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10 Things You Should Know About The Anglo-Saxon Warriors.
Let us take a gander at ten fascinating facts you should know about the Anglo-Saxon warriors, who dominated England from 450-1066 AD.
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Realm of History

Middle Ages  - 
 
The manuscript known as De Laude Virginitatis (‘In Praise of Virginity’) was originally written in Latin by Anglo-Saxon cleric Aldhelm (who was also a noted Latin poet and scholar of Anglo-Saxon literature, circa 7th century AD), dedicated to the the abbess nuns of Barking Abbey. 
1300-year old Anglo-Saxon book (written in Latin), authored by cleric Aldhelm, advised against provocative clothes for nuns.
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Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language is the hypothetical reconstruction of the modern ancestor of Indo-European languages, thus possibly pertaining to the root of around 445 spoken languages including Spanish, English, Hindi and Russian.
Listen to what the 'mother' of Indo-European languages sounded like 6,000 years ago, with precise rendition of a short tale.
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Roman S's profile photo
Roman S
 
Bull shit !
Slavic people occupy central Europe for 12 000 years !
New R1a1 DNA halupo grup findings DEBUNK indo european theory - this late anyway !
Beside if humans originated in Africa why would they come half way to Europe and go back ...
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Realm of History

Early Modern History  - 
 
The 3D reconstruction of Robespierre’s face doesn’t really present a flattering picture.
The 3D reconstruction of Maximilien de Robespierre's face doesn't really present a flattering picture, given his medical conditions.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
Listen To The ‘Accurate’ Reconstruction Of Ancient Greek Music With The World’s Oldest Known Complete Song.
Listen to the 'accurate' reconstruction of Ancient Greek music with the world's oldest known song from the Seikilos epitaph of 1st century AD.
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Elias Kounelis's profile photo
 
Bright and glorious ancient Greek spirit...!!!
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
The Other Ancient ‘Battle Of Thermopylae’ Pitted The Greeks Against The Invading Goths!
The other 'Battle of Thermopylae' pitted the Greeks against the invading Goths in - as documented by an Athenian writer named Dexippus.
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Michael Lear's profile photo
 
A most excellent and well written posting. Thankyou.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
According to the findings, many (if not all) fairy tales not only predate the modern European languages, but are also older than most of the world’s major religions. In fact, the research alludes to how such yarn concoctions possibly influenced the framing of famous Greek and Roman mythological chapters.
Researchers claim that many fairy tales are older than Greek myths and the Bible, with some being around 4,000 to 6,000 years old.
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Lays Farra's profile photo
 
If you read their findings, Da Silva and Tehrani only claim an indo-european origin for one fairy tale ATU 330, with a 0.54 probability. A few dowzens showing positive correlation for proto-germanic, proto-balto-slavic, etc. It is nonetheless erroneous to use such findings to claim all fairy tales are older than x or y.
Also, I'd argue that their methodology is severely flawed, it doesn't account very well for diffusion : It looks at where a fairy tale has been found, regardless of whether it seems that it was only recently been imported.

See the study : rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org - Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales

A really strong case for ATU 330 having only recently traveled can be made. First, in western europe it's heavily christianized, and often in the same way, with the same characters (Jesus, Saint Peter, the episode of the gate of Heaven, etc.) which leans in favor of a diffusion after it was christianize. Second, each tale resembles the other. When Dumezil identified Indo-European motives, he noticed huge differences and only a careful intepretation could link the three steps of Vishnu and the fight of Vidar against the Wolf Fenrir. In one case, the myth was taken over by Vishnu a really popular god, in the other, next to nothing is known of Vidar ; both are signs of decays. We would expect, if ATU 330 is so old, to find in in varying contexts : here, as an episode of a larger national epic, here as completely deformed, here with roles having completely changed over the course of the century. But the extreme similarity of the tale accross Europe, the fact that a lot of characters share the same names (e.g. Bonhomme Misère), the fact that it was published in print and heavily advertised as such, and obviously crossed linguistic lines (de la Rivière himself claimed that he was adapting an italian tale in 1718)
all make a stronger case for a recent diffusion of the tale that Da Silva and Tehrani's model takes as proof of ancienty. Furthermore the tale is present, according to the ATU in a lot of languages that are not indo-european, forgetting Hungarian and Finnish because of their indo-european surroundings, it's also marked as present in China, Corea, Palestine and Georgia, which their model simply doesn't take into account, although it should be clear proof of large-scale diffusion of the tale.

Also, their model is sometimes simplistic in the extreme, for example, they associate each "country" with one unique language and calculate the linguistic distance accordingly, and the geographic distance from one point roughly in the middle of the geographic extension of the language, and this despite two problems.
1) There's a lot of countries where a multitude of languages are spoken.
2) The Aarne-Thomson-Uther index does not classify tales by language, often because we're not always sure of the language in which they were collected, but by country.

This leads to absurdities as their graph for ATU 330 show the tale present in Hindi but absent in Nepalese.

I don't have the Aarne-Thomson-Uther index available, but if you look at eh Aarne-Thomson index, its predecessor, it claims the story is present in India, and references :
Indic Oral Tales(FFC 73.2 n°180 Helsinki 1960).
…Which references in turn…
Henry Parker, Village Folk-Tales of Ceylon, London, 1910-14 (3 vol.) vol. III, pp. 339-342.

Singalese is not too distant from Hindi, I'll admit, but still, it's Sri Lanka, and a little off center from their point of reference for India. (and this story has more elements from Grandfather Death or the Spirit in the Botte)

More interestingly in 1989, Heda Jason published an updated version of the Indic Oral Tales, in which he added a reference to AT 330 being :
Sharma Nagendra, Folk Tales of Nepal, n°1 "Why We Can't See Death", pp. 11-15, Sterling Publishers, Delhi, 1976.

In Nepal ! It was classified as *indic" and Nepalese tales do share a lot with indian ones, so it makes sense to classify them as such, but by not going through with their sources, Da Silva and Tehrani assume that the tale is nonexistent in Nepalese but existent in Hindi (and Singalese is not on their graph) !

But I went through with the research and found out that they were accidentaly right : the tale does seem to exist in India, and more precisely in Gujarat.
Cf. Beck et al Folktales of India 1987:283-5 n°94 “The Carpenter’s Tale”. Note that it was made in 1987 and was not mentioned by Jason in 1989. Also you'll notice 1976 is an extremely late date if you want to prove that the tale you've collected go back to prehistory.

But you'll notice that neither Beck et al, nor Nagendra Sharma nor Henry Parker makes mention of a blacksmith, although Da Silva and Tehrani claim that their research proves something about the metallurgy of the proto-indo-europeans.

And from a glance at Da Silva and Tehrani's graphs, methds and bibliography they have no idea that they are accidentaly right (see: the omission of Nepalese) and many more objections could be made to other points.



Although I'd like to see more rigorous studies like this one in the future, you know, where they actually look at their data before putting it in an excel table.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
Time Lapse Animation Showcases The (Territorial) Rise And Fall Of The Romans From 753 BC To 1453 AD.
Time lapse animation showcases the (territorial) rise and fall of the Romans from 753 BC to 1453 AD, thus marking a period of over 2,000 years.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
Astounding animation presents the evolution of early Roman legions.
A trend of evolution and reforms (throughout the many centuries) transformed the renowned Roman legions into a veritable killing machine.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
Breathtaking Animation Presents A Reconstruction Of The Hanging Gardens Of Babylon.
Lumion 3D digitally reconstructed the Hanging Gardens of Babylon - one of Herodotus' Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
Timelapse Animations Present The ‘Unexpected’ 3D Facial Reconstruction Of Cleopatra.
Cleopatra - the very name brings forth reveries of beauty, sensuality and extravagance, all set amidst the political furor of the ancient world. But does h
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David Kotschessa's profile photoBuzzy Bonnet's profile photo
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My imaginary image is better.
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Realm of History

Ancient History  - 
 
How The Ancient Greek Statues Really Looked? Possibly Pretty Vibrant With Various Colors!
How the ancient Greek statues really looked? Possibly pretty vibrant with various colors, as established by recent scientific techniques.
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J. M. Montes's profile photoPamela Mule' Mitchell's profile photoNathan Barontini's profile photo
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I'm glad to see the original, but history has been friendly to these statues. They look much better stripped of their color (even if that wasn't the original author's intentions).
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The future lies in the past
Introduction
Realm of History is intended as an online compendium dedicated entirely to the fascinating study of history. Our aim is to celebrate the extraordinary human endeavors, unravel the myriad of mysteries and scrutinize the major failures, of the past.

Don't forget to visit our other website, HEXAPOLIS.
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