The famous "null hypothesis" simply states that things are as they are currently accepted to be; we then ask how likely it is that whatever it is we are studying would be seen given that is the case. If it's overwhelmingly unlikely that we'd see that then we reject the null hypothesis in favour of the alternative.
The fun starts when the null hypothesis predicts something that ought to be there but, after an exhaustive search, isn't. "Exhaustive" doesn't mean you necessarily have to look under every rock. Just a statistically significant number of them. We are not doing logic here, we're doing science and we are always reasoning in the presence of uncertainty.
This presents an interesting schism in between atheist and theist. An atheist, assuming H0 (the null hypothesis) that "there is no god", says this:
"Assume H0 - no god. How would the universe look?"
and then goes on to point out that life is fragile, only exists for a relatively short blink of the universe's eye (assuming as theists do that the only significant life is that capable of believe in Jebus). And that we live on the edge of awful disease, volcanoes, earthquakes, storms, and strikes from comets and asteroid and other disasters. We live in a world where evil men (and women, but mostly men) live into their 90s on the blood of those they oppress, whilst innocent children die young, sometimes even whilst in the womb. This universe looks like a godless place, and certainly doesn't look like the deomain of an ominmax creator.
A theist, otoh, says "H0 = god exists". Then goes on to say "ah yes but all that stuff is part of god's plan who are we mortals to judge god aaaaaahhhhhhhh*". In other words, the theist is incapable of distinguishing their H0 from its alternative. This is the major fail in critical thinking that theists suffer from.
Again, I am reminded of a quote I read a few weeks back: "there is so much more room for god in science than for no god in religion".
*This is taken from a rather funny comedy sketch from a few decades back in the UK: TMWRNJ - Sunday Heroes - Consider the Lily - Matthew
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