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Scott MacLeod
Works at World University and School
Attends Reed College
Lives in San Francisco Bay Area
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Scott MacLeod

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Aunt Mary Brown's memorial celebration weekend in Oregon - https://plus.google.com/u/0/+ScottMacLeodRainbow/posts/WSTFjWkkpqA
 
Wisdom Creek Ranch on the weekend of my great Aunt Mary Brown's memorial celebration in Eastern Oregon (around 1980-1981)
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 Nice to be able to teach creatively from anywhere (and this was in the New Bedford, Massachusetts, aquarium in 2007). I'm teaching this free open online course beginning again in the autumn of 2015 - http://worlduniversityandschool.org  ... Nice too to be able to teach creatively from anywhere, for example, in the WUaS Music School too - http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/World_University_Music_School ... planned for ALL musical instruments in all 8000 languages.
 
Nice to be able to teach creatively from anywhere (and this was in the New Bedford, Massachusetts, aquarium in 2007). I'm teaching this free open online course beginning again in the autumn of 2015 - http://worlduniversityandschool.org.
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Scott MacLeod

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India Photos and more I just found on amazing Google photo ( India WUaS ... http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/India ... planned in many languages)
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An Universal Translator at World University and School in all 8,000 + languages? -  - http://worlduniversityandschool.org/
- http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_Universal_Translator


with Wiktionary / Wikidata as a beginning: 

Wikidata for Wiktionary

Looking further into the CC Wikidata future, in what ways might such CC Wiktionary database developments as you're outlining here - https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:Wiktionary/Development/Proposals/2015-05 - inform, or be extensible into, a CC Universal Translator, eventually in all 7,929 languages in Glottolog - http://glottolog.org/glottolog/language - for example, as well as including invented and dead languages, and even inter-species' communication, - and in voice and video eventually, and for MIT OCW-centric linguistic research, as well? 

Thanks and cheers, 
Scott
 
An Universal Translator at World University and School in all 8,000 + languages? -  - http://worlduniversityandschool.org/
- http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_Universal_Translator


with Wiktionary / Wikidata as a beginning: 

Wikidata for Wiktionary

Looking further into the CC Wikidata future, in what ways might such CC Wiktionary database developments as you're outlining here - https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:Wiktionary/Development/Proposals/2015-05 - inform, or be extensible into, a CC Universal Translator, eventually in all 7,929 languages in Glottolog - http://glottolog.org/glottolog/language - for example, as well as including invented and dead languages, and even inter-species' communication, - and in voice and video eventually, and for MIT OCW-centric linguistic research, as well? 

Thanks and cheers, 
Scott
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Scott MacLeod

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Wikidata for Wiktionary

Looking further into the CC Wikidata future, in what ways might such CC Wiktionary database developments as you're outlining here - https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:Wiktionary/Development/Proposals/2015-05 - inform, or be extensible into, a CC Universal Translator, eventually in all 7,929 languages in Glottolog - http://glottolog.org/glottolog/language - for example, as well as including invented and dead languages, and even inter-species' communication, - and in voice and video eventually, and for MIT OCW-centric linguistic research, as well? 

Thanks and cheers, 
Scott
CC WUaS Universal Translator: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_Universal_Translator
http://worlduniversityandschool.org/
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Cassia (genus): Cooperatives and an academic program as service, Collaboration between a) Mondragon University Team Academy, b) Finland TA c) a "cooperative startup companies' entrepreneurial undergraduate major" (14 courses over 4 years?) at CC MIT OCW-centric WUaS (as part of a liberal arts major) which is planning to accredit in most countries in their languages, and d) ISSIP grand challenge, Basque language and Basque country World University and School, Euskara (Basque language) Wikipedia

http://scott-macleod.blogspot.com/2015/05/cassia-genus-cooperatives-and-academic.html
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Babelfy.org  v1.0: let's rethink the NLP pipeline in a language-agnostic way! :) #justforfun #NLProc
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Scott MacLeod

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Wild ... to Species - http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Species - and Sexuality wiki subjects/schools at WUaS - http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Sexuality
 
The Sex Lives of Mushrooms

The picture below may give you a hint about how the bird's nest fungus got its name. But what it doesn't show you is the rather fascinating love life that they have, and what this might tell us about where our own sexual preferences come from.

Bird's nest fungi live in places like rotting trees, dung piles, mulched woodpiles, nursery pots, and various other places; they've done quite well in human habitats, and so several species are thriving. When it first sets up shop, a fungus will grow out long filaments all through the body of whatever it's growing on, gradually digesting it with enzymes that transform wood (or whatever) into simple sugars. The fungus keeps growing until it touches a prospective mate: at this point, the two fungi will grow into each other, exchanging not just DNA but entire cell nuclei. The resulting "dikaryotic" ("two-nuclear") fungus then grows the fruiting bodies that give it its name: little cups with spores in them that look like eggs in a bird's nest.

These spores aren't firmly attached: in fact, they're designed to fly. When a raindrop hits a cup, it will propel the spores outwards (using the cup as a ramp) in all directions. The spores trail long, sticky filaments behind them, which get caught on branches; the (very lightweight) spores then wind around the branch grappling-hook style, leaving them firmly attached and ready to start their new life. The parent, meanwhile, will keep manufacturing more bird's nests for as long as it has the food and water to keep going.

There's just one catch: because the spores get distributed by rain, they don't fly very far, and that means that children of the same parents will end up close by. This means that the fungus has to have some way to avoid inbreeding. (Inbreeding causes bad mutations to build up, in the sort of way that dubious X-Files episodes parodied, and that makes the fungus less able to survive. The non-silly version of this is called "inbreeding depression," and you can get a good overview of it at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inbreeding_depression)

The fungi achieve this by being very picky about their mates. Humans come in two genders, and these are roughly our "mating compatibility groups." These fungi, on the other hand, use what's called a "tetrapolar mating system." What it means is this: instead of there being one category of gender, each fungus has two kinds of gender, with the poetic names "MAT-A" and "MAT-B." Two fungi can only mate if both their MAT-A and MAT-B genders are different. And each of these doesn't just come in two varieties – they can have dozens, or even hundreds.

(For what comes next, if you want to know the details I highly recommend this paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3607108/)

Take Cyathus stercoreus, the "dung-loving bird's nest" (don't you love fungus names?), which is one of the most widespread of the bird's nest fungi. It has 39 different possible MAT-A's, and 24 MAT-B's. This means that there are a total of 936 (39×24) different genders, and an arbitrary fungus will be able to mate with 874 (38×23) of them. The children of this mating will be one of four possible genders (getting their MAT-A's and MAT-B's independently from each parent), and each child would only be physically able to mate with one in four of its siblings – the ones which have both a different MAT-A and MAT-B. That means that there's a 25% chance of successful mating with a relative, compared to a 94% chance with a random fungus it meets in the street. (Or rather, "in a pile of dung," but that seems a little less romantic) (Unless you're a fungus)

But to maintain 936 different genders, you need a lot of fungi, and in species that don't have as many individuals around, we indeed find that the number of distinct genders goes down in time, as various MAT-A and -B variations are no longer present. Cyathus striatus, the fluted bird's nest, only has 3 MAT-A's and 11 MAT-B's – giving strangers only a 61% chance (2×10/3×11) of being able to mate, with siblings still having that 25% chance. And in fact, C. striatus has been showing increased trouble breeding.

There's one other important difference between fungi and people: these hundreds of different genders (the technical term is "mating compatibility groups") don't have any differences in their large-scale physical shape. To tell the genders apart, you need genetic testing. 

This may give us a hint as to how gender started out in the first place. At the simplest end, we have asexual reproduction: creatures that divide via mitosis and leave it at that. Next, we have creatures that can penetrate each other's cell walls and exchange nuclei, like these fungi do; that gives them the advantages of cross-breeding. Compared to them, every asexual species is suffering from permanent inbreeding depression, as each creature only "mates" with itself. Then you see the development of things that quickly kill off any attempt to mate with excessively similar creatures, like this system of genders. You could easily imagine the next stage: the genetic variation between the genders starts to get used in building the physical structure of the creature. This opens up the possibility of different genders specializing in various ways, including in parts of the reproductive process – and the rest, as they say, is (pre)history.

But even we mammals haven't given up on the old systems of genders! Studies in a wide range of species have shown that everything from butterflies to rats will actively avoid mating with anything that smells too much like them. Scents come from a variety of sources, but significantly, many of these scent components are inherited. What we have is a collection of genetic variants that make people who are too closely related to us not smell like prospective mates. This doesn't physically prevent mating, but as you'll have noticed above, even the fungi's rather elaborate system only reduces the inbreeding rate to 25%; an imperfect system is a lot better than no system at all.

So the next time you smell your relatives, think about the mating habits of fungi, and how your pattern of scents may well be the evolutionary remnant of a system of thousands of different genders that let our earliest ancestors know their kin.

Many thanks to +John Baez for the original article (shared below) which sparked my curiosity with its talk of "mating compatibility groups." Who would have known that fungi could do that? Well, apart from mycologists, I guess.
Blue mushrooms This is a bird's nest fungus - a kind of mushroom that looks like a bird's nest full of eggs.  More precisely, it's Cyathus… - John Baez - Google+
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Scott MacLeod

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To http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Massachusetts_Institute_of_Technology_-_MIT ? ... planned in many, many languages ... Wiki? interlingual +Wikidata  ? Wiki CC World University and School planned in 8000 languages and 200+ countries ... 
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To Grateful Dead wiki subject ... http://worlduniversityandschool.org/
Corine Waï Tchan originally shared to Blues & Jazz:
 
Grateful Dead w/ Duane Allman ☮
It Hurts Me Too
♬♪♬https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgPV9DFkQFs♬♪♬



You said you was hurting,
Almost lost your mind,
And the man you love,
He hurts you all the time.

When things go wrong,
Go wrong with you,
It hurts me, too.

You love him more
When you should love him less.
I pick up behind him
And take his mess.

He love another woman
And I love you,
But you love him
And stick to him like glue.

Now you better leave him;
He better put you down.
Oh, I won't stand
To see you pushed around.
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Scott MacLeod
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Wikidata for Wiktionary

Looking further into the CC Wikidata future, in what ways might such CC Wiktionary database developments as you're outlining here - https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:Wiktionary/Development/Proposals/2015-05 - inform, or be extensible into, a CC Universal Translator, eventually in all 7,929 languages in Glottolog - http://glottolog.org/glottolog/language - for example, as well as including invented and dead languages, and even inter-species' communication, - and in voice and video eventually, and for MIT OCW-centric linguistic research, as well? 

Thanks and cheers, 
Scott
CC WUaS Universal Translator: http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/WUaS_Universal_Translator
http://worlduniversityandschool.org/
Related documents[edit]. This proposal is building roughly on top of the 13-08 proposal. The 13-08 proposal describes the structure and motivation of the structure in greater detail. This proposal on the other hand offers an implementation breakdown. So even in the case that there is no full ...
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Great ... to ...http://worlduniversity.wikia.com/wiki/Grateful_Dead ? ... planned in many languages ... #GratefulDead
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Work
Occupation
Founder and President of World University and School
Skills
Bagpiper
Employment
  • World University and School
    Founder & President, present
Places
Map of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has livedMap of the places this user has lived
Currently
San Francisco Bay Area
Previously
Cambridge MA, Lexington MA, Boston MA, Hamden CT, Cuttyhunk MA, Bethesda MD, Geneva, Switzerland, Pittsburgh PA, Edinburgh, Scotland, Portland OR, Munich Germany, Wallingford PA, San Francisco CA, Berkeley CA, Isla Vista CA, Canyon CA
Story
Tagline
World University and School, like Wikipedia with best STEM-centric OpenCourseWare
Introduction
Developing World Univ & Sch for free, best STEM-centric OpenCourseWare, bachelor, Ph.D., law and M.D. degrees, Music (WUaS Music School/Jamming/online, free Music Playing Spaces) here now, Bagpiping / Scotland, Writing actual / virtual ethnography of Harbin Hot Springs with a virtual world aspect, Writing Poetry, Blogger, Tourism Studies

I'm developing World University & School, like Wikipedia with best STEM-centric OpenCourseWare, teach about the internet and society on Harvard's Berkman Island, and am interested in the anthropology of the internet. I'm also writing an actual / virtual ethnography of Harbin Hot Springs in northern California. ... http://www.scottmacleod.com and http://scott-macleod.blogspot.com/ 
Bragging rights
Edit a page at WUaS ... for open teaching and learning and planned for all 7,105+ languages and 242+ countries ... start a subject or a language, which will become a school or university
Education
  • Reed College
    Social science of Religion, German, 1979 - present
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Male