancel IL and invent a new god fit for a different world with a human dark side. The attributes of the most ancient God IL were modified. To fight violence He must be more powerful than any human king or emperor or nation.

To place kings and emperors under his rule, He must be the king of kings, the emperor of emperors, the only One who is supreme way above the supremacy of earthlings. These attributes needed to make people fear God. To achieve that, every single human being must submit to the will of the Supreme God. If they are all submissive, they are all equal before God and amongst themselves.

Ad triumphed when Hammurabi was emperor and IL triumphed with him because his name was in the main temple E-sag-il. Justice and equality are not just in the culture of the Adites but in their language.

Hammurabi's legacy was reversed in later times but not completely.

Judaism adopted IL as the supreme God and later Christianity. Mohammad, the distant grandson of Ad, restored Ad's religious legacy in Arabia and beyond.

For the Adites IL had to change in order to deal with the dark side of human beings. New concepts were needed. Concepts like resurrection and Day of Judgment. If the violent and wrong doers can escape punishment during their lifetime, they would be punished even after they die. Death thought to be the end of everything before ceased to be that. The change is not total. Like humans, IL was given another face to be watched by the violent and powerful. Others who want to look at his kind face do not have to look too far to see it.

If the idea is complex it may not be true. If the question is complex one shouldn't expect a simple answer. The question people may want to ask themselves is: Is IL good or bad?

There are no known religious books by Adites. Those came later. For an Adite to have an audience with IL he can just step outside and look at the sky. Many thousands of years later, people in Arabia did just that. They don't need a mosque to pray. They don’t need interpreters. They don't need religious authorities. If they have a prayer rug they can spread it anywhere reasonable and pray. If they don't they can pray without. They have to wash but if water is not available they can have a mock wash with sand.

There is no Exodus. So what?
The story of the flood is ancient Mesopotamian. So what?
Marduk had powers attributed to Allah. So what? 

The most important element in religions is the God. IL's identification appears to have been done over a long time by watching the skies. Our children may one day in the future discover we've been worshipping the wrong god all along. Until that happens, if it happens, most people should be satisfied with IL. He's a good God.

Ad the nomad would have been be very pleased today. More than half the population of the world worship his IL. However, Ad or his people may have left us a coded message. One of the most intriguing words in Arabic is 'oud' (عود) identified by Primary Applied Etymology as Ad's prefixed specifier extension, the linguistic structure favoured by priests. This word is telling those can read it correctly that Ad is coming back and there will be cheering and rejoicing when he does.

Image: An artist's Doomsday. Inset is Ad or Adad with his weapon of brilliance
www.mesopotamiangods.com
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Origin of angel, Injeel, Torah, Talmud, etc. are in this post 
WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (6)

Historians who spent precious time attempting to find roots of immediate Islam in Yemen or southern Syria (Basra) may have looked in the wrong places. The advice of this writer to all researchers interested in Arabia, ancient Arabian language and Islam is to read Lisan Al Arab, the 13th century most comprehensive Arabic dictionary.

An entry quotes a prominent member of Qureish tribe, Mohammed's tribe, that they came originally from Kutha (Cutha), an ancient city 40 KM northeast of Babylon. The city, originally Sumeria, was the centre of worship of Nergal. Several important words in the Quran are Sumerian and mostly via Akkadian.

Ignoring Arabia would be a big mistake but tracing some of the major concepts in the Quran may lead the researcher to Babylon. The identification of critical words in eastern Christianity and Judaism as Sumerian via Akkadian or Akkadian may provide the researching hand with three initial birds not just one.

This became clear when *IL was identified an Adite root of Elohim, Eli and Allah. Angel, Injeel (the New Testament in Arabic), jal jalaluh, a style of Allah, and Nergal share the same Sumerian root gal.

Of Akkadian origin:

Torah (Adite root *Rʼ, "to see"): warû (2): [Transport] 1) to guide, to lead, to conduct, to show the way 2) G (u/u; imperative: [ru]; [uru],: [ri]): to lead, to conduct 3) (ventive): to fetch, to go for, to bring 4) Gtn: to guide, to steer, to show the way, to administer, to manage, to raise (children), to bring up (children) 5) Gt: to lead away for good 6) Š: to conduct, to direct (person, animal, boat...);

Talmud (Adite or A'adite root *LM "gather, group"):
talmīdu: 1) a school boy, a pupil, a student, a disciple, an apprentice; feminine: talmittu; 2): a kind of plough;
talmittu: [Education]: a female apprentice, a student / a pupil; masculine: talmīdu;

NEVI'IM (The Prophets):
nabû (From an Adite root *NB "plants that stand up, protrusion, elevated, distinguished himself/herself; found in Arabic 'nabi' "prophet"): G. to name (+2 acc.); to invoke (a god); to nominate; to decree, ordain D. to lament, wail Š. to cause to proclaim N. to be named; to be appointed, called upon

Resurrection
The concept of resurrection in religions was established before Hammurabi published his Code. His father was Sin-Muballit the fifth Amorite king of the first dynasty. Balāṭu in Akkadian is "life". An extension of the word is balluṭu: revived, reanimated, resurrected / restored to life.

Sin the Akkadian is the Sumerian Nanna, god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology. The two seats of worship of the moon god were Ur in southern of Mesopotamia and Harran. Sin is described in the commonstream literature as "Semitic moon god Su'en/Sin". This is like saying Luna was a Latin moon goddess.

Sin means 'tooth'. People didn't smoke in prehistoric times so their teeth were supposed to be white. Age was assessed according to the growth number of teeth. 'Sana' in Arabic is "year" from the same root *SN. The root is directly linked to the act of giving birth to human babies *NS. From this root is 'nasl' "offspring", 'nisa' "women", 'insan' "human being" as opposed to animals.

Muballit appears to be the subject or agent "the resurrector" Sin. 

Doomsday
Doomsday or the Day of Judgement in the Quran is the day of resurrection (yum al baath - IPA bʻ ṯ, Roum 56 twice mentioned), that is when all human beings, some 100 billion according to some, are supposed to be resurrected to be judged. Another name of Doomsday is yum al deen. Deen is Sumerian "din_gir". 

50. U-dimmer-an-kia  En-dinger-an-kia Marduk  Merodach as "lord god of heaven and earth."
http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/rbaa.htm

The concept in Akkadian is mathematical: good deeds - bad deeds =? The word is nikkassu [NÍG.KA:] [Trade] account, property, possessions, wealth, funds, assets, statement of account [nikkassu šasā ' um]: to claim settlement of accounts: [nikkassu epē/āšu]: to balance accounts, to break even: [nikkassu ṣabātu]: to balance accounts, to break even [ina nikkassu šakānu]: to submit to accounting, to make something available for accounting [ina nikkassu]: at the time of accounting [rab nikkassu]: chief accountant, comptroller, administrator of property [bīt nikkassu]: counting house (Elam): result of calculation 2): [GIŠ.NÍG.KA9]: an emblem of Shamash [ūm epēš nikkassi]: the day of Judgement, Doomsday.

Nikkassu appears to be from the Yemeni root *GṢ with a category involving cement-like outside layers on mud or stone walls and white wash. *GṢ is the act of crushing white stones to produce the white wash material but used by northern Arabian with a 'q' substitution to mean "cut". Cutting hands is a punishment hence 'qaṣaṣ'. 'nGaṢ' is "subtract'. However if there's consensus by speakers to mean the above it should mean just that.

Balancing accounts is a mathematical process of addition and subtraction. The day of accounts could be the end of the financial year when loss or profit is certified. The Day of Accounts in Islam is Doomsday or the day of Judgment - youm al Hissab (Ṣad 26, 53; Gafer 27).

Ṭupšīmātu 
The "Louh mahfouth" (Lawḥ Maḥfōẓ), Burouj 22, is a record of everything or a record of destiny. This 'protected board' is Akkadian: ṭupšīmātu: [Religion → Myths] tablet of destiny / fate (where each one's lot is already written).

In Mesopotamian mythology, the Tablet of Destinies (Sumerian: Dup Shimati); was envisaged as a clay tablet inscribed with cuneiform writing, also impressed with cylinder seals, which, as a permanent legal document, conferred upon the god Enlil his supreme authority as ruler of the universe.

In the Sumerian poem Ninurta and the Turtle it is the god Enki, rather than Enlil, who holds the tablet. Both this poem and the Akkadian Anzû poem share concern of the theft of the tablet by the bird Imdugud (Sumerian) or Anzû (Akkadian). Supposedly, whoever possessed the tablet ruled the universe.

In the Babylonian Enuma Elish, Tiamat bestows this tablet on Kingu and gives him command of her army. Marduk, the chosen champion of the gods, then fights and destroys Tiamat and her army. Marduk reclaims the Tablet of Destinies for himself, thereby strengthening his rule among the gods and becomes ruler of the universe.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablet_of_Destinies_%28mythic_item%29

Image: www.angelministriesfl.org - Ancient Arabians believed angels are the daughters of God.
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WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (5)

Gods are as complex as the men who created them. They start with an idea, a realization or a need that can be pain unrelieved, a childless woman or a boy who tried everything but his desired girl continues to reject his advances.

Gods move along with the men serving them and they grow together as the communities that adopted them grow. The group that needed a god became a clan, the clan a tribe, the tribe a nation, the nation a multi-nation kingdom then an empire.

From being the protector of the clan in a small encampment gods become the protectors of walled cities and the lands controlled by men of the walled cities. Along with the soldiers of the invading armies the soldiers of the gods go and implant their little shrines. With time the shrines become temples and temples a complex of buildings with many gods.

Like tribal chieftains and kings, gods mature with time and they take up the ranks of men who serve them and those who elevate them to elevate themselves with them. Following the structure of the state of walled cities, gods are appointed to rule the sky, the countryside, the sea, the ocean, the wind, the ground and the underground. Civilisations thrived in walled cities with discipline, innovation, creativity, arts, philosophy and humanities. Each branch may have a god and a god may be assigned to contrasts such as belief and reason.

Men who rule the city would want to rule the country, the other countries around it and the world. Gods become as ambitious as the kings. They would have assemblies, and like men, they may quarrel and fight over power or beautiful girls of earthlings. And like the man who becomes king of kings and emperor of emperors, a god may become the king of all gods. He will rule the heaven and earth supreme. He can send people to their death and resurrect them, be compassionate and ruthless, bring prosperity and abundance and poverty and famines.

Men and women worship the gods but no two believers worship the same. The qualities and attributes of the gods can be understood differently. These can be many. Some worshippers may like the gods because they are merciful, others because they are strict and yet others because they are shining light and yet more because they are fire and brimstone.


Institutionalized
Five thousand years ago the religions were institutionalized and turned to industries and centres of power and powerful tools for the state. The first high priests ran the city from their temple. Food, wine and beer collected from those who sought the favours of the gods were stored in temple warehouses and distributed to those who swore allegiance to the priests promising to help and protect. High priests hoarded gold and silver and used both to buy chariots and arms and pay mercenaries who protected their temples, power and brought in more gold and silver.

The books of the gods grew in size and complexity and some were coded. Not far from the circle of power a new circle of religious interpreters worked to help both power and themselves.

Each of us can speak best of religions we know best. In certain passages of the Quran some interpreters appear to have read the Quranic passage and interpreted the relevant passage in the Torah. In Mecca, Medina, Basra, Kura, Baghdad and other centres of learning, this circle became super influential.

Some used the texts of the Quran to instate or remove from power. Some had their own armies of followers sometimes directed at the guards of kings and sometimes at the followers of their religious rivals. The key to courts, governorates, princedoms, senior official positions, wealth, property, multiple wives and unchallenged authority and immunity was their perceived knowledge of the Quran, a relatively small book compared to the Bible.

Because the interpreters are one circle it is often found that each is praising the other before him and, on occasions, repeating his same words. Like kings, they distribute ranks and reverences. Interpreters, who failed to give the right meaning of the most common words, confused one verse for another or invented interpretations that have no connection to the holy texts are called "the learned man of the nation", "the leader of people" and "the one who Allah may be pleased with". Some religious books have the description "the correct one" on its cover. Others are described as the books approved by the 'umma', the nation of Islam.

Sustained exposure to such interpretations created internalized, but false, conviction that the sanctity of the holy text extends to the texts of the interpreters. Adjustments and additions may overall create an image of God different from that presented by the religious book.

Priesthood sent out of the door of Islam returned through the window of interpretations and fiqh, a vague and over-exhausted term that may mean deep knowledge of Islam but etymology is not convinced. The 'q' appears to have been substituted for 'g', a Yemeni letter.

There are different religions and different times and different religious industries but they all have more similarities than differences. Marduk as god won the gratitude of other gods who bestowed 50 names upon him and selected him to be their king. Other gods have almost double the number of names.

High priests need to give no reason for inventing more names than people need or remember, so it is not very helpful to ask why a god needs a hundred names. Many priests have added new virtues and powers to their god. Some of these attributes may be original, others may be virtues and powers ascribed before him to other gods but changed or exaggerated to look different.

Primary Applied Etymology can tell Marduk the god of gods is Mur or Mar the son of Ad. No matter how many letters a word or a name may have one two-letter root or two different two-letter roots should be identified. That's if they are Ancient Arabian, or "Semitic" in the commonstream of literature.

Mur/Mar the man had a legacy to claim but becoming god is not one of them. His father, Ad, was hunted down by his merciless Yemeni enemies and their allies most of his life. Many of Ad's followers, Mur's cousins, were killed. One word derived from Ad or the name of his tribe is 'wa'd' "to bury alive".

The tribe of Ad identified in the Stone Age a beautiful, kind and just god. There was no linguistic gender at the time and both males and females were known by a single word MRʻ. The Adites, the people of Ad represented by the Amorites, established an empire in Mesopotamia but they couldn't return home. Ad appears to have been a founder of the city of Eridu or linked closely to it because it bears his name: "Er' "earth, land", 'Id' "Ad". He appears to be Adapa the wise.

If one studies some of extensions of Ad and *IL, the root origin of Elohim, Eli and Allah, one may conclude they reflect the good side of humanity. Ad's enemies, the A'adites or Yemenis or early Assyrians, were fearless, ruthless and intent on wiping out their challengers.

The establishment of the empire in Babylonia created some balance of power but the Yemenis remained powerful and dangerous. They had many allies and their control of Arabia was unchallenged and would remain so until their power was crushed in 525 AD. Yemen never recovered fully. The power structure in Arabia was radically changed. Knowledge and wealth moved north to Mecca, Medina and Najd.

Islam was viewed as the super glue that can unite the thousand tribes of Arabia. Mohammad may have realised that religion unite people. Following the middle path can attract both sides on the right and left. Islam is neither revolutionary nor pretends to be so. Mohammad had as much a claim to Ad's historical religious and humanistic legacy as Ad's son Mur because Ad is his forefather.

There was no time. The tribes of Arabia had to be unified because the threats from its two giant neighbours, Persia and Byzantium, increased and moves were taken by Byzantium to cut off the trade routes, the provider of 90% of the income of Arabians.

Islam was adopted by some and forced on others. Aware that the success of the Islam cannot be complete without bringing in the Yemenis to its fold, he praised them excessively and used in his daily speech words of Yemeni origin with their distinctive hard 'g'. In one Hadith it is claimed he said, "I am Yemeni".

Image: Flower of Life in Egypt.
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WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (4)

An eminent and independently minded Christian scholar wrote that 5.500 years ago, a migration from the Arabian Peninsula forked at the Sinaitic peninsula to the fertile valley of the Nile and planted itself on top of the earlier Hamitic population of Egypt, and the amalgamation produced the Egyptians of history. These Egyptians laid down so many of the basic elements in our civlisation. It was they who first built stone structures and developed a solar calendar” (Philip Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th Edition, 1974, p. 10).


Around 4,500 years ago the Babylonians (first called Akkadians after their capital Akkad, Agade) and the Assyrians settled in the Tigris-Euphrates valley. After that date the Amorites and Canaanites (including the Phoenicians) began to settle in greater Syria which includes Palestine (Hitti, p. 9).

It is believed the Amorites were the dominant nation in Najd at the time. Why did the Canaanite accompanied the Amorites is not clear. The answer may lie in their name _ Canaanite_. The word is an extension of the famous Yemeni root *KN. The original meaning of the root is linked to the home of married people. It is a place where they live according to known rules. One of the meanings of the word is "to snuggle in". The act of snuggling would suggest nestling, curling up, huddling, ensconce oneself, lie close, etc.

The act was applied metaphorically to worshipping the one great God IL. This God is not Ra. He doesn't rule with fear and He doesn't expect human beings to worship him whether they like it or not. Islam in some ways is very close to Canaanite's perception of God but the act of worshipping Allah is not "snuggling in" but total submission.

The Amorites are a tribe of the nation of Ad. The Adites identified IL and worshipped Him. The tenets or principles of IL's worship are not clear.  However, extensions from his name refer to children as "a gift" from God. Another extension, "wa'l" has a number of meanings including "appointees, agents, entrusted to do something". Girls in Arabic are sometimes called 'walaya'. The word seems to mean "agents" and by implication agents of god, probably because of their gift to give life when they give birth to babies.

Sufficient etymological proof confirms the Adites were civilized, gentle people so the god they envisaged was civilized and gentle like them.

The relationship between Amorites and Canaanites was more of an ancient alliance that started with Ad. At the time the Canaanites were known as the Sum. A group of Sum may have helped Ad escape to southern Mesopotamia when the A'adites invaded his home.

The pressing reason for the Canaanites' departure may have been related to the intervention by Yemenis in a quarrel they had with their sister tribe Jadees in their joint homeland in Najd. The Yemenis exterminated all men of Jadees and took women and children as booty. The Canaanites, represented by the tribe of Tassam may have been blamed for the massacre and they found it appropriate to leave.

The name Amorite is in Akkadian:
 
amurru [Sum. MAR.TU: ] [Humanities → Geography → Countries] 1) (divine name); 2) West, the country situated West (Aram / Syria); 3): the Amorites; abi amurru: a prince, a sheikh [AD.DA.MAR.TU: ]; rabi amurru: (a high-ranking official); ṭupšar amurru: an Amorite scribe; 4): the wind from the West / western wind, West: [IM.MAR.TU: ] / also [IM.KUR.MAR: ]; astronomy: IM.₄; 5): [MUL.MAR.TU: ]: (western star) / Perseus.
Variants include amurrû and amurrānu
 
It is not clear why Amurru, a name of a man, should mean west. The Akkadian for west is erbu as in ereb šamši : the sunset. The full explanation of erēbu is: G. to enter, go in (+ana), come in (+vent.); to arrive; to set (sun) D. to record sth. on a tablet (+ana) Š. to introduce s.o.; to station (troops); to bring in, import; to send in (a letter).
Akkadian doesn't have a letter for ayn (‛) and it is often represented by an 'e'. An Arab in Akkadian is arbāiu : [Humanities → Geography → Countries] an Arab, Arab (adjective).

The letter 'a' at the beginning is ayn. The difference between west and Arab is not significant. The Amorites became masters of Mesopotamia and they may have found it suitable to use the name of the founder Mur. However, though one race, regionality comes usually first- Moroccans, Libyans, Egyptians, Palestinians, etc. All tribes know each other and they know their origins.
The Sumerians cannot be blamed for the failure to identify Mur/Mar with Marduk. The name Mar is the correct vocalisation. Amurru is a variant, nothing more.

Marduk became a great god in Mesopotamia. The interest of historians to know the origin of this god is important but they have not been looking in the right paces: 

Leonard W. King in The Seven Tablets of Creation (1902) included fragments of god lists which he considered essential for the reconstruction of the meaning of Marduk's name. Franz Bohl in his 1936 study of the fifty names (of Marduk) also referred to King's list. Richard Litke (1958) noticed a similarity between Marduk's names in the An: Anum list and those of the Enuma elish, albeit in a different arrangement.

Wikipedia, which provided the above paragraph, quotes that Marduk's original character is "obscure". To historians, maybe. But had he not existed, half the Arabs would have been orphaned immaturely, and so, probably, half Europeans most of whom appear to be descendants of Ad, whitish like him, with a bigger body build.

Some of his Ad's children are huge. These belong to the Tay tribe are the 'Amalek' (giants) of the bible. The Israelites were exaggerating but not too much. One known Tai gentleman goes by the name "tower".

Mesopotamian priests left a book of prayer to Marduk described as "the first comprehensive study of Babylonian prayers dedicated to Marduk, the god of Babylon, since J. Hehn's essay Hymnen und Gebete an Marduk (1905)."

Marduk was Babylon's god and later the most important god in Babylonia from the time of Hammurabi onwards. Takayoshi Oshima presents in his an up-to-date catalog of all known Babylonian prayers dedicated to Marduk from different historical periods. He offers critical editions of 31 ancient texts based on newly identified manuscripts and a collation of the previously published manuscripts. The author also discusses various aspects of Akkadian prayers to different deities and the ancient belief in the mechanism of punishment and redemption by Marduk.

https://books.google.com.mt/books/about/Babylonian_Prayers_to_Marduk.html?id=HQZM5Q3eKAQC&hl=en

"Marduk was said to be one of the most complex gods in ancient Mesopotamia."Although the spelling of Marduk's name appears to affiliate him with the sun god Utu/Šamaš, there is no evidence that he was ever considered to be the sun god's son (Sommerfeld 1982: 11). On the contrary, tradition identifies Marduk as Enki/Ea's son, clearly affiliating him with the pantheon of Eridu."
http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu/amgg/listofdeities/marduk/index.html

Image: Marduk's symbol animal, the mušḫuššu or "snake-dragon" at the Detroit Institute of Arts. This is a glazed brick relief from the city of Babylon itself, dating to the Neo-Babylonian period. Inset is Marduk's symbol, the (triangular) spade, on top of a temple, as seen on the side of a kudurru TT  at the British Museum. The relief probably dates to the late 12th century BCE. BM ME 102485.
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Origins of the names Mar/Mur, Amorite, Adam and Eve are in this post
WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (3)

Mesopotamians hailed Marduk Lord, God of the Universe, Golden Calf of the Sun, Son of the creator God, Enki, Most beloved God, hero of the gods and the people and Slayer of Tiamat, the mighty dragon and symbol of the chaos of primordial creation and threat to gods and humanity.

Before Marduk of the 50 names given to him by the gods, and crowned by them God king over all gods and men, Marduk the God of all Gods was a man, mortal like all other men, and son of a man and woman, like all other men and women.

History and myth know Marduk, the supreme God of Heaven and Earth, but they do not the man. Too many names for him existed in too many forms spelled in too many different ways:

- Logographic spellings include: AMAR.UD/UTU, dAMAR.UD/UTU, dAMAR.UD/UTU.KAM, dAMAR.UD/UTU.KÁM,dDUMU.Ú.TUK, dŠÀ.ZU, dMES, dTUŠ.A(?), dŠÚ, dKU, dEN;
- Syllabic spellings include: ma-ru-tu-uk, dma-ru-tu-uk-ku, ma-ru-tu-UD, dmar-duk;
- The constellation Marduk was spelled: mulAMAR.UD/UTU or mul.dAMAR.UD/UTU;
- Normalized Forms include: Marduk, Martuk, Merodach (Biblical Hebrew), Mardochaios (Greek), Mĕrôdāk (Masoretic Hebrew), Marōdak (Septuagint); Bel (only for logographic spelling dEN)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOFIOtEn26w

The story of Marduk the man may have started with his father and mother. Both were living in an oasis in south East Arabia that bears his name to this very day - Adam in the Governorate of Dakhilia of Oman. At one time the oasis had 24 subterranean streams.

Water is life so life was as abundant as the water. His father's small clan knew water as *H’, a two letter very ancient root invented by their forefathers. When they needed to identify things nourished to life by water they added a letter to this two letter root. 'Hay' was born out of the linguistic womb of *H’ and understood by the clan to mean "alive". 'Hayya' was another linguistic baby of mother *H’ and it meant "serpent". The speed of serpents, their elegant slithering and their elasticity fascinated Adam and his clan. They regarded it as a symbol of the moving life.
Who besides water is a giver of life?

'Hawwa' was begotten from *H’: and became "Eve".

Adam's original name is a two-letter word Ad. This great man stands near the top of the ancient Arabian genealogical ladder. Words extracted from his root name are in the dozens in Akkadian, Arabian and Arabic. Adam has more than 300 occurrences in Lisan Al Arab, the 12th century AD most comprehensive dictionary with more than three million words. Adam is a linguistic child of mother root *AD (’D), with a third letter 'm' added. Ad's name has some 30 occurrences in the same dictionary.

Eve was the eternal mother of all of us. Adam, one of us, married Dallah, a girl of noted femininity according to the etymology of her name. She gave him two sons one of them is Mur or Murrah. Dallah died young, like many people during her time, and he married her sister Madallah who gave him two more sons Malik and Tay. "Then Ad perished. Madallah refused to remarry preferring instead to look after her two sons" (Lisan Al Arab, Thahj - IPA ḏḥj).

Genealogy for ancient Arabian was a "science" because knowing tribal lineage and history is vital for claiming the name, the ancestral land and herds of camels, cattle or sheep. However, acceptance of oral genealogy is limited to ancient Arabian names. Some names listed on top of ancient Arabian names in some genealogical tables appear to be Hebrew. These are rejected. The very purpose of genealogy to authenticate claims to land and herds became a medium of falsifying genealogy to lay claims to land, herds and lineage of leaders and Prophets.

Some religious books may look like novels that claim to be based on actual people and facts but real names and locations are withheld and clones are presented. It is sometimes easy to differentiate between reality and fiction. If they are presented jointly, it may be impossible to determine what is factual and what fiction is. The quality of such literary meals may depend on the credibility of ingredients. Credibility does not have to be factual or actual but simply "believable". One can make one big jump and everything becomes real. This is what belief is mostly about.

Mur, Murrah, Mar, Amar, Martuk, Marduk, Merodach, Mĕrôdāk, Mardochaios, etc., are different names of one person who is the son of Ad, Adad, Hadad, etc., himself a great god of Mesopotamia and beyond.
Most ancient Arabian names, and contemporary Arab names, must have a bilateral root. Proper nouns were not a need for ancient people. They were few and they knew each other. The first generation of words were needed to express essential things for life like water, food, animals, danger, home, etc.

During famine people tried to eat anything they can chew. Some of things tried were found to be of unusual taste. Beer (jiaa from a root that means hunger) was fine but others were harmful. If collected and brought to the encampment they should be thrown away. To identify this type of plans they created a word for them *MR (Mur) "bitter".

The word can be used metaphorically as in "a bitter enemy". The same applies to Arabian and later to Arabic. Naming rules apply to all names except the very few who attain greatness. Only the respect and conviction of the speakers may open the door of their store of vocabulary for distinction.

However in certain cases the leader of a large tribe manages to distinguish himself. His name will be favourite for all boys and sometimes girls if they are the type that can be made feminine with the suffix 't'.

Ad heads the list with probably the largest linguistic cluster in any language. His two sons, Tay and Mur, take the second place easily. A third is Houd, a famous Prophet in southern Arabia who lived some 4,000 years ago. Jews in Yemen appear to have followed Houd's religion and adopted his name Yahoud "Jews". Judaism in Arabic is known as Yahoudiah, after Houd.

The fifth distinguished person is Gad, the leader of an A'adite clan linked to igniting the flames of the Agrarian Era with the help of his clan and groups of Sums, the origins of Canaanites and Sumerians.

Adites are named so because they are the children of the founder of the tribe Ad or Adad. *AD is a proper noun but it is also an organic communicative root with many extensions derived from his name in both Akkadian and Arabian.

Dozens of classical genealogical Arabic works relate Prophet Mohammad to Ad but the listed Ad is not the ultimate founder of the tribe. The Adites are scores of thousands of years old. Like the Ramses (touched by god Ra) dynasty in Egypt, the original founder's descendants would acquire the titles of founder and the name to create solid legitimacy for their rule.

A'adites have the same tribal structure. They are named so because they are the children of the founder. A'ad, who appears to have been killed by Ad some 7,400 years ago, is a descendent of the first A'ad. His followers are also known as the people of A'ad noted in the Quran as A'aad.

A'aad was blasted in the Muslims' Holy Book and the name now refers to an extinct nation. That's not true. They are simply known by another ancient name Yemenis, but they are mostly descendants of A'ad.

Ad's children follow the same tribal system. The Tayite are the children of Tai. His other son, Mur, is the founder and leader of his own tribe. The tribe today is more of a nation than a tribe with several huge tribal units. Some are known as 'Al Mari', "the family of Mar". Another large tribe is Al Marri, "the Marite".

These are the Amorites.
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Origin of the name Marduk the supreme god of Mesopotamia is in this post
WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (2) 

Scholar, archaeologists, historians and theologians have suggested 50 names or titles for Marduk none on which is correct. Scores more are still trying to reconstruct the famous name and the author of Babylonian Prayers to Marduk is not sure about the origin of the name or the identity of its holder.

How can that be?

Will it make a difference to all those concerned if it is ¬¬_Mu_rduk, as in A_mu_rru, not Marduk?

Several important translations of the Code of Hammurabi exist and interpretations and commentaries on various aspects of the Code are countless. Some writers provided background to the Code but many are waiting for more information to understand the historical, social and religious contexts of the Code and what possible reasons prompted Hammurabi to compile the laws and distribute copies in his land.

Work is still needed to shed better light on the man and his time so it is important to know when he was declared king. Earlier historians assigned 2342 BC as the year of his accession. Others have suggested his reign was between 2130-2088 BC, 2121-2066 BC or 1990- 1950 BC. More recent suggestions indicate to 1810 BC as his birth date, 1750 BC for his death and 1792-1750 BC for his reign of 42 years.

Clearly there seems to be a problem here. Can’t any of the contemporary stelae of the Code be carbon dated or is this a silly question? If he died in 1750 it means he lived for 60 years. His term was for 42 years so he became king when he was 18 years old. The year 2342 was specified in earlier suggestions as the year of his accession meaning he was born in 2360 BC. The difference between this date and the more recent suggestion of his birth in 1810 is 550 years.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammurabi

There's something wrong here. Certain concepts in the Code were used in religious books. Religions are built usually on belief. Belief is not dependent on history. However, certain stories in religious books determine time, and therefore appear to provide a dated history.

This is risky and potentially backfiring business.

In cases were certain tablets or artefacts are carbon-dated, conflict may arise and discrepancies emerge. The historicity of the Bible is the question of its "acceptability as a history," in the phrase of Thomas L. Thompson, a scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old Testament" Thompson, Thomas L. (2014). Biblical Narrative and Palestine's History: Changing Perspectives 2. Routledge, p. 164).
 But see here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historicity_of_the_Bible#cite_note-FOOTNOTEThompson2014164-1

It is mostly commonstream literature so Wikipedia is as good as any:

The oldest surviving Hebrew Bible manuscripts - including the Dead Sea Scrolls - date to about the 2nd century BCE (fragmentary) and some are stored at the Shrine of the Book in Jerusalem. The oldest extant complete text survives in a Greek translation called the Septuagint, dating to the 4th century CE (Codex Sinaiticus). The oldest extant manuscripts of the vocalized Masoretic Text (the basis of modern editions), date to the 9th century CE.[1] With the exception of a few biblical sections in the Prophets, virtually no biblical text is contemporaneous with the events it describes.[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dating_the_Bible

Still not close enough to Hammurabi's time and Code but much closer. Hammurabi, then, appears to be first and probably it is time to give up, return to belief and leave historicity to real, provable history.  

From an earlier article we learn that Babylonia in Hammurabi's time was under a condition of vassalage to neighbouring Elam. A decade or more into his reign he defeated the king of Elam and freed Babylonia. Successive victories gave him the chance to claim the title of king of Sumeria and Akkad. "Towards the end of his life he had knit together into a mighty empire of north and south Babylonia, and very likely extended his sway, at least nominally, over the land of Amurru as far as Canaan."
http://newadvent.org/cathen/07125a.htm

The word Akkad in the text is problematic but that's for later. 

It was said earlier that Hammurabi's full title is H "this is", ammur "aMur", ab "father", i "my"  =  _Ammur is my father_. Surely if Hammurabi's very title carries the name of Ammur all the clans of the tribe of Ammur (Amorites) will under his command of his faithful allies.

The proper noun Ammur is derived from an organic linguistic origin*MR. The code of Ancient Arabian, or "Proto-Semitic" in commonstream literature, is made of some 450 two-letter roots. These roots are used for all types of communicative and identification needs including, verbs, nouns, propositions, articles and proper nouns. If the word is Ancient Arabian it should have a bilateral root.

In prehistoric times ancient Arabians appear to have been alone in southern Arabia. They were joined later by groups from a different race, the Sum who appear to have had their home in the highlands of Ethiopia. Their language was different from Ancient Arabian. Around 4,000 years ago they adopted the language of ancient Arabians so the best examples of the former language are found in Sumerian. 

The Sum are a distinguished race. Alone or in collaboration with a distinguished clan of the tribe or A'ad, Jad then Jaees, they appear to have initiated the Agrarian Era and produced our famous alphabet known in commonstream literature as "Phoenician".

From their name root, *SM (SUM), words still in use in Arabia today include dark colour (asmar), nail (musmar), entertainment (samar) and by extension musical instruments necessary for entertainment, and probably fertilizer (samad) which could be also from the root *MD "to extend something".

Factions of the Sum became historical allies of one of the two only tribes in ancient Arabia, the Adites. The leader of the Adites is Ad or Adad or Hadad or Adonai or Adapa. Ad or Adad had four sons each with his own clan:

1- Tay (Ṭay) leader of the most famous Tay tribe. He is also known as Jalham, but probably Galham, from the Nucleitic Compound *GL/*HM, but please note another Nucleitic Compound famous name *PR/*HM, Abraham,
2- Nabt, the founder or the tribe of Ashar, but probably the Nabataens as well,
3- Malik, the founder of the tribes of Qahtan,
4- Mur or Murrah, the founder of the tribes of Jazam, Lakham and Kindah.

Clearly these are some of the most famous tribes in Arabia and the most numerous.

These four names as well as most names are derived from bilateral roots. In the case of Mur it is *MR. Explained earlier that the root *MR is well know and widely used in Arabic to mean "bitter". This root is a category, a linguistic container, of types of food eaten or avoided during famines, a recurring event during winter in the ancient world, as well as bitter medicine to cure indigestion or food poisoning.

There's an ancient tradition in ancient Arabia of choosing names for boys and girls. Girls are named to please their parents and tribe so "cute" names are usually chosen like 'Farah' "happiness", 'Qamar' "moon", 'Hanan' "tenderness", etc. Boys are named to ward off enemies, so "serious" names are chosen for boys. Names such as 'Assad' "lion", 'Nimre' 'tiger", 'Saba' "a general name for all wild cats", 'Dhaba "hyena", Kalab' "dog", 'Zeeb' "wolf", 'Saif' "sword", and the like.

The proper noun Mur does mean bitter but bitterness is widely used metaphorically, as in "bitter enemy". The same applies to Arabian and later to Arabic.

In Yemen today a speaker can say, "Murh", meaning "order him". However most other speakers of Arabic would say, "Amurh" to mean exactly the same. The noun from the name root is 'amar' "order". The name of the tribe founded by MR is 'Amorite' (ammoryyin), after his name.

It simply means "the tribesmen of Mur" because his tribe became so numerous even clans from his tribes became huge tribes like Jazam, Lakham and Kindah, hence the reference to the 12 kings who live in tents in Mesopotamia but God is also said by Canaanite to live in a huge tent.

Collectively, all these tribes have one founder Mur. Derivatives from the natural root are many and easy to formulate. However, Mur as a proper noun cannot be treated as the natural root. The Yemenis do use "Murh"; to mean "order him" but the root here has nothing to do with the natural meaning of bitter taste but all to do with the man who can give orders to everybody in the tribes under his tribal leadership.

His 'orders' were 'awamer', plural. The singular is 'amre' "order". The derivative 'ammar' means somebody who has the authority to give orders. MR's wife may call him 'Mur, hun bun", like John's wife would call her husband. If John were king he wouldn't be called John by most other people. 

Primary Applied Etymology can't exclude the possibility that Hammurabi was the blood son of Mur but then he wouldn't call him 'Ammur' but 'Mur' like "Mur, or John, is my dad." Tribal systems are laws in the sense the head of the tribe wouldn't normally appoint an outsider for a vital position like a king. It is more likely than not that Hammurabi was head of one of the clans of the tribe of Mur. This may explain the fact that he was able to appoint his son as successor to the throne without reported objection.

The god Marduk has been assigned fifty different names none of which is his real name, Mur. Clearly, the throned descendents of Mur chose their granddad to be god. The legitimacy is solid because it is both hereditary and religiously.

No matter how big an Ancient Arabian word is, the key to identify its origin is to identify the root or, in the case of Nucleitic Compounds, the two roots that make this unique linguistic structure. For example, the Arabic word 'mouaamaraat' "conspiracies" is rooted in *MR, the proper noun: mouaaMaRaat. 'Omaraa' "princes" is the same, letter 2 and 4. 'Amarrah' "emirate" likewise.

The words derived from the name of the man Mur are critical in a language like Arabic. These words must be separated from extensions derived from the natural root that means bitterness. They are from Mur the great leader and the great god of Mesopotamia.

Now, what is the difference between Mur and Mar?

The majority of Ancient Arabian roots are open for the first letter and silent for the second, i.e. 'a' for the first and un-vowelised for the second. In cases where natural roots are used for proper nouns, the vocalisation in some cases is changed to 'u'. For example, *DM (dam) is "blood". The species of Neanderthals, according to preliminary etymology, are called DUM "the short & ugly". The root of the famous south Arabian Prophet Hud is *HD. Why 'u' not 'a'? Because *HD is also a natural root with an original meaning of "to destroy".

From the proper noun *MR is 'amara' "emirate". People use this word but also "imarah". This applies to the natural root. 'Mur' is "bitter" but one can say "marara". The Arab mind compensates for these slight differences but Europeans have a problem understanding some rules of Ancien Arabian because vowels are essential letters in a word or a name but Arabians and Arabs use most vowels to facilitate speaking. The mind identifies the consonantal roots. This is why roots that include a vowel are an absolute headache for lexicographers. To avoid this huge problem, some went as far as trying to re-order their dictionaries on the basis of the last letter of words.

Not a rule but if the root has a vowel it is probably an Adite invention. The hamza for them is the 'click' of the African ancient language.

Mur is not a secret and those who advised historians to leave the Arabic linguistic bread to those who know how bake it best advised well. Had historians consulted a dictionary like Lisn Al Arab they could have saved themselves months of unnecessary work.

The entry in Lisan Al Arab  is not Mur but Mar. Ad himself and his children  were incessantly chased by A'adites their very name became a natural root that means "to cross, to go and to keep going". Mar in the dictionary is a huge entry with more than 3,000 words of explanation.

Towards the end you will find this: "Mur is the father of Tamim and the son of UD". Ud is Ad, Adad, etc.
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Origin of the name Hammurabi is in this post
WHO IS THE SUPREME GOD OF JUDAISM, CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM? (1)

Primary Applied Etymology is pointing at a grim picture of unparalleled evil that gripped the world some 4,000 years ago. There were times when mercy wasn't a word most people believed in any more, and non-existent for some. The life of the common woman and man meant almost nothing in some of the most powerful ancient empires. Most people owned nothing and they had to work for a daily bowl of cereal. Fear was the tool of controlling the masses and skinning and quartering may have been the preferred severe punishment as indicated in some Mesopotamian artwork.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flaying_of_rebels.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Flaying_of_rebels.jpg

Then something strange happened.

"When we think of ancient pagan kings, the ideas of justice and fairness probably aren't the first things to come to mind. We moderns may be more likely to imagine fickle, power-hungry despots who were ready to put someone to death on a whim. But King Hammurabi, who ruled a prosperous and thriving Babylonia almost four millennia ago, doesn't quite fit that mold. He claimed to have helped protect the weak from oppression, and some scholars believe he fostered an atmosphere of justice and righteousness for his people."

"This belief is based on an object that was discovered only a century ago. It has already earned a place alongside the Rosetta Stone as one of the most important artefacts of the ancient world. This stela (stone pillar) bears the inscription of the Code of Hammurabi, and it has shed light on the laws, culture and life in Babylonia."
http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-events/code-of-hammurabi.htm

So this is what happened

Hammurabi set his laws in stone and dispatched he stelae to other important cities in Mesopotamia so the rulers can apply the laws and the people can visit the temples where the codes can be read to them so they can understand their rights and duties.

It is not a perfect law but sufficiently comprehensive and did protect the rights of the people.

But who is Hammurabi?

In certain references the name is made of four segments: Ham•mu•ra•bi. But other historians are not sure if the letter before the last is 'b' or 'p'.

The difference may not look important. There are cases in which the two letters are substitutable. In English, for example, the very is inscribe but the noun is inscription. However, the difference can be significant as it will be explained later.

This segmentation above is cited by Webster's College Dictionary without sourcing. An article published by Advent Catholic Encyclopedia proposed that the name is Akkadian - the language of Assyrians and Babylonians, who roughly spoke the same language -  Hammu-rapi, possibly derived from Amorite meaning "uncle is a healer". This was the name of an 18th-century BC king of Babylon who conquered Sumer and Akkad. He is also known for devising a written code of laws.

The writer, Patrick Madrid, said "the origin and etymology of Hammurabi's name are somewhat puzzling, for this name does not appear to be distinctly Babylonian. Later scribes regarded it as foreign and translated it Kimta-rapaashtum, "great family", a fairly good rendering of Hammu-rabi in the S. Arabian dialect. It is noteworthy that, with only two exceptions, the names of the kings of that so-called Babylonian dynasty are likewise best explained from the Arabic. This fact gives much weight to the hypothesis, first suggested by Pognon in 1888, of the Arabic or Aramean origin of that dynasty. All scholars seem to agree that the nationality of these rulers must be sought in the "land of Amurru", whereby the Babylonians designated all the regions lying to the west (N. and S.) of their own country."
http://newadvent.org/cathen/07125a.htm

This is very frustrating for Primary Applied Etymology. The segmentation in the cases is wrong and is the name with a 'p' . The suggestion that the Babylonian dynasty are best explained from Arabic is interesting except that Primary Applied Etymology went round in circles for many months until it was realised the identification of  the correct forms of hundreds of words extant in Arabic can not be achieved successfully without the help of Akkadian.

Of all important names ancient Hammurabi stands unique but little is known about the man and his name remains a riddle or a puzzle.

Actually it is very straightforwardly simple but this is not all. If his name is read correctly, revealed will be an even a much bigger puzzle.

The name is a compound: 'amur' and 'abi'. The second word is the origin of "papa" and "pope" but it with a b, 'ab' "father" and i "my". The second name, therefore, is "my father". The first one is an extension of a trilateral 'a*MR'. The root *MR is well know and still widely used in Arabic to mean "bitter" or "inedible". This root is a category, a linguistic container, of types of food eaten or avoided during famines, a recurring event during winter in the ancient world.

The h in Hammurabi is a demonstrative but usually uttered "ha". It is widely used in common conversation ha da "this one", and in textual Arabic hatha, with the same meaning. It is the same 'h' in Hadad, otherwise known as Ad, Adad, Adonai and Adapa, another 'b' substitution.

The full name of Hammurabi is H "this is", ammur "aMur", ab "father", I "my" or Ammur is my father.

The root *AB (IPA *‛B) is a category of things that grow tall such as plants, fathers and buildings. *AB is definitely Yemeni. It is mentioned in the Quran and Omar, the future Caliph, did not understand it. It is with 'b' not 'p' with multiple attestation in Akkadian:

ab abi: [Human → Family]  grandfather;
abbūtu: [Human → Family]  paternity, being a father;
abu: [Human → Family]  1) a father; 2) an ancestor, a forefather;
aḫ abi: [Human → Family]  uncle, father' s brother;
aḫāt abi*: [Human → Family]  aunt, father' s sister;
bēt abi: [Human → Family]  father' s house, paternal house, dynasty, patrimony.

But who is Ammur?
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NOVELIST, HISTORIAN AND ETYMOLOGIST ADEL S. BISHTAWI
A short biography
■ A (Adel) S (Said) Bishtawi was Born in Nazareth, Palestine, on the 2 October 1945.
■ He read English Literature at Damascus University and Studied Linguistics at the Central London Polytechnic.
■ Started his journalistic career with the Syrian News Agency (Damascus).
■ In London (England) he became Front Page Editor of Al Arab Newspaper, the first pan Arab Newspaper launched in Europe.
■ In 1978, he joined Mr Jihad Al Khazen in launching Asharq Al Awsat Newspaper (London) as Business and Supplements Editor.
■ In 1980, he was appointed Central Managing Editor of the Emirates News Agency in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
■ In 1988, he joined Mr Jamil Mrowa (who later relaunched the Daily Star in Beirut in 1996) in London for the re-launch of Al Hayat Newspaper and continued under the editorship of Mr. Jihad Al Khazen (and ownership of Prince Khaled Bin Sultan) as Business, Supplements and IT Editor.
■ Bishtawi remained in that post until he left in April 2001 to dedicate his time to writing.
■ Bishtawi was production assistant for a number of TV documentaries. He later produced, directed and wrote “Muslims along the Silk Road”, a 5 part-60-minutes-each documentary tracing Muslim culture, heritage and legacy of Muslim pioneers and merchants along the Silk Road.
■ He hosted for TV and press interviews world political leaders, ministers, writers, businessmen, artists etc. including Indian Prime Minister Indira Ghandi, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Afghanistan President Hafizullah Amin (shortly before his execution with members of his family at the start of the Russian invasion of his country), Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahatir Muhammad, Pakistan President Mohammad Zial-ul-Haq, Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo, Austrian Chancellor Fred Sinowatz, Sheikh Issa Bin Salman Al Khalifa the Emir of Bahrain, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani the Emir of Qatar, Saad Al Abdulla Al Sabah the Prime Minister of Kuwait and many others.
■ As author, his early published work included 5 anthologies of short stories and a novella. His 2017 author portfolio consists of 20 published books.
■ The Andalusian Moriscos (History of the Moriscos after the Fall of Granada) was first published in Cairo in 1982. Two more editions were published in Damascus in 1985 and 1987.
■ His first novel Traces of a Tattoo was published in 1998 by The Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon and proclaimed by critics an “instant success” (Reviews).
■ The second novel Times of Death and Roses was published by The Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon in early 1999.
■ Gardens of Despair, his third novel, was published by The Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, in late 2000 and released to the public in 2002.
■ The Martyrdom of the Andalusian Nation (Part I) was published by The Arab Institute for Publication and Studies in March 2001.
■ During 2001-2002 he co-authored A Thousand Miles in One Step, a book by HRH Prince Abdulla Bin Mosaad bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, a grandson of the founder of Saudi Arabia. The book was published by the Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon. It is the first work ever to reveal the true circumstances of the death in 1975 of King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia as neither a conspiracy nor a plot of the state.
■ History of Injustice in the Arab World (2005/2006) was published by the Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon and launched at Sharjah World Book Fair in December 2005.
■ My Vision – Challenges in the Race for Excellence was co-authored with HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum and launched on presentation of a copy by Sheikh Mohammed to Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates on Sunday 23 April 2006.
■ In 2007 Bishtawi published History of American Injustice: Beginning of the Long-Term Imperial Demise by the Arab Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon, Amman, Jordan.
■ The first edition of the Origin of Arabic Numerals: a natural history of numbers was published in 2008. The 2nd Edition was published in 2009 by the Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon, Amman, Jordan. A third edition was published in 2011 by AuthorHouse.
■ In 2010 the Natural Foundations of Arab Civilisation: Origins of Alphabets, Numerals, Measurements, Weights, Jurisdiction and currency, was published by Institute for Publication and Studies, Beirut, Lebanon, Amman, Jordan.
■ The English version of Traces of a Tattoo was published by AuthorHouse on 07.25.2011.
■ The English version of Times of Death and Roses was published by AuthorHouse on 08.09.2011.
■ Origin of "Semitic" Languages (Arabic title: Origin of Speech) was published by AuthorHouse on 09.03.2013.
■ Roots of Religions is expected to be published in late 2017 or early 2018.
■ In 2017 Bishtawi sponsored the foundation of the Creativity Initiative composed presently of several units including blogs, Facebook pages and Google Plus pages.
■ The writer has published hundreds of articles and interviews in Arabic and English. He is hosted on TV and participates in conferences and seminars on history, literature, religion, economy and current affairs.
✿ A Bishtawi lives in Malta. He is married with two sons – Sammy and Daniel and he is blessed with one of the greatest wives on Earth – Susan.
Affiliations and community pages:
► Google Scholar: Adel Bishtawi - Google Scholar Citations
https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=tBJ9qKsAAAAJ&hl=en
► Academia.edu: http://independent.academia.edu/AdelBishtawi
► Member of Instittuto Hispano Arabe De Cultura (ARABISMO)
► Adel S. Bishtawi (English) http://bishtawi.com/author/
► Adel S. Bishtawi (Arabic) http://bishtawi.com/ar/?page_id=28
► Book Portfolio: http://bishtawi.com/book-editions-portfolio/
► Syrian Writers Association (Co-founder, Elected member of the General Assembly, Elected member of Executive Bureau): http://syrianwa.org
✿ Facebook pages:
https://www.facebook.com/creativityinwriting.net/
https://www.facebook.com/adelsbishtawi/
https://www.facebook.com/beehiveliterarycircle/
https://www.facebook.com/originsadelbishtawi/
https://www.facebook.com/adelsaidbishtawi/
✿ Google Plus pages
https://plus.google.com/+AdelBishtawihistorian_and_no…/posts (General).
https://plus.google.com/collection/wJdrb (Poetry Flames)
https://plus.google.com/…/1104541953…/110454195373647319246… (Arabic: THE THREE GODS OF MONOTHEISM)
https://plus.google.com/…/+THETHREEGODSOFMONOTHEISMADELSBIS… (English: THE THREE GODS OF MONOTHEISM)
https://plus.google.com/…/+ThebookoforiginsNetAdel_S_Bishta…(PRIMARY APPLIED ETYMOLOGY)
Data updated on 31.07.2017
► originsab@gmail.com
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ARE AD AND A'AD CAIN AND ABEL?

Assyrians are probably A'adites, one of two tribes who integrated in one nation in southern Arabia. The first is the Adites, after their leader Ad or Adad, a very famous ancient god. Primary Applied Etymology appears to give some support to the possibility that the Assyrians attacked Akkad, of unknown location but probably somewhere under present Baghdad, and removed the founders who appear to have been some Adites fleeing from A'adites, also known as Yemenis after the name of their homeland *YM.

Akkadian, the language of both Assyrians and Babylonians, is a mix of important characteristics of the languages of the Adites and A'adites and mixed features are also found in Ancient Arabian named "Proto-Semitic" in commonstream European literature. The Amorites under Hammurabi established their empire in Babel. Their tribe was founded by Mur (*MR > aMR, a prefixed specifier extension of the name root *MR), one of the sons of Ad whose tribe took his name, an old tradition in ancient times.

Naturally, the Amorites re-introduction of the special characteristics of their language influenced Babylonian Akkadian but the re-infusion is difficult to fully specify or quantify. However, the Amorites appear to have been at least partly responsible for substantial letter migration from the hard 'g', an A'adites letter, to 'k'. The substitution is reflected on modern Arabic but on a much larger scale involving treble and sometimes quadruple migration of 'g' to 'k, q, j and gh'. Another A'adite letter is p.

Originally war-like and fearless due to the harshness of their original homeland in Africa probably, the A'adites appear to have been enraged by the murder of their chief, A'ad (IPA ‛D), at the hand of Ad, the co-leader of the integrated nation. The wars of retribution launched by the A'adites continued for hundreds of years and influenced the course of humanity and its history.

Their story appears to be that of Cain and Abel in as far as the occurrence of the murder is concerned. The Ancient Arabian version of the two leaders appears to be more plausible but both are attributes rather than real names - Qabeel and Habeel. The first is an extension of the root *QB "tribal leader, elevated, high position". From the root is "QaBila' "tribe". The root of the second name is *HB. It has a number of meanings including "rage, as in a raging storm; to rise with a waving sword; to cut down, if applied to swords" (Lisan Al Arab).

It is also possible Habeel was an attribute of reverence to Ad. Hubal was one of the deities in Kaaba said to have been worshipped by Qureish tribe (Lisan Al Arab: HBL).

Two stories have been posted on Ad and A'ad.

THE FOUR FATHERS OF HUMANITY
1- AD: THE GREATEST OF THE GREAT
https://plus.google.com/+ThebookoforiginsNetAdel_S_Bishtawi/posts/X5bE3AtVu77

THE FOUR FATHERS OF HUMANITY
2- A'AD: THE COLOSSAL OF ANCIENT TIMES
https://plus.google.com/+ThebookoforiginsNetAdel_S_Bishtawi/posts/iKMXbwPwdy2


Image: Image: Assyrian soldiers skinning captives. 
"Flaying of rebels" by Unknown - Världens Historia 18/2010.. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons -http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flaying_of_rebels.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Flaying_of_rebels.jpg
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