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Singularity 2045
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Explosive sci-tech news, debate, aware.
Explosive sci-tech news, debate, aware.

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#NickBostrom is the King of logical fallacies regarding the supposed #artificialintelligence #existentialrisk we are allegedly approaching.

#Bostrom compares human treatment of gorillas to how AI could treat humans. This is a chalk and cheese comparison, apples and oranges.

The Globe and Mail (1 May 2015) asked Nick Bostrom: "Why do you think the development of super-intelligent machines could be an existential threat to humanity?"

Nick Bostrom replied: "If you take a step back and think about the human condition, we can see that intelligence has played a shaping role. It’s because of our slightly greater general intelligence that we humans now occupy our dominant position on planet Earth. And even though, say, our ape ancestors were physically stronger than us, the fate of the gorillas now rests in our hands because with our technology, developed through our intelligence, we have unprecedented powers. For basically the same reason, if we develop machines that radically exceed human intelligence, they too could be extremely powerful and able to shape the future according to their preferences. So the transition to the machine-intelligence era looks like a momentous event and one I think associated with significant existential risk." http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/munk-debates/nick-bostrom-i-dont-think-the-artificial-intelligence-train-will-slow-down/article24222185/

The comparison would only be valid if gorillas had intelligently engineered the human race, whereupon their higher engineered intelligence dominated them (the creator).

If gorillas had created greater than gorilla intelligence, if gorillas had engineered human minds (our genome), whereupon the created AIs (humans) dominated or harmed gorillas, the comparison would be valid. The problem is humans are not the AIs of gorillas.

The situation of humans intelligently engineering intelligence greater than our own is utterly unlike any species below us. Inter-species hierarchical comparisons regarding natural evolution, showing no intelligent AI design of a higher species by the lower species, does not translate to the engineering of artificial intelligence (artificial evolution).

Artificial intelligence is a new stage of evolution, which we cannot compare to natural evolution where no intelligent engineering of AI occurred.

Points regarding gorilla-human-AI difference to consider are:

1. Humans and AI have a close creator-created relationship, which humans and gorillas do not have.

2. Humans understand the engineering of AI minds whereas gorillas have ZERO idea how our minds were created.

3. The technological civilization needed to create AI is wholly different, or will be wholly different, to the world where humans dominate gorillas. The point here is technology for humans able to create AI will not remain at 2015 levels. Very advanced tech at the point of superhuman intelligence will ensure the primitiveness of inter-species dominance is obviated. 3D-printing of meat will replace farming. Asteroid mining and space colonization, along with greater efficiency, will ensure there is no need to battle over limited resources.

4. If gorillas had created us they would be able to communicate intelligently with us. I am certain we would have endless respect for their AI-engineering feat, which means we would without question grant our creators equal rights. Their high technological civilization would be very different to their zero technology, their rainforest existence, which means our attitude and relationship would be wholly different. Imagine if gorillas had a well established civilization, with laws, science, and clear culture; such a civilization would be inevitable if gorillas had created human minds (AI).

5. The correct analogy regarding human-AI is parent-child. The procreation is artificial but this does not lessen the fact we are in essence giving birth to AI. Gorillas made zero contribution to our birth. They did not design or nurture us.

6. Millions of years separating humans and gorillas are unlike a few decades separating "humans" and AI, which means our close creator-parental relationship will never be forgotten. Primates evolved fifty-five million years ago. Apes evolved twenty-eight million years ago. AI will progress from non-living to super-intelligent within 30 years.

7. Communication between AI and humans will easily be possible, whereas human-gorilla communication is either impossible or extremely difficult. Human intelligence is sufficiently intelligent to allow communication with and understanding of higher intelligence, whereas gorillas are cognitively limited. Humans have passed a threshold level of intelligence utterly unlike any species below us.

What do you think the precise fallacy of Bostrom is, Affirming the Consequent, False Cause, correlation does not imply causation? Or perhaps plain idiocy is sufficient to define his fallacy?

He is essentially saying cheese looks like chalk therefore chalk has the qualities of cheese.

Similarity, visual similarity in this case, leads to the mistaken assumption of the vaguely similar things being essentially identical, which leads to the statement of chalk having the qualities of cheese.

My analogy regarding Bostrom's fallacious AI logic is he is stating: "Chalk is tasty because it is essentially the same as cheese."
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20 June 2018, PhysOrg: "Thus, concretely, with SET [Sparse Evolutionary Training] any user can build on its own laptop an artificial neural network of up to 1 million neurons, while with state-of-the-art methods this was reserved only for expensive computing clouds." https://phys.org/news/2018-06-ai-method-power-artificial-neural.html

27 June 2018, University of Derby UK: "The proposed method, called Sparse Evolutionary Training, also gives full artificial intelligence capability to inexpensive computers, meaning it will be possible to turn any internet device into an intelligent Internet of Things object which can send and receive data." https://www.derby.ac.uk/newsevents/news/articles/derby-scientists-help-make-international-artificial-intelligence-breakthrough-.php/

19 June 2018, Nature: "Our method replaces artificial neural networks fully-connected layers with sparse ones before training, reducing quadratically the number of parameters, with no decrease in accuracy." https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04316-3

Antonio Liotta, Professor of Data Science and Director of the Data Science Research Centre at the University of Derby, said: "This work represents a major breakthrough in fundamental artificial intelligence and has immediate practical implications in industry and academia alike, enabling the analysis of vast sets of data, beyond what is currently possible." https://www.derby.ac.uk/newsevents/news/articles/derby-scientists-help-make-international-artificial-intelligence-breakthrough-.php/

20 June 2018, PhysOrg: "The striking acceleration effect of this method has enormous significance, as it will allow the application of AI to problems that are not currently tractable due to the vast number of parameters." https://phys.org/news/2018-06-ai-method-power-artificial-neural.html

#SparseEvolutionaryTraining #efficency #artificialintelligence
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27 June 2018, University of Derby UK: "The proposed method, called Sparse Evolutionary Training, also gives full artificial intelligence capability to inexpensive computers, meaning it will be possible to turn any internet device into an intelligent Internet of Things object which can send and receive data." https://www.derby.ac.uk/newsevents/news/articles/derby-scientists-help-make-international-artificial-intelligence-breakthrough-.php/

19 June 2018, Nature: "Our method replaces artificial neural networks fully-connected layers with sparse ones before training, reducing quadratically the number of parameters, with no decrease in accuracy." https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04316-3

Antonio Liotta, Professor of Data Science and Director of the Data Science Research Centre at the University of Derby, said: "This work represents a major breakthrough in fundamental artificial intelligence and has immediate practical implications in industry and academia alike, enabling the analysis of vast sets of data, beyond what is currently possible." https://www.derby.ac.uk/newsevents/news/articles/derby-scientists-help-make-international-artificial-intelligence-breakthrough-.php/

20 June 2018, PhysOrg: "The striking acceleration effect of this method has enormous significance, as it will allow the application of AI to problems that are not currently tractable due to the vast number of parameters."

PhysOrg: "Thus, concretely, with SET [Sparse Evolutionary Training] any user can build on its own laptop an artificial neural network of up to 1 million neurons, while with state-of-the-art methods this was reserved only for expensive computing clouds." https://phys.org/news/2018-06-ai-method-power-artificial-neural.html

#SparseEvolutionaryTraining #efficency #artificialintelligence
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#FalconHeavy, #SpaceX, test flight launch, live stream.

Tuesday 6 Feb 2018, 15:45 EST, 20:45 GMT.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wbSwFU6tY1c
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Elon Musk is often criticised here for his unjustified AI fears, but hats of to him here regarding SpaceX #FalconHeavy. This upcoming launch is very impressive indeed, lovely animation regarding this video. He is doing the world a great service with his space ventures.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tk338VXcb24
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#AlphaGo, an #artificialintelligence from late 2017, taught itself to play chess in four hours to expert level.

ExtremeTech wrote (12 Dec 2017): "AlphaZero, the new reigning champion, acquired all its chess know-how in a mere four hours. AlphaZero is almost as different from its fellow AI chess competitors as Deep Blue was from Gary Kasparov, back when the latter first faced off against a supercomputer in 1996. And what’s more, AlphaZero stands to upend not merely the world of chess, but the whole realm of strategic decision-making. If that doesn’t give you pause, it probably should." https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/260215-alphazero-new-chess-champion-harbinger-brave-new-world-ai

The Guardian (7 Dec 2017): "AlphaZero, the game-playing AI created by Google sibling DeepMind, has beaten the world’s best chess-playing computer program, having taught itself how to play in under four hours." https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/dec/07/alphazero-google-deepmind-ai-beats-champion-program-teaching-itself-to-play-four-hours

#DeepMind

The Telegraph (6 Dec 2017): "The algorithm is so extraordinary because it learns from scratch. It has only been programmed with the rules of chess and must work out how to win simply from playing multiple games against itself. " http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/12/06/entire-human-chess-knowledge-learned-surpassed-deepminds-alphazero/

Daily Mail (22 Dec 2017): "In those 240 minutes of practice, the program not only taught itself how to play but developed tactics that are unbeatably innovative — and revealed its startling ability to trounce human intelligence. Some of its winning moves had never been recorded in the 1,500 years that human brains have pitted wits across the chequered board." http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5204513/Robot-taught-never-seen-chess-moves-hours.html

#intelligence
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in 1976 people speculated one day everyone could walk around with a mobile communication device.

Here is a interesting clip from BBC Archive to show how in 2017 times have changed since 1976.

How much will technology have evolved in another 41 years, in the year 2058? Remember the speed of progress is continually accelerating! Things should be pretty groovy in 2045, a mere 28 years.

https://twitter.com/BBCArchive/status/919156095356100608
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Summary of roughly related progress in 2017 (July to Sept). Theme is biology, computing, nanobots (DNA robots), data storage.

DNA ROBOTS

These DNA robots created at Caltech (14 Sept 2017) can arrange-sort molecules. Very handy indeed these nanobots: "...several hands and arms, for example, could be used to carry multiple molecules simultaneously."

Caltech: "In the work described in the Science paper, the Qian group built a robot that could explore a molecular surface, pick up two different molecules—a fluorescent yellow dye and a fluorescent pink dye—and then distribute them to two distinct regions on the surface. Using fluorescent molecules enabled the researchers to see if the molecules ended up in their intended locations. The robot successfully sorted six scattered molecules, three pink and three yellow, into their correct places in 24 hours. Adding more robots to the surface shortened the time it took to complete the task." http://www.caltech.edu/news/sorting-molecules-dna-robots-79640

Apparently these DNA "walker" bots are energy-efficient too, The Register reported (25 Sept 2017): "Sticking and unsticking itself in this way does not consume energy since the walker is not gaining or losing any of its DNA bases." https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/09/15/the_autonomous_dna_sorting_machine/

Go search for more mews about DNA robots: https://www.google.com/search?q=DNA+Robots

RIBOCOMPUTING

What is ribocomputing? RNA instead of DNA creates logic circuits, nano-devices, to act as computers-robots-processors. Harvard’s Wyss Institute, for Biologically Inspired Engineering, published this news on 26 July 2017.

Wyss Institute wrote: "The study’s approach resulted in a genetically encodable RNA nano-device that can perform an unprecedented 12-input logic operation to accurately regulate the expression of a fluorescent reporter protein in E. coli bacteria only when encountering a complex, user-prescribed profile of intra-cellular stimuli. Such programmable nano-devices may allow researchers to construct more sophisticated synthetic biological circuits, enabling them to analyze complex cellular environments efficiently and to respond accurately." https://wyss.harvard.edu/programming-cells-with-computer-like-logic/

Science Daily (26 July 2017) introduced this topic of ribocomputing by mentioning the speed of progress: "The interdisciplinary nexus of biology and engineering, known as synthetic biology, is growing at a rapid pace, opening new vistas that could scarcely be imagined a short time ago." Science daily elaborated: "The new study dramatically improves the ease with which cellular computing may be carried out. The RNA-only approach to producing cellular nanodevices is a significant advance, as earlier efforts required the use of complex intermediaries, like proteins. Now, the necessary ribocomputing parts can be readily designed on computer. The simple base-pairing properties of RNA's four nucleotide letters (A, C, G and U) ensure the predictable self-assembly and functioning of these parts within a living cell." https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170726131758.htm

NEUROMORPHIC

Engadget, 26 Sept 2017, reported on the "Loihi" neuromorphic processor: "Intel unveils an AI chip that mimics the human brain." Intel have been working on it for the past six years...

Engadget: "Intel's Loihi chip has 1,024 artificial neurons, or 130,000 simulated neurons with 130 million possible synaptic connections. That's a bit more complex than, say, a lobster's brain, but a long ways from our 80 billion neurons." https://www.engadget.com/2017/09/26/intel-loihi-neuromorphic-chip-human-brain/

The Verge and ExtremeTech also reported (others reported too)...

The Verge (26 Sept 2017) commenting on the as yet unproven advantages, or hype, of neuromorphic chips: "Intel knows this [they are unproven], of course, and its new Loihi chips aren’t destined for server stacks. Instead, the company will be sharing an unknown number with a few “leading university and research institutions” some time in the first half of 2018. (How many chips and who will get them are unknown.) This research will hopefully validate Intel’s designs, as well as push forward work on neuromorphic chips and AI in general." https://www.theverge.com/2017/9/26/16365390/intel-investigates-chips-designed-like-your-brain-to-turn-the-ai-tide

ExtremeTech (27 Sept 2017) "Dr. Michael Mayberry claims that Loihi does not need to be trained in the traditional way and that it takes a new approach to this type of computing by using asynchronous spiking. Unlike a transistor, neurons do not constantly flip back and forth between a 0 and a 1. They trigger when signal thresholds are reached, and continue to fire so long as the number of spikes exceeds a given threshold. The strength of a muscle flex, for example, is based on the average number of spikes the muscle receives over a given unit of time." https://www.extremetech.com/computing/256467-intel-unveils-new-neuromorphic-self-learning-chip-codenamed-loihi

BIOPRINTING

Oxford University (15 August 2017) published news about a new method of 3D-bioprinting: "The approach could revolutionise regenerative medicine, enabling the production of complex tissues and cartilage that would potentially support, repair or augment diseased and damaged areas of the body."

Oxford University elaborated: "Printing high-resolution living tissues is hard to do, as the cells often move within printed structures and can collapse on themselves. But, led by Professor Hagan Bayley, Professor of Chemical Biology in Oxford’s Department of Chemistry, the team devised a way to produce tissues in self-contained cells that support the structures to keep their shape." The fine-tuning period should be worth waiting for: "Over the coming months they will work to develop new complementary printing techniques, that allow the use of a wider range of living and hybrid materials, to produce tissues at industrial scale." http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2017-08-15-new-method-3d-printing-living-tissues

University of Bristol’s School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine also was involved in this bioprinting research (15 August 2017), which: "...demonstrated how a range of living mammalian cells can be printed into high-resolution tissue constructs." http://www.bristol.ac.uk/news/2017/august/3d-printing-living-tissues.html

MOLECULAR, SINGLE MOLECULE, DATA-STORAGE

University of Manchester shows storing data via "single-molecule magnets" is "more feasible than previously thought."

PhysOrg (23 Aug 2017) "The result means that data storage with single molecules could become a reality because the data servers could be cooled using relatively cheap liquid nitrogen at -196°C instead of far more expensive liquid helium (-269 °C). The research provides proof-of-concept that such technologies could be achievable in the near future." https://phys.org/news/2017-08-major-storage-molecular.html

Identical report to above PhysOrg one, here is the link to the Manchester Uni "single-molecule magnets" news : http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/major-leap-towards-storing-data-at-the-molecular-level/

Chemical & Engineering News (30 Aug 2017) wrote: "The quest to develop smaller and more energy-efficient smartphones and supercomputers with more features and processing power hinges on increasing data storage capacity. Two research groups at the University of Manchester have reported a dysprosium molecule with switchable magnetic properties—a single-molecule magnet (SMM) with the ability to store a single bit of data—that exhibits the most promise yet for reaching what might be the ultimate limit in high-density data storage." https://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i35/Single-molecule-magnet-breaks-performance.html

Digital Trends (24 Aug 2017) was cautious about the molecular storage progress, whilst nevertheless recognising the value of the breakthrough: "Don’t get too excited yet, however, as a lot more engineering work needs to be carried out to turn this into a practical technology. It is unlikely that this particular molecule will ever be commercialized but the team is working to make even better magnetic molecules which could be used to carry out this task." https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/molecular-data-storage-cold/
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The Register (1 Aug 2017) dismisses recent hype about an end-times robot-rebellion regarding Facebook Chatbots. Here are two quotes:

"Scaremongering and overselling of AI is rampant. There’s a lot of money to be made from rebranding your company as an “AI startup” and claiming your product uses "machine learning." It’s not just a problem of journalists sensationalizing copy – tech giants are offenders too, often using words like “imagination,” “intuition” and “reasoning” to describe their technology in blog posts."

"Bots babbling away in tongues isn’t a new or mysterious phenomenon. Researchers from OpenAI found that agents would talk to one another in a kind-of Morse code when forced to communicate and work on a task together."

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/08/01/facebook_chatbots_did_not_invent_new_language/
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Zuckerberg is really likeable on this #artificialintelligence point, which is regarding Zuckerberg's conflict with "irresponsible" Musk about whether or not #artificialintelligence will be dangerous.

Daily Mail (29 July 2017): "Now there is a growing division of opinion about whether the dawn of intelligent machines is a blessing for us — or a curse."

It's shocking that we are discussing this, the idea that intelligence should be feared because it could supposedly be a threat. At least there are voices of sanity, seen here in Zuckerberg who is a much needed antidote to delusional Musk-types.

Daily Mail (29 July 2017): "...this week, when the pair’s disagreement took on a more personal edge, the wider world took notice. It started last Sunday, after Zuckerberg, the world’s fifth richest person, rebuked what he called ‘naysayers’ who drum up ‘doomsday scenarios’ about AI." http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4741384/Founders-Facebook-PayPal-locked-row-robots.html

The Atlantic (27 July 2017): "In a Facebook Live broadcast, Zuckerberg, Facebook’s CEO, offered riposte. He called Musk a “naysayer” and accused his doomsday fears of unnecessary negativity. “In some ways I actually think it is pretty irresponsible,” Zuck scolded. Musk then retorted on Twitter: “I’ve talked to Mark about this. His understanding of the subject is limited.”" https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/07/musk-vs-zuck/535077/

The Guardian (25 July 2017): "In an uncharacteristically candid response, Zuckerberg said: “I have pretty strong opinions on this. I am optimistic. And I think people who are naysayers and try to drum up these doomsday scenarios – I just, I don’t understand it. It’s really negative and in some ways I actually think it is pretty irresponsible.”" https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jul/25/elon-musk-mark-zuckerberg-artificial-intelligence-facebook-tesla

#TeamZuckerberg #AIbattle
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