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Rumiana Nikolova
Attended University of Sofia - Medicine
Lives in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
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Rumiana Nikolova

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That's my gift to everyone who support me & greatly thanks !!

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+Andy Mang You're very kind dear Andy !!! Thanks a lot for your support and good friendship!
Wish you a nice evening and a wonderful week my dearest friend :-))....sorry for delayed my comment because I'm very busy.

Rumiana Nikolova

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╭•⊰✿  Have a happy Sunday  ✿⊱•╮

Mermaid/Trumpet Tulle,Lace Queen Anne Empire Floor-Length Prom Dress, shop cheap Mermaid/Trumpet Tulle,Lace Queen Anne Empire Floor-Length Prom Dress at today! Free Shipping & Easy Return!
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Good morning dear Rumiana 🌹 Have a happy Sunday too ☆ warm greetings ☆ ♡ ☆ 

Rumiana Nikolova

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When I want to shoot she was about to catch prey ...


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+Marina Versaci Your lovely comment and feedback means a lot to me, many thanks! Wish you a nice weekend dear Marina & warmest greetings :-*

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+David C Peterson Many thanks for your nice comment and feedback

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► Have a happy Friday to Everyone ◄

╭•⊰✿   💐 ╭•⊰✿

~ One flower ~

#hqspmacro +HQSP Macro curated by +Terrie Gray +Stefanie Schächtel +Peter Marbaise +Evi Verstraeten +Igor Schevchenko   
#myfavpicoftheday +My Fav Pic of the Day by +Trudy Grossman   
#flowercolors +//flower colors//  by +angelic labru  

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Warmly thanks ALL for the plusses !!

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Snowy Bulgaria...

Have a great new week to Everyone ! :-))

#mobilephotography #winter 
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+Barbara S My pleasure you like it, many thanks for your nice comment! Best wishes

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~ One of my favorites photos ~

I want to say a big THANKS for everyone who supported me !!

Sending my friendly regards and smiles :-)))

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+Daniele rmx +Hazel Payne +Andi Fritzsch +Thomas Ber 
Warmly thanks again for your lovely comments & truly appreciated your wonderful friendship dear friends!!!
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Rumiana Nikolova

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Great Photographers and your photos! 

Thank you so much +Photo Exchange Club & +Malthus John 
The new Photo Exchange Club Collection!

Enjoy these photos from members of the Photo Exchange Club.  Browse the collection, and add people to your circles!  These are active users who contribute to this curated collection of photography on Google+.  Make connections!  Increase the viewing of your photos!

To submit your own photo, comment below with a link. (click on the date of the post you want to share, and copy the link from there).  No albums, collections, etc.  Please share this Collection to help promote the PEC!  The next Collection will come out on February 25th. 

Share this post, and add it to your collections!

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The Phenomenon of Self-Organised Criticality

Self-organised criticality is the name given to a phenomena characterised by dynamic systems that possess a critical transition point as an attractor, a state of being on the edge of a phase transition, on the edge of order and chaos, and heavily influenced by local feedback. It is considered a key mechanism by which complexity in natural systems spontaneously arises. I find it to be a beautiful and fascinating phenomena that seems to saturate the dynamics of living systems at all levels of organisation, from individual biomolecules and replication to brain function and consciousness. Wikipedia provides a starting point: and some fascinating examples that I’ve had bookmarked for ages and wanted to share include the following.

1. Ubiquity & Adaptive Utility of Criticality in Biological Systems

Information-based fitness and the emergence of criticality in living systems is an excellent open-access article exploring the importance and power of self-organised criticality in living systems, particularly with regard to their evolution, adaptation, and the cooperation between a community of agents. Article here and summary:

Recently, evidence has been mounting that biological systems might operate at the borderline between order and disorder, i.e., near a critical point. A general mathematical framework for understanding this common pattern, explaining the possible origin and role of criticality in living adaptive and evolutionary systems, is still missing. We rationalize this apparently ubiquitous criticality in terms of adaptive and evolutionary functional advantages. We provide an analytical framework, which demonstrates that the optimal response to broadly different changing environments occurs in systems organizing spontaneously—through adaptation or evolution—to the vicinity of a critical point. Furthermore, criticality turns out to be the evolutionary stable outcome of a community of individuals aimed at communicating with each other to create a collective entity.

2. Criticality is Crucial for Consciousness and Brain Function

A growing body of experimental evidence suggests that the phenomenon of self-organised criticality is crucial to normal effective brain function and indeed to consciousness itself. As usual Quanta Magazine provides an excellent article titled A Fundamental Theory to Model the Mind on the history of self-organised criticality and the growing recognition of its importance in brain function here with excerpt:

There can be no phase transitions without a critical point, and without transitions, a complex system cannot adapt. That is why avalanches only show up at criticality, a “sweet spot” where a system is perfectly balanced between order and disorder. They typically occur when the brain is in its normal resting state. Avalanches are a mechanism by which a complex system avoids becoming trapped, or “phase-locked,” in one of two extreme cases. At one extreme, there is too much order, such as during an epileptic seizure; the interactions among elements are too strong and rigid, so the system cannot adapt to changing conditions. At the other, there is too much disorder; the neurons aren’t communicating as much, or aren’t as broadly interconnected throughout the brain, so information can’t spread as efficiently and, once again, the system is unable to adapt.

More recently we had an article in Science Magazine Consciousness may be the product of carefully balanced chaos here discussing how consciousness itself appears to be inherently dependent on the phenomenon of criticality in the brain. Criticality in the brain appears to maximise cortical integration to effectively combine multiple inputs from different sources simultaneously in a single moment.

During wakeful consciousness, participants’ brains generated a flurry of ever-changing activity, and the fMRI showed a multitude of overlapping networks activating as the brain integrated its surroundings and generated a moment to moment “flow of consciousness.” After the propofol kicked in, brain networks had reduced connectivity and much less variability over time. The brain seemed to be stuck in a rut, using the same pathways over and over again. The results suggest that, in the brain, there is an optimal level of connectivity between neurons that creates the maximum number of possible pathways. If each neuron can be thought of as a node in the network, consciousness might result from exploring the network as thoroughly as possible.

Interestingly this also appears to provide support for Tononi’s Integrated Information Theory of consciousness.

3. Quantum Criticality, Thermodynamics, and the Inevitability of LIfe

The Origin of Life And The Hidden Role of Quantum Criticality is another excellent article examining this phenomenon, available here This discusses the importance of self-organised criticality for biomolecules and proteins and the functioning of all life. The biomolecules and proteins exhibit quantum critical conduction profiles and the odds of finding one molecule that stably exhibits a quantum critical state is astronomically small; finding most here suggests an incredibly strong selection pressure for evolution to find these structures. Key excerpt:

Quantum criticality describes the behaviour of electrons in large molecules when they occupy the exotic state that sits at the knife edge between conduction and insulation. Most biomolecules are quantum critical conductors; their electronic properties are precisely tuned to the transition point between a metal and an insulator. In other words, biomolecules belong to an entirely new class of conductor that is not bound by the ordinary rules of electron transport, a discovery that has profound implications for our understanding of the nature of life and its origin.

Finally, I think this other excellent article A New Physics Theory of Life again from Quanta Magazine here discusses (what I think is) a closely related phenomena in which thermodynamic efficiency, the ever-more-effective dissipation of heat and energy, drives the inevitable birth of life and self-replicating systems that are much more effective at this than inanimate matter. Another excerpt:

When a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life. Self-replication, the process that drives the evolution of life on Earth, is one such mechanism by which a system might dissipate an increasing amount of energy over time.

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Rumiana Nikolova

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► Good morning and have a great day to ALL ◄ 
Sending my friendly regards from Bulgaria :-)))

☕  💞  😍  💞

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+Anja R. Hello my dear Anja, hope you have a fabulous day also & warm greetings and many thanks for your kind words :-))

Rumiana Nikolova

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.... another winter capture from my town...

I want to say a big THANKS for your support !!

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+Wayne Lu So nice to see you, your lovely comment and feedback means a lot to me & greatly thanks dear Wayne! Sending your nice wishes back to you my friend! :-))

Rumiana Nikolova

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Wishing you to Everyone a fantastic Weekend :-)))

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+Mario Falcetti thanks you
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Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria
Macrophotography ◊ Medicine ◊ Science
            PRACTICE MEDICINE ♥     I am Rumiana / from BULGARIA / for friends - I am  Rumi I graduated from Medical university and then remained as a lecturer at the university..  I worked in a hospital - in the surgical ward.. Now I work in shcool as physican. I'm volunteer in Bulgarian Red Cross                       My interests : - In the medical field - Photography - Fashion and arts - Public relations /PR / - I want to know more all areas of life and science - Politics..Philosophy - Good books and of course good music - Sports ..I love to dance and have fun My Google plus - page My page - Linkedin : I want to learn more about other countries..and new friends. I can introduce you to  my country and of course...with me...I will sometime talk about myself  and my experiences.  I will share the work of others ...You will get is my sense of laughter.Once  know me  - you will understand that I'm lady with a smile...always want to have fun... My desire is  for a good friendship ! Thank you so much for visiting my profile page :))          SOME OF MY FAVORITE QUOTES:. "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing" -  Socrates "Those who trade freedom for the illusion of security deserve neither freedom nor security "  - Benjamin Franklin THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN LIFE IS TO BE YOURSELF !!!                                                     
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Participate in charitable initiatives ♣ I'm a volunteer in Bulgarian Red Cross ♣ Public speaker ♣ I participate in different projects ♣
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March 11
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