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Scientific Research Publishing
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(SCIRP: http://www.scirp.org) is an academic publisher of open access journals. It also publishes academic books and conference proceedings. As one of the leading OA publishers, we have been always evolving and improving. We intend to bring you a perfect breeding ground for exchanging ideas and research achievement.
(SCIRP: http://www.scirp.org) is an academic publisher of open access journals. It also publishes academic books and conference proceedings. As one of the leading OA publishers, we have been always evolving and improving. We intend to bring you a perfect breeding ground for exchanging ideas and research achievement.

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An Investigation of Early Socialization and Socio-Interactions in Higher Teacher Education Institutions
#Socialization #Interactions #Teachers
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63255&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

This study investigated the influence of early socialization of pre-service teachers and their tendency for interactions towards racial unity in Malaysian higher teacher education institutions. Early socialization in this study refers to the influences of family, school, peers and the mass media. Meanwhile, the interaction aspects refer to the tendency for interaction in different institutional environments among multi-ethnic pre-service teachers during their involvement in curricular activities, co-curricular activities, campus environment and daily in-campus activities. The unity in this study focuses on the appreciation of the values for unity and how it affects the tendency for interaction with multi-ethnic pre-service teachers. The current study utilized a survey research design where a number of 299 pre-service teachers from Higher Teacher Education Institutions (TEI) in the East Malaysia were randomly selected. A set of adapted questionnaires were used as the instruments. The pilot test using Cronbach alpha analysis showed all the items of the constructs are at a high value level between 0.775 and 0.957. This informs that the instruments are valid and reliable to be used. Descriptive statistics involved means and percentages whereas inferential statistics used a structural equation model (SEM). The mean score of the tendency for interaction and unity among multi-ethnic preservice teachers is between 4.17 and 4.7. Meanwhile, the mean scores for unity appreciation aspects among multi-ethics are also at a higher level with the mean scores between 4.19 and 4.41. This indicates that there is a higher level of interaction for unity as well as unity appreciation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis showed the following sub-constructs i.e. family, school and peer pressure are significantly contributed to the tendency of interaction and appreciation towards the values for unity among multiethnic preservice teachers, where the coefficients paths are 8.712, beta 0.504 (family variable); 5.441, beta 0.288 (school mi-lieu variable); and 3.407, beta 0.183 (peer pressure variable) respectively. These data suggest that those three factors mentioned are supposed to be taken into account in designing and implementing activities for unity in multi-ethnic higher teacher education community.
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Confucius and Kautilya on Establishing Moral Order for Prevention of Government and Market Failures
#BoundedRationality #GovernmentFailure #MarketFailure
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63195&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

The main objectives of this paper are of two kinds: first one may be described as historical in the sense of correcting more than two thousand years of misinterpretations of the ideas of Confucius and Kautilya on establishing a moral order and the nature of its relationship to the legalistic approach; the second one is to highlight the relevance of moral order not only to create peace and harmony but also enhance the creation and sharing of knowledge and lowering of transaction costs. Since both creation and sharing of knowledge depend on genuine trust, which flourishes only in an ethical environment, and not in a “culture of suspicion”. It is indicated that their insights or pearls of wisdom are actually more relevant to today’s knowledge-based economies than they were to economies during their own times. They would have emphasized the warming of hearts to each other to solve the problem of global warming.
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Effects of Sustained, Coordinated Activities Programming in Long-Term Care: The Memory in Rhythm® Program
#LongTermCare #Dementia #Agitation
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63096&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

Beneficial effects of providing engaging activities to long-term care residents have been well documented. However, it is important to determine the effects of activities when providing throughout the day, especially as they related to outcomes salient to administrators. We describe the creation and pilot testing of a sustained, coordinated activities program, Memory in Rhythm®(MIR), which incorporated Montessori-Based Dementia Programming™, in a skilled nursing facility (SNF). Effects of implementing MIR then were examined in memory care units in 16 aged care centers—9 SNFs and 7 assisted living residences in Ohio. For these centers, all data were collected over a period of one year before and one year after implementation of MIR. Results indicate that implementation of MIR was associated with reductions in medication use, increased census, decreased employee turnover, decreased wandering and agitation, and increased sleeping at night, eating and capacity for activities of daily living. In the SNFs, increases in RUGS case mix and use of Medicare Part B (rehabilitation services) were noted, while in assisted living implementation also was related to increased amount of time residents who were able to age in place. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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The Basic Principles of Kin Sociality and Eusociality: Human Evolution
#KinSociality #Eusociality #GroupSelection
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63133&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

The paper posits that kin sociality and eusociality are derived from the handicap-care principles based on the need-based care to the handicappers from the caregivers for the self-interest of the caregivers. In this paper, handicap is defined as the difficulty to survive and reproduce independently. Kin sociality is derived from the childhood handicap-care principle where the children are the handicapped children who receive the care from the kin caregivers in the inclusive kin group to survive. The caregiver gives care for its self-interest to reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of kin sociality contains the handicapped childhood and the caregiving adulthood. Eusociality is derived from the adulthood handicap-care principle where responsible adults are the handicapped adults who give care and receive care at the same time in the interdependent eusocial group to survive and reproduce its gene. Queen bees reproduce, but must receive care from worker bees that work but must rely on queen bees to reproduce. A caregiver gives care for its self-interest to survive and reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of eusociality contains the handicapped childhood-adulthood and the caregiving adulthood. The chronological sequence of the sociality evolution is individual sociality without handicap, kin sociality with handicapped childhood, and eusociality with handicapped adulthood. Eusociality in humans is derived from bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The chronological sequence of the eusocial human evolution is 1) the eusocial early hominins with bipedalism and the mixed habitat, 2) the eusocial early Homo species with bipedalism, the larger brain, and the open habitat, 3) the eusocial late Homo species with bipedalism, the largest brain, and the unstable habitat, and 4) extended eusocial Homo sapiens with bipedalism, the shrinking brain, omnipresent imagination, and the harsh habitat. The omnipresence of imagination in human culture converts eusociality into extended eusociality with both perception and omnipresent imagination.
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The Show-Up Identification Procedure: A Literature Review
#ShowUp #IdentificationAccuracy
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63131&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

A show-up is an identification procedure that only presents the witness with one suspect in contrast to a lineup where the suspect is presented among a number of fillers (i.e., known innocent people). This feature makes the show-up procedure very suggestive. In this literature review, an overview of the current research about this identification procedure is presented. The different factors that influence the accuracy in show-up procedures are separated into system (e.g., clothing bias, instruction bias, and the impact of multiple show-ups) and estimator variables (e.g., age, cross-race effects, and alcohol) in line with Wells [1]. The implications of the research are discussed together with suggestions for future research.
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Toxicity and Efficacy of Two Emulsifiable Concentrates of 2-Tridecanone against Red Imported Fire Ants
#FireAnts #DefensiveChemical #MoundDrench
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63020&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

2-tridecanone is a major constitute of defensive secretion in tawny crazy ants, Nylanderia fulva that is an ant species reported to be able to displace red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta in the field. 2-tridecanone was proven to be toxic to S. invicta. Although 2-tridecanone is commercially available, utilization of this naturally occurring compound in fire ant management has received little attention. In this study, toxicity and efficacy of two 2-tridecanone formulations were assessed against S. invicta. Two emulsifiable concentrates were prepared using 2-tridecanone as an active ingredient, vegetable oil as a solvent and polyoxyethylene tridecyl ether as a surfactant. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was used as a synergist in one formulation. Both formulations showed significant toxicity in laboratory bioassays. In a field trial, at application rate of 5.28 mL/L and 14 days after mound drench treatment, 100% control was achieved for formulation with PBO and 90% control for the formulation without PBO. In conclusion, both formulations had significant efficacy against S. invicta. Due to the low mammalian toxicity of 2-tridecanone, no involvement of hazardous synthetic organic solvents, no phytotoxicity at applied concentrations, and relatively low cost, both formulations are promising alternatives to commercial insecticide products for fire ant mound drench. The outstanding efficacy of both formulations observed in this study warrants further research on their efficacy against other pest insects.
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Providing Appropriate Solutions for Treatment and Sewage of Wastewaters in Cargo Terminals of Shorelines: An Emphasis on Terminal Bandar
#Wastewater #Sewage #CargoTerminal
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63018&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

Low volume of produced wastewater and specific regional, environmental and economic condition in small communities determines the methods of treatment of sewage in such communities including shorelines of Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Imam Khomeini Harbor and Chabahar Harbor. Ineffective methods of treating and sewing wastewater in aforesaid terminals as well as limitations of methods of wastewater treatment such as high level of underground waters doubled the necessity of considering alternative methods. In this paper, investigation of current conditions was performed through field observations and data collection regarding wastewater production in terminals and determination of qualitative specifications using sampling and carrying out pH, TSS, COD, BOD and temperature tests from inlet to outlet of available sewage system of abovementioned terminals and comparison with environmental organization standards corresponding to wastewater sewage and it was found out that conditions of available systems of wastewater treatment are not suitable. In this regard, modifying solutions for the sake of improving performance of systems of wastewater treatment of terminals is presented in this research. Finally, for wastewater treatment system of Bandar Abbas terminal, if there is no limitation for allocating lands, it is recommended to use artificial canebrake system with underground flow.
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The Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability Due to Leaching of Chemicals: The Review of Attenuation Factor
#GroundwaterVulnerability #ChemicalsLeaching #Soil
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63021&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

To assess the groundwater vulnerability due to leaching of chemicals, the groundwater system in the unsaturated zone is characterized by conceptual models that are further extended and refined with more detailed mathematical models to understand the governing physical processes in detail. However, due to lack of data and uncertainty level, an intermediate transition through index based models is researched. The attenuation factor (AF) approach, which works under the assumption that the chemicals degrade following a first-order kinetics and determines the fraction of the chemicals that goes to groundwater table, is one of the index based models that has been widely used due to its simplicity. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the research works done using the AF approach, to outline the future research needs. Furthermore, the mathematical implementation of the AF approach and the associated uncertainty levels is explained through an example and MATLAB source code.
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Reflections on Clinical Reasoning in Gestalt Therapy
#GestaltTherapy #Epistemology #ClinicalPsychology
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=63030&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

Using articles on psychotherapeutic management in Geltast Therapy published in Brazil between 2005 and 2015 as a basis, an academic literature search was performed from the Scielo data base in the Pesic site. We obtained a brief result containing 46 articles whose vast majority emphasized current clinical practices; even though, some articles indicate a propensity for rupture of this restricted tendency in favor of an integrating perspective, seeing the individual as a whole, in order to facilitate the autonomy expansion of public service users of clinical psychology. It was also observed that, for the past five years, there has been an increase in scientific production focused on clinical procedures that envisaged public policies which contributed for the renovation of the semantic field. We concluded by stressing the importance of development of research in the area of psychotherapeutic process, based on a more ecological dimension before the world.
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Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant
#WastewaterTreatment #HeavyMetal #RadionuclideConcentrations
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=62991&utm_campaign=google∓utm_medium=ldc

A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment (n = 2 per stage) which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages, the effluent and the community water. Samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentrations in water samples were evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 μg/L (As) - 670 μg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 μg/L (As) - 170 μg/L (Fe) in the effluent. The gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7 - 8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy revealed very high concentrations of 235U and226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L, respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L, respectively) in the community water. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 μSv·yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 μSv·yr-1 recommended by WHO.
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