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Rudi van der Linde
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Rudi van der Linde

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Quantum Physics #NEWS : Physicists Create World’s First Time Crystal
Crystals are extraordinary objects, not least because of their symmetry. Crystals form repeating patterns that are the same in some directions but not all directions. That’s something of a surprise given that the laws of physics, which govern their formation, are the same in all directions.

That the laws of physics are spatially symmetrical but crystals are not is a phenomenon known as symmetry breaking. It comes about not by adding energy to a system, but by taking it away. Indeed, crystals are a manifestation of systems in their lowest energy states.

But the laws of physics are not only symmetrical in space but also in time. And that raises the interesting question of whether it is possible to break temporal symmetry in the same way. In other words, is it possible to create time crystals? - read more: MIT Review: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602541/physicists-create-worlds-first-time-crystal/

- Observation of a Discrete Time Crystal : pdf: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1609.08684v1.pdf
Study Abstract: Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in many areas of physics, ranging from cosmology and particle physics to condensed matter. A prime example is the breaking of spatial translation symmetry, which underlies the formation of crystals and the phase transition from liquid to solid. Analogous to crystals in space, the breaking of translation symmetry in time and the emergence of a "time crystal" was recently proposed, but later shown to be forbidden in thermal equilibrium. However, non-equilibrium Floquet systems subject to a periodic drive can exhibit persistent time-correlations at an emergent sub-harmonic frequency. This new phase of matter has been dubbed a "discrete time crystal" (DTC). Here, we present the first experimental observation of a discrete time crystal, in an interacting spin chain of trapped atomic ions. We apply a periodic Hamiltonian to the system under many-body localization (MBL) conditions, and observe a sub-harmonic temporal response that is robust to external perturbations. Such a time crystal opens the door for studying systems with long-range spatial-temporal correlations and novel phases of matter that emerge under intrinsically non-equilibrium conditions. 
Time crystals were first predicted in 2012. Now researchers have created time crystals for the first time and say they could one day be used as quantum memories.
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Nuclear battery could turn hazardous waste into lasting clean energy - Scientists are turning nuclear waste into super-efficient diamond batteries - With a half-life of 5,730 years
Could nuclear waste be made great again by being repurposed to generate clean electricity in a nuclear-powered battery? Researchers at the United Kingdom’s University of Bristol certainly think so — and they’ve developed a battery to prove it.
Unlike the majority of current electricity-generation technologies, which produce current by moving a magnet through a wire coil, the man-made diamond at the heart of the new battery project is able to produce a charge simply by being placed in close proximity to a source of radiation.

The research was shown off late last week at the University of Bristol’s Cabot Institute “Ideas to Change the World” annual lecture on Friday.

While at present the team’s prototype diamond battery uses nickel-63 as its radiation source, in the future they hope that this can be replaced by carbon-14, a radioactive version of carbon, which is created in the graphite blocks used in in nuclear power plants. (more: http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/diamond-battery-clean-energy/#ixzz4RPYBZPlf )
Scientists have figured out how to use nuclear waste as an energy source, converting radioactive gas into artificial diamonds that could be used as batteries.

These diamonds, which are able to generate their own electrical current, could potentially provide a power source for thousands of years, due to the longstanding half-life of the radioactive substances they're made from.

"There are no moving parts involved, no emissions generated, and no maintenance required, just direct electricity generation," says geochemist Tom Scott from the University of Bristol in the UK.

"By encapsulating radioactive material inside diamonds, we turn a long-term problem of nuclear waste into a nuclear-powered battery and a long-term supply of clean energy."

Scott's team has so far demonstrated a prototype diamond battery that uses an unstable isotope of nickel (nickel–63) as its radiation source.

Nickel 63 has a half-life of approximately 100 years, meaning the researchers' prototype device would still hold about 50 percent of its 'charge' in 100 years' time.

But the scientists say there's an even better source they could work with – and doing so would end up providing a solution for the UK's massive stockpiles of nuclear waste.

The first generation of Magnox nuclear reactors in the UK produced during the 1950s through to the 1970s used graphite blocks to help sustain the nuclear reactions, but the technique comes at a cost.

During the process, the graphite blocks themselves become radioactive, generating an unstable carbon isotope, carbon–14.

The last of these Magnox reactors was retired in 2015, but after decades of nuclear power generation, there's an awful lot of waste byproduct left over, with almost 95,000 tonnes of these graphite blocks needing to be safely stored and monitored while they remain radioactive.

And that could be a pretty long time, given that carbon–14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years.

While that means carbon–14 has to be stored for an extremely long time, it also means the material could make for some amazingly long-lasting batteries – if it can be repurposed into the diamond structure, like the team did with nickel–63.

"Carbon–14 was chosen as a source material because it emits a short-range radiation, which is quickly absorbed by any solid material," says one of the researchers, Neil Fox.

"This would make it dangerous to ingest or touch with your naked skin, but safely held within diamond, no short-range radiation can escape. In fact, diamond is the hardest substance known to man, there is literally nothing we could use that could offer more protection."

The team shared details of their work at an "Ideas to change the world" lecture at the University of Bristol last week, but haven't published their research as yet, so we'll have to wait and see to find out how viable their carbon–14 batteries really could be.

According to the researchers, carbon–14 batteries would only be good for low-power applications – but their endurance would be on a whole different scale.

"An alkaline AA battery weighs about 20 grams, has an energy density storage rating of 700 Joules/gram, and [uses] up this energy if operated continuously for about 24 hours," Scott told Luke Dormehl at Digital Trends.

"A diamond beta-battery containing 1 gram of C14 will deliver 15 Joules per day, and will continue to produce this level of output for 5,730 years — so its total energy storage rating is 2.7 TeraJ."

That level of output could make the diamond batteries useful "in situations where it is not feasible to charge or replace conventional batteries", Scott said in a press release.

"Obvious applications would be in low-power electrical devices where long life of the energy source is needed, such as pacemakers, satellites, high-altitude drones or even spacecraft."

It's early days yet, but what's exciting about this research is that it could provide a useful purpose for a huge amount of radioactive waste, in addition to giving us such amazing battery life.
"This is a great example of where the UK could literally make value from waste," Scott told Digital Trends.

article written BY PETER DOCKRILL , link with video , source: http://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-are-turning-nuclear-waste-into-super-efficient-diamond-batteries?perpetual=yes&limitstart=1

Scientists have figured out how to use nuclear waste as an energy source, converting radioactive gas into artificial diamonds that could be used as batteries.
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Why the font matters..lol:)
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For More Join ► +DID YOU KNOW ?​
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 The Arrow
Griffith University Associate Professor Joan Vaccaro has put forward a suggestion on why there’s a difference between the future and the past. According to her calculations, the laws of physics don’t have to distinguish between time and space, but since we don't experience time in the same way as space, something must make time different. And she thinks the answer is in a special class of quantum phenomena.
Certain quantum phenomena don’t behave in the same way if you’re going forward or backward in time, and she suggested that these are the key to understanding the arrow of time – the "asymmetry", or one-way direction, of time. And she said that in particular, subatomic particles known as K and B mesons could provide some interesting information. Her research is published in the Proceedings of The Royal Society A.
“If you want to know where the universe came from and where it’s going, you need to know about time,” Vaccaro said in a statement.
“Experiments on subatomic particles over the past 50 years show that nature doesn’t treat both directions of time equally. In particular, subatomic particles called K and B mesons behave slightly differently depending on the direction of time.”
 http://www.iflscience.com/physics/new-explanation-why-time-moves-forward
............
Time's arrow
read more here:
http://phys.org/news/2016-02-what-is-time-and-why.html
Griffith University Associate Professor Joan Vaccaro has put forward a suggestion on why there’s a difference between the future and the past. According to her calculations, the laws of physics don’t have to distinguish between time and space, but since we don't experience time in the same way as space, something must make time different. And she thinks the answer is in a special class of quantum phenomena.
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Basic Information
Gender
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Birthday
January 13
Work
Employment
  • Telic Consulting
    Security Engineer, 2013 - 2016
  • Ansys Limited
    Design Engineer, 2001 - 2012
  • Telic Consulting
    Security Architect, 2016 - present
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