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Please join us on 4/6 for a Developmental Science HOA with Dr.+Matthew Schlesinger, Associate Professor of Psychology at Southern Illinois University and director of the SIU Vision Lab. Matthew Schlesinger received his graduate degree in cognitive development from the University of California at Berkeley in 1995. After spending a year as a visiting lecturer in psychology at Berkeley, Dr. Schlesinger received a Fulbright fellowship to study artificial life models of sensorimotor cognition with Domenico Parisi at the Italian National Research Council in Rome. Dr. Schlesinger continued his postdoctoral work in 1998-2000 with a multi-disciplinary team of researchers at the University of Massachusetts, studying machine-learning approaches to adaptive motor control.  He is currently involved in three areas of research:  (1) visual attention and spatial working memory in infants, children, and adults, (2) neural network models of early visual processing and oculomotor control, and (3) neural substrates of working memory and spatial-directed attention. 

RSVP “yes” if you want to add this event to your calendar.

Relevant Links:
Faculty page: 
Lab page: 
Developmental Robotics Book: 
ICDL-EpiRob Conference: 

Relevant Readings:
Schlesinger, M., Johnson, S.P., & Amso, D.  (2014).  Prediction-learning in infants as a mechanism for gaze control during object exploration. Frontiers in Perception Science, 5, 1-12. 

Schlesinger, M., & McMurray, B. (2012). The past, present, and future of computational models of cognitive development. Cognitive Development, 27, 326-348. 

Schlesinger, M., Johnson, S.P., & Amso, D.  (2014).  Learnability of infants’ center-of-gaze sequences predicts their habituation and posthabituation looking time. In Proceedings of the Fourth Joint IEEE Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics (pp. 267-272). New York: IEEE.
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Developmental Science HOA: Episode 5
Mon, April 6, 10:15 AM
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Hi +Linda Smith. The video will be archived on this event post ( and on +Science on Google+'s YouTube channel ( I'm still trying to get +Anthony Morse into this HOA so he can talk about your recent PLOS ONE paper ( 
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Please join us on 3/4 for a Developmental Science HOA with Dr.+Laura Wagner, Associate Professor of Psychology at +The Ohio State University and director of the Developmental Language and Cognition Lab. Dr. Wagner studies how children acquire language, and in particular, how they learn about meaning. Her research has looks at various dimensions of meaning, including children's understanding of temporal and event semantics (especially the linguistic category of aspect), and their understanding of social indexical meanings coded in dialect and register. She conducts her studies at her lab on OSU's campus, and also at the Columbus Center of Science and Industry (+COSI). We will enable the Q & A app prior to the HOA so feel free to posts your questions on the event post or by using the app. RSVP “yes” to add this event to your calendar.

Relevant Links:
Faculty page: 
Lab page: 
Buckeye Language Network: 

Relevant Readings:
Wagner, L., Clopper, C. G., & Pate, J. (2014).  Children’s perception of dialect variation. Journal of Child Language, 41, 1062 – 1084.

Clopper, C., Rohrbeck, K. L. & Wagner, L. (2013). Perception of talker age by young adults with High-Functioning Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 134 - 146. 

Wagner, L. (2010). Acquisition of Semantics. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1 (4), 519 - 526. 
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Some scientific facts aren't up for debate in our science community. As scientists, we follow where the evidence leads, and the overwhelming evidence supports anthropogenic climate change, the efficacy of vaccines, the soundness of evolutionary theory, and the safety of GMO. There is vigorous debate within various scientific disciplines on how these settled areas of science work and what future outcomes of (for example) climate change or evolution will be. However, debate over mechanisms and outcomes should never be considered debate over the basic facts of a subject. A person claiming, for example, that anthropogenic climate change is a hoax is making an extraordinary claim against a huge body of peer-reviewed evidence, and barring extraordinary, credible, peer-reviewed evidence to support that claim, a post making such a claim will be removed from this community. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.

The focus of our community is on research trying to address these issues, and not to rehash or debate the evidence. Unlike politicians, we don't take positions to win votes or gain popularity. Rather, we ground our positions in the best evidence available to us, recognizing that scientific evidence may be incomplete but is constantly self-correcting. 

What is scientific consensus? :

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+Brian Encinas, your comment makes no sense. It sounds like the ramblings of a conspiracy theorist.
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Climate Change in the State of the Union:

I’ve heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they’re not scientists; that we don’t have enough information to act. Well, I’m not a scientist, either. But you know what — I know a lot of really good scientists at NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we’ll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe.
State of the Union 2015: Obama
No challenge poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change

This year President Obama identified climate change as the greatest threat to future generations, and I agree with him. While the President is not a scientist, he identified the brilliant scientists that we have in NASA, NOAA and our university system. 

Obama also used a fantastic statistic, 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century. Climate change is happening today, we do not need any more proof.

Climate speech:
And no challenge — no challenge — poses a greater threat to future generations than climate change.

2014 was the planet’s warmest year on record. Now, one year doesn’t make a trend, but this does — 14 of the 15 warmest years on record have all fallen in the first 15 years of this century.

I’ve heard some folks try to dodge the evidence by saying they’re not scientists; that we don’t have enough information to act. Well, I’m not a scientist, either. But you know what — I know a lot of really good scientists at NASA, and NOAA, and at our major universities. The best scientists in the world are all telling us that our activities are changing the climate, and if we do not act forcefully, we’ll continue to see rising oceans, longer, hotter heat waves, dangerous droughts and floods, and massive disruptions that can trigger greater migration, conflict, and hunger around the globe. The Pentagon says that climate change poses immediate risks to our national security. We should act like it.

That’s why, over the past six years, we’ve done more than ever before to combat climate change, from the way we produce energy, to the way we use it. That’s why we’ve set aside more public lands and waters than any administration in history. And that’s why I will not let this Congress endanger the health of our children by turning back the clock on our efforts. I am determined to make sure American leadership drives international action. In Beijing, we made an historic announcement — the United States will double the pace at which we cut carbon pollution, and China committed, for the first time, to limiting their emissions. And because the world’s two largest economies came together, other nations are now stepping up, and offering hope that, this year, the world will finally reach an agreement to protect the one planet we’ve got.

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+Michael Neese You actually think you're being serious? Without CO2 in the atmosphere the Earth would be an ice locked snowball. Do try and keep up. 
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The Saltiest Lake on Earth

New findings that have implications for similar briney features, known as recurring slope lineae (RSL), found on Mars. "Thus, if RSL and chloride-bearing basin floor units on Mars do represent DJP-like hydrologic systems, they may have significant potential for hosting resilient microbiota, and the most habitable places on Mars may mimic the least habitable places on Earth."
The Lake in Antarctica That Does Not Freeze

There are lakes on the frozen continent of Antarctica.  Most have thick layers of ice year round but there is one that has so much salt that the water does not freeze, even in the frigid depths of winter in the coldest area on earth.  Well, not a really big lake but just a pond; it is the Don Juan Pond located in the west end of Wright Valley (South Fork), Victoria Land, Antarctica.  Where does the salt come from?

Don Juan Pond, also called Lake Don Juan, is a small and very shallow hypersaline lake in the west end of Wright Valley (South Fork), Victoria Land, Antarctica, 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) west from Lake Vanda. It is wedged between the Asgard Range in the south and the Dais in the north. On the west end there is a small tributary and a feature that has been described as a rock glacier. With a salinity level of over 40%, Don Juan Pond is the saltiest known body of water on Earth.  ⓐ
Don Juan Pond was discovered in 1961. It was named for two helicopter pilots, Lt Don Roe and Lt John Hickey, who piloted the helicopter involved with the first field party investigating the pond. On that initial investigation, the temperature was −30 °C (−22 °F) and the water remained in a liquid state.  ⓐ

While discovered in 1961, it is in the news now because of the images just released by NASA taken by the Earth Observatory satellite.  One of the images is shown below on the right.
The image on the left is from the 2013 study done by researchers by James Dickson and James Head from Brown, Joseph Levy from Oregon State, and David Marchant from Boston University.  They were investigating the source of the calcium chloride salt. (both pictures are high resolution so have a closer look)

The research represents the most detailed observations ever made of Don Juan Pond. “It was a simple idea,” Dickson said of the team’s approach. “Let’s take 16,000 pictures of this pond over the course of two months and then see which way the water’s flowing. So we took the pictures, correlated them to the other measurements we were taking, and the story told itself.”  ⓑ

Using time lapse photography and other data, the researchers show that water sucked out of the atmosphere by parched, salty soil is the source of the saltwater brine that keeps the pond from freezing. Combine that with some fresh water flowing in from melting snow, and you’ve got a pond able to remain fluid in one of the coldest and driest places on Earth. And because of the similarities between the Dry Valleys and the frozen desert of Mars, the findings could have important implications for water flow on the Red Planet both in the past and maybe in the present.  ⓑ

What the pictures showed was that water levels in the pond increase in pulses that coincide with daily peaks in temperature, suggesting that the water comes partly from snow warmed just enough by the midday sun to melt. But that influx of fresh water doesn’t explain the pond’s high salt content, which is eight times higher than that of the Dead Sea. For that explanation, the researchers looked to a second source of liquid documented in the photos.  ⓑ

The second source comes from a channel of loose sediment located to the west of the pond. Previous research had found that sediment to be high in calcium chloride salt. To see if that was the source of the pond’s salt, the researchers set up a second time-lapse camera to monitor the channel and synchronized the pictures with data collected from nearby weather stations.  ⓑ

The pictures show dark streaks of moisture called water tracks forming in the soil whenever the relative humidity in the air spiked. Similar water tracks also form on a cliff face north of the pond. What’s forming these tracks is the salt in the soil absorbing any available moisture in the air, a process known as deliquescence. Those water-laden salts then trickle down through the loose soil until they reach the permafrost layer below. There they sit until the occasional flow of snowmelt washes the salts down the channel and into the pond.  ⓑ

When the team saw how closely correlated the appearance of water tracks was to their humidity readings, they knew the tracks were the result of deliquescence and that the process was key to keeping the pond salty enough to persist.  ⓑ

The findings refute the dominant interpretation of Don Juan Pond’s origin. Since the pond’s discovery in 1961, most researchers had agreed that its briney waters must be supplied mainly from deep in the ground. However, these new images show no evidence at all that groundwater contributes to the pond.  ⓑ

ⓐ  Wiki

ⓑ  News from Brown
How the world’s saltiest pond gets its salt

Scientific Reports (open access)
Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake and implications for Mars

Live Science
World's Saltiest Body of Water Seen from Space (Photo)

Image on right,
Credit: NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team and the U.S. Geological Survey.  
NASA Earth-Observing Satellite photo showing Don Juan Pond, a network of channels carved into the bedrock east of the Wright Upper Glacier, and the frozen Lake Vanda to the northeast of the pond.
Image on left,
Credit: Geological Sciences/Brown University
A camera installed above Don Juan Pond in Antarctica’s McMurdo Dry Valleys took 16,000 images in two months, documenting geological processes in real time.
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再生核研究所声明199(2015.1.15) 世界の数学界のおかしな間違い、世界の初等教育から学術書まで間違っていると言える ― ゼロ除算100/0=0,0/0=0

ゼロ除算は 西暦628年インドでゼロが文献に記録されて以来、問題とされてきた。ゼロ除算とは、ゼロで割ることを考えることである。これは数学の基本である、四則演算、加法、減法、乗法、除法において、除法以外は何時でも自由にできるのに、除法の場合だけ、ゼロで割ることができないという理由で、さらに物理法則を表す多くの公式にゼロ除算が自然に現れていることもあって、世界各地で、今でも絶えず、問題にされていると考えられる。― 小学生でも どうしてゼロで割れないのかと毎年、いろいろな教室で問われ続いているのではないだろうか.

これについては、近代数学が確立された以後でも、何百年を越えて 永い間の定説として、ゼロ除算は 不可能であり、ゼロで割ってはいけないことは、初等教育から、中等、高校、大学そして学術界、すなわち、世界の全ての文献と理解はそうなっている。変えることのできない不変的な法則のように理解されていると考えられる。

しかるに2014年2月2日 ゼロ除算は、可能であり、ゼロで割ればゼロであることが、偶然発見された。その後の経過、背景や意味付け等を纏めてきた:

再生核研究所声明 148(2014.2.12) 100/0=0,  0/0=0 - 割り算の考えを自然に拡張すると ― 神の意志
再生核研究所声明154(2014.4.22) 新しい世界、ゼロで割る、奇妙な世界、考え方
再生核研究所声明157(2014.5.8) 知りたい 神の意志、ゼロで割る、どうして 無限遠点と原点が一致しているのか?
再生核研究所声明161(2014.5.30)ゼロ除算から学ぶ、数学の精神 と 真理の追究
再生核研究所声明163(2014.6.17)ゼロで割る(零除算)- 堪らなく楽しい数学、探そう零除算 ― 愛好サークルの提案
再生核研究所声明166(2014.6.20)ゼロで割る(ゼロ除算)から学ぶ 世界観
再生核研究所声明171(2014.7.30)掛け算の意味と割り算の意味 ― ゼロ除算100/0=0は自明である?
再生核研究所声明176(2014.8.9) ゼロ除算について、数学教育の変更を提案する
Announcement 179 (2014.8.25): Division by zero is clear as z/0=0 and it is fundamental in mathematics
Announcement 185 : The importance of the division by zero $z/0=0$
再生核研究所からの贈り物 ― ゼロ除算100/0=0, 0/0=0
夜明け、新世界、再生核研究所 年頭声明
― 再生核研究所声明193(2015.1.1)― 
再生核研究所声明196(2015.1.4)ゼロ除算に於ける山根の解釈100= 0x0について

ところが、気づいてみると、ゼロ除算は当たり前なのに、数学者たちが勝手に、割り算は掛け算の逆と思い込み、ゼロ除算は不可能であると 絶対的な真理であるかのように 烙印を押して、世界の人々も盲信してきた。それで、物理学者が そのために基本的な公式における曖昧さに困ってきた事情は ニュートンの万有引力の法則にさえ見られる。
さらに、誠に奇妙なことには、除算はその言葉が表すように、掛算とは無関係に考えられ、日本ばかりではなく西欧でも中世から除算は引き算の繰り返しで計算されてきた、古い、永い伝統がある。その考え方から、ゼロ除算は自明であると道脇裕氏と道脇愛羽さん6歳が(四則演算を学習して間もないときに)理解を示した ― ゼロ除算は除算の固有の意味から自明であり、ゼロで割ればゼロであるは数学的な真実であると言える(声明194)。数学、物理、文化への影響も甚大であると考えられる。
数学者は 数学の自由な精神で 好きなことで、考えられることは何でも考え、不可能を可能にし、分からないことを究め、真智を求めるのが 数学者の精神である。非ユークリッド幾何学の出現で 絶対は変わり得ることを学び、いろいろな考え方があることを学んできたはずである。そのような観点から ゼロ除算の解明の遅れは 奇妙な歴史的な事件である と言えるのではないだろうか。
これは、数学を超えた、真実であり、ゼロ除算は不可能であるとの 世の理解は間違っている と言える。そこで、真実を世界に広めて、人類の歴史を進化させるべきであると考える。特に声明176と声明185を参照。ゼロ除算は 堪らなく楽しい 新世界 を拓いていると考える。
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Structural Coloration: From Blue Jays to Butterflies, find out how colors can be based on nanostructures instead of pigments. 
Researchers are working to understand how often-colorless biological nanostructures give rise to some of the most spectacular technicolor displays in nature.

So what do the feathers of blue-jays and peacocks, the blue eyes of some gorgeous women, the opalescence of some gem stones, and the blue sky above us all have in common? Math. Because none of them are actually blue: rather, they are all colorless, yet they scatter blue light but not larger wavelengths of light. Rayleigh scattering in the sky, and Tyndall Scattering in blue feathers and eyes. How does this work, exactly? With a delightful mixture of microbiology and physics. 

The formulas have an inverse fourth power dependence on the wavelength of the light  (λ^−4), which in English means the red and blue ends of the spectrum get treated differently, with the blue light being scattered, unlike the red light. Which accounts for why our sky is blue and not red or yellow or white, for instance. You can also see Tyndall scattering if you have friends who ride motorcycles: look for blue smoke spewed from them; the particles are provided by burnt engine oil, and they also scatter only the blue light. 

But it's much more unintuitive in feathers and eyes, because we know that pigments tend to cause coloring in animals, and they do for most other colors of feathers, for instance. But not for blue feathers; and not for the colors in the irises of our eyes. Blue feathers and eye colors are called "structural colors" because they are generated by light interacting with the 3-D shape of the colorless material, as opposed to a colored pigment or dye, which simply selectively absorbs some colors and reflects others. Note that pigments and dyes fade (think of your old blue-jeans or tie-dyed shirts that have faded). Structural colors, on the other hand, can easily last for hundreds or thousands of years or more in the feathers after the animal has died.

With blue feathers, blue-jays and other blue birds as well have no blue pigment at all of any kind in their feathers. Rather, blue-jay feathers consist of extremely small specialized cells. As the feather grows, keratin elongates in the cells and separates from water. Then when the cell dies, the water evaporates and the keratin forms permanent, honeycombed, sponge-like structures, called “barbs” in blue jays. These structures absorb the red end of the spectrum and scatter and reflect the blue end, thus making the blue-jay appear blue to us. 

In our eyes, the colored part, the iris, is composed of two cell layers: the front stroma layer; and the rear epithelium layer. The stroma consists of colorless collagen fibers. The stroma only occasionally will contain brown melanin pigmentation, but sometimes is totally colorless, containing no melanin. When this occurs, and the stroma is colorless, we have blue eyes, because when light enters the eyes the blue light gets scattered and reflected back out. This also accounts for the variations in the shades of color of someone's blue or green eyes, depending on the lighting they are in.

Article on eyes: 
Article on Rayleigh scattering in the sky:
Article on the why the Martian sky is Pink, and not Blue:
Article on blue feathers below.

#scienceeveryday   #sciencesunday   #physics   #microbiology  
Researchers are working to understand how often-colorless biological nanostructures give rise to some of the most spectacular technicolor displays in nature.
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+Mai Daly Good point.
"The more we learn, the greater we find is our ignorance"
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Water Absorption

Here's the interesting science behind water absorption by polymers found in diapers to satisfy your #ScienceSunday  curiosity!
Sodium polyacrylate: The fluff that absorbs water!

❅ Sodium polyacrylate is an example of a super-absorbing polymer. It is a cross-linked (network) polymer that contains sodium atoms. It absorbs water by a process called osmosis. 

Explanation from; (h/t +Rajini Rao)

The white powder is a polymer of sodium polyacrylate. The particles have a membrane of the polyacrylate which surrounds the sodium ions. By the process of osmosis, the water is attracted to the sodium polyacrylate because it contains sodium ions (an ion that you would find in table salt).

It expands the crystals of the powder and makes it into solid like gel. This is an example of an osmosis process reaction involving a polymer. Sodium polyacrylate contains a high number of sodium ions within each particle. Water is highly attracted to sodium ions. So when the water is poured into the beaker containing the sodium polyacrylate, it moves into the individual powder particles and expands the polymer particles to become a solid like gel.

❄  Sodium polyacrylate can absorb 800 times its weight in distilled water, but only 300 times its weight in tap water, since tap water contains some sodium, calcium and other mineral salts.

Source :   #sciencesunday   #scienceeveryday   #chemistry  
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Happy Darwin Day

In celebration of Charles Darwin's 206th birthday, here is a post on how species continue to evolve to this day. Speciation caught in the act! 
Evolution of a Species

Assortive Mating: The diversity of lifeforms on our planet is central to evolution. But how do new species form? A key step is assortive mating, when individuals use physical or vocal cues to choose mates that resemble themselves. Perhaps natural selection favors offspring from similar matings. Eventually, the populations diverge genetically to the extent that the hybrids are unfit, and separate species emerge.

Caught in the act? Take the curious case of the Australian Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae). There are black and red head color morphs (see image) that prefer to mate with like types. This preference is genetic, as chicks reared by foster parents of different type still prefer to mate with their own head color morph. In fact, the head color and mating preference are tightly linked on the sex chromosome Z (males are ZZ and females are ZW in birds). This lack of "sexual imprinting" is unusual, since most birds get their cues from rearing parents.

Hybrid drama: Both head color types coexist in the same geographical area. Shrinking and unequal populations mean that mates of the same type can be hard to find (the bird is endangered). The birds seem to "make the best of a bad situation" and breed with different head color morphs anyway. But there is a steep price to pay : more than a third of the offspring die. The mortality rate is worse in female chicks, nearly half fail to survive. Curiously, the mothers seem to control for this by producing broods with more males. So, if they are tricked into thinking that their mate is of a different head color  (using bird make-up!) they produce biased broods! All of this suggests that the Gouldian finch may be in the process of splitting into species, unless it becomes extinct before then :(

▪ Images (National Aquarium):

▪ H/T +Mindy Weisberger whose post on the phosphorescence beads marking the gouldian finch chick's mouth ( set me off on this evolutionary hunt!

▪ Further readings by Sarah R. Pryke ▶
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Beautiful colored bird
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In 5 minutes we’ll be discussing eye tracking technology and perceptual/cognitive development with Dr. Scott Johnson from UCLA. Hope you can join us!
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Please join us on 1/28 for a Developmental Science HOA with Dr. Scott Johnson, Professor of Developmental Psychology at UCLA and director of the UCLA +Baby Lab. Dr. Johnson research interests include: cognitive development, perceptual development, visual perception, eye movements, attention, computational modeling, neural foundations of vision and cognition, neurophysiological development, and learning mechanisms. On 1/28 we will be discussing: (1) big issues in perceptual and cognitive development, (2) eye trackers, how they work, and how can they give us insight into the developing mind, and (3) Dr. Johnson’s recent research interests and findings. We will open up the Q & A app prior to the Hangout On Air so feel free to post your questions on the event post or by using the app on the day of the HOA. RSVP “yes” to add this event to your calendar.

Important Links:
Faculty page: 
Lab page: 
Related Article:

Image Sources: 
This Hangout On Air is hosted by Science on Google+. The live video broadcast will begin soon.
Developmental Science HOA: Episode 3
Wed, January 28, 10:15 AM
Hangouts On Air - Broadcast for free

Jessica Sommerville's profile photoOne Million People who accept Evolution's profile photoDaniel Collins's profile photoAnn Rich's profile photo
This is a great (and short) article if you're looking for something to read before the HOA, Some of the research that Dr. Johnson will be discussing builds off of this study.
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#ScienceMediaHype   on Growth Hormones
+Irene Riz shows why the media reports on billionaire investor Peter Thiel's growth hormone comments are scientifically inaccurate and irresponsible.

#science   #stem   #health  
Recently published paper directly shows the role of growth hormone mediated activation of #mTOR in aging ( It supports accumulating studies indicating that inhibition of mTOR by caloric restriction prolongs life and activation of mTOR leads to accelerated aging.
Despite that Peter Thiel takes growth hormone pill every day and plans to live until 120.
“The 47-year-old investor, who co-founded PayPal and made an early bet on Facebook Inc, said he’s taking human growth hormone every day in a wide-ranging interview with Bloomberg Television’s Emily Chang.”
The only thing he is afraid of is higher chance of cancer for which Mr. Thiel is optimistically expecting to find cure in 10 years. (Biologists can promise anything to get funded, but biology is the most difficult science for future predictions). Cancer apart, premature #stem cell exhaustion is a major problem that is expected if to stimulate mTOR, one of the important downstream targets of growth hormone.

Mr. Thiel somehow missed the point that natural decline of the growth hormone levels and lower mTOR activity might be an approach of a healthy body fighting aging, giving body longer periods for #autophagy mediated self-cleaning and error correction versus active growth and building. In addition, as I already mentioned, an over-activation of mTOR may cause exhaustion of stem cell supplies in human the same way as it was seen in mice. The animals with genetically unleashed mTOR showed not only anemia (due to exhaustion of hematopoietic stem cells) but also grey hair and hunched backs.

A group of Russian scientists are taking the inhibitor of mTOR as a supplement.  They hope to live longer and to stay younger as well as Mr. Thiel. 
mTOR is a builder. So maybe the appearance of Mr.Thiel’s muscles will improve but the effectively working muscle needs also time to clean up and rebuild -the time out moment of mTOR inhibition. 

In normal cell mTOR oscillates under direct control of day light, supported by chemical signaling connecting eyes-brain and body. The better synchronization, the healthier organism is.   With age the synchronization is less efficient contributing to inflammation and cancer. So who will live longer?

Image is based on Heinrich Hoffman 1844 illustration to The Story of Augustus, who would not have any Soup.
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Airborne or Droplets: Know the Difference

A useful graphic that explains how viruses are transmitted through different routes. 
Viruses can spread through the air in two ways: inside large droplets that fall quickly to the ground (red), or inside tiny droplets that float in the air (gray). In the first route, called droplet transmission, the virus can spread only about 3 to 6 feet from an infected person. In the second route, called airborne transmission, the virus can travel 30 feet or more
Turns out, Ebola is transmitted through the air, but it's not very good at spreading through the airborne route. What in the heck does that mean? We dig into the science to clear up the kerfuffle.
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I don't know vaccine-supply yet, though.
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Explore. Discover. Learn.
The primary goal of this page/database is to make it easier for people to connect with scientists, science journalists, science teachers (K-12), and science pages on Google+.  

How do I use this database to follow science on Google+?
You can search for and follow scientists, science writers, science teachers, and science pages in two ways. First, the database is categorized by discipline. You can click on the links at the top of the spreadsheet or the tabs at the bottom of the spreadsheet to search within a discipline. You can circle individual profiles/pages by clicking on the Google+ links. Or second, you can add discipline specific shared circles. We will publish updated shared circles at regular intervals for your convenience.

Cover image by Tamily Weissman of Harvard University

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Profiles- Entries for profiles will be evaluated and will fall into one of the three following categories: (1) your entry will be added to the database and your profile will also be added to shared circles (Active), (2) your entry will be added to the database (Inactive), or (3) your entry will be removed from database.

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Physical: +Brian Koberlein 


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